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Copyright © 1987 by The Beatrice & Arthur Minden Foundation 
& The University of Haifa 

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or 
transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, 
including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and 
retrieval system, without permission in writing from the Publisher. 


The Israel Map and Publishing Company Ltd. 

Jerusalem — Tel Aviv 

4/6 Yad Harutzim St. P.O.B. 2500 Jerusalem, Israel 91024. 

Editor: Baruch Sarel 

Produced by Carta, Jerusalem 

Printed in Israel 

printing number 
123456789 10 

ISBN 965-220-093-X 

This book is sold on condition that it is not sold outside Israel. 

To the Beloved Memory 

of Arthur Minden 

By his wife Beatrice 



I first met Rabbi Dr. Klein in 1974 through Beatrice Minden, wife of the late Arthur 
Minden. Mrs. Minden, wishing to continue her husband's legacy, decided to sponsor the 
publication of Dr. Klein's manuscript of the Hebrew Etymological Dictionary. She 
arranged for acquisition of the manuscript and its transfer to the University of Haifa for 
editing and finally publication. 

It was thanks to the warm and generous support and sponsorship of Arthur Minden 
that Dr. Klein was able to devote the last ten years of his life to this monumental work. 
Arthur Minden also ensured the publication of Dr. Klein's earlier book, entitled A 
Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the English Language. 

We are grateful to Beatrice Minden for her perseverance and support of the 
publication of this work. 

Morris A. Gross, Q.C., Donald Carr, Q.C., and Harvey A. Shapiro have all 
generously given their time and skills in solving the complicated legal aspects of the 

Most generous and gracious assistance was given by Reverend James A. Lord of 
Hamilton, Ontario, a dear friend to Dr. Klein. 

Professor Aharon Dolgopolsky of the University of Haifa, and then Mr. Dov 
Benhorin, each undertook the difficult task of editing Dr. Klein's manuscript. 

Eventually it was Mr. Baruch Sarel, prominent editor and translator who most ably 
adapted the handwritten manuscript, edited it and prepared it for press. Mr. Sarel also 
added over 2500 entries, mainly newly coined words and some older words which had 
not appeared in the original manuscript. 

Mr. Ariel Vardi, one of Israel's foremost typographers, designed the book and aided 
us in solving the many computer related problems inherent in any work combining 
different languages, particularly in this case where English and Hebrew read in opposite 

We are especially grateful to Professor Haim Rabin of the Hebrew University and 
the Hebrew Language Academy. This eminent philologist gave unstintingly of his time 
and knowledge and provided the foreword for the book as well. 

There are others not mentioned by name to whom we are indebted for their valuable 
help in all phases of the production of this important reference work. 
To all, we express our deep appreciation. 

Moshe Kones 
Jerusalem, January 1987 


Even before a word is on my tongue, Lo, O Lord thou knowest it altogether 

PSALMS 139:4 


Ernest David Klein (1899-1983) the son of a rabbi, was bom at Szatmar (Satu Mare) 
in Transylvania, which is now in a corner of Romania between Hungary and the Soviet 
Ukraine. The town changed hands several times during Klein's lifetime: from his birth 
until he was nineteen it was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, where many 
languages were spoken, often several in one locality. Living in such a multilingual 
atmosphere may well have stirred his interest in languages and in their 
interrelationships. His formal education increased his knowledge of languages: for his 
Jewish education he needed to read Hebrew and Aramaic, and in school, apart from 
German, he studied Latin and Greek — both indispensable to an etymologist, and 
which he put to good use when later, in Toronto, he composed his etymological 
dictionary of medical terms (unpublished). 

In 1920, Klein passed the examination required for becoming a rabbi, and five years 
later obtained his doctorate in Semitic and Romance languages at the University of 
Vienna. With the languages he picked up in his later migrations, he is said to have had a 
working knowledge of forty languages altogether. 

From 1931 to 44 he was rabbi at Nove Zamky, then a Hungarian-speaking town in 
the Slovak eastern part of what is now Czechoslovakia. He survived the death camps of 
Auschwitz and Dachau, and, after the war, officiated briefly as rabbi in his home town 
in Romania, and in Paris. From 1951 he lived in Toronto, where he was the spiritual 
head of a community of Hungarian-speaking immigrants, and lived in the same building 
as his synagogue. In the large single-roomed attic he kept his books and compiled his 
three etymological dictionaries. 

Since early times, humanity has tried to find out why things are called by the words 
that denote them; the Hebrew Bible offers quite a few instances, e.g. Genesis 2:23. The 
Greeks called this: finding the true meaning of the word, "true" being etymos, literally 
"that which is", and "etymology" meant originally "using words in their true sense". 
This "truth" was found by deriving existing words from other words, in the same or in 
another language. The first known systematic attempt to use such connections not for 
speculation as to the true nature of things, but in order to discover the meanings of 
words, was made by Jewish scholars in North Africa, Spain, and later in Southern 
France, between 900 and 1350 C.E. They deduced the meanings of difficult Biblical 
words from corresponding words in Arabic and Aramaic, applying rules for which 
consonants in one language corresponded to a given consonant in another. In the 18th 
century the same methods were employed by Dutch and German Christian scholars in 
Biblical research. The first full dictionary to the Bible on etymological principles was 

that of Wilhelm Gesenius in 1810-12. By then an important process in linguistic 
science had begun: the discovery of exact "laws" which connected sounds in languages 
belonging to the same "family", thus providing a safe scientific basis for etymological 
dictionaries (as opposed to bilingual dictionaries occasionally employing etymology). 
Etymological dictionaries were published for many of the languages of Europe, which 
resulted in increasing attention being paid not only to the sound-laws, but also to the 
establishment of rules as to which differences in meaning were admissible in comparing 
words. By the end of the 19th century a discipline of historical semantics had been 
established, which classified known changes of meaning. A great deal of research had 
also been done in that period on the processes of borrowing words and imitating the 
meaning or formation of words from other languages. Etymological dictionaries mostly 
list both "cognate" words of common origin and borrowed words. 

The listing of etymologies and their use for establishing meanings was taken over by 
the first major dictionary of Hebrew throughout all periods, Thesaurus Totius 
Hebraitatis (Millon ha-lashon ha-ivrit) by Eliezer Ben-Yehuda, which began to appear 
in 1908, as well as by the later major dictionaries, particularly that by Even-Shoshan. 
Klein's is the first etymological dictionary in the proper sense of Hebrew as a totality, 
comprising both the vocabulary current in present-day Hebrew — which includes a 
large percentage of Biblical, Mishnaic and Rabbinic, as well as medieval words used in 
earlier periods but not current in today's usage. It applies the sound-laws with greater 
strictness and discusses cases where there are doubts or where more than one 
etymology has been suggested. 

Before embarking upon the present Hebrew dictionary, Rabbi Klein completed and 
published in 1966 his Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the English Language 
(Elsevier Publishing Co., Amsterdam, London, New York). His main innovation, in 
comparison with other English etymological dictionaries, was that with regard to 
borrowed words, he not only indicated from which words in which language they were 
borrowed, but also provided, as far as possible, the etymology of that word within its 
own background. For this reason the Comprehensive Dictionary includes a fair number 
of etymologies of Hebrew words. The same principle is followed in his Hebrew 
etymology dictionary, where the "native" etymologies of English and other words 
borrowed by Hebrew are given. 

The English Etymological Dictionary was well received by the public, and there 
followed at least one further printing. In Canada Klein was rewarded for his success 
with the prestigious "Order of Canada" and two honorary doctorates from Canadian 

H. Rabin 



Basic form 

Each entry is presented in its basic form: 

noun — given in singular form (plural forms are added only when they are irregular); 

adjective — given in masculine singular (except in cases where a different form is used 

for feminine, plural or feminine plural; 

particles — given without affixes; 

verb — the root is given first, followed by all existing variations (each conjugation is 

represented in the third person singular, past tense). 


Entries appear in traditional, accepted spelling. In some cases the author has given a 
reasoned opinion which contradicts the accepted form. In words accented on the 
penultimate syllable, the stress mark is given below the accented letter. Homonyms are 
given as separate entries, distinguished by consecutive Roman numerals. 


Each entry begins with the Hebrew word under discussion. It is followed by the part-of- 
speech or the linguistic stratum from which it stems. (See below.) The various meanings 
of the word are numbered consecutively. The etymological information is given in 
square brackets, followed by the derivatives, the majority of which appear as separate 
entries in the dictionary. 

Linguistic strata are indicated as follows: 
Biblical — no indication; 
Post Biblical Hebrew — PBH; 
Medieval Hebrew — MH; 
New Hebrew — NH; 
Foreign Word — FW. 

Regular brackets have three uses, apparent from their context: explanation, field, 
discipline or status, and translation (always with an equal sign - ). 

The author has made great efforts to present each term with a concise clear and 
specific translation. In transposing from language to language, particularly from 
Hebrew to English which are so different from one another, it is not always possible to 
find a suitable parallel. Where the author insisted on a more exact meaning, he 
translated literally even if the resulting form is unfamiliar in that particular context. 
Such words, however, are easily understood. 




The transliteration rules of Semitic words in this dictionary follow that of Hebrew and 
Arabic given below. The accent in Semitic words (with the exception of the languages, 
for which the laws of accentuation are not known), is indicated by the usual accent 
mark placed over the vowel of the accented syllable. 


Form of 
the Letter 


lis Name 




























he end 



a word 



the end 



a word 



D; D at the end 



a word 



the end 



a word 





Its Transliteration 

Not rendered at the 
beginning or the end 
of a word; otherwise 
marked by '. 











Its Sounds 

Orig. the glottal stop. 
Now silent in the middle of 
words if it has no vowel; 
otherwise it is pronounced 
according to the accompanying 
vowel sign. 



Pronounced like g in get. 

Orig. pronounced — with a slight 
aspiration of the sound — like gh; 
now pronounced like gin get. 

Orig. pronounced like th in this: 
now pronounced d 




Pronounced like ch in Scot, loch 

An emphatic / 





A strong guttural sound; now 
usually treated in the pronuncia- 
tion like an aleph 


Form of 
the Letter 

//s Name 





D; 1 at the end 
of a word 



X; y at the end 
of a word 

tzddhe or 










sh, s 





tdw or far 



f/iaw or f/jar 


Its Transliteration 

Its Sounds 


tz\ occasionally pronounced like 
an emphatic s ( s) 

an emphatic k 





Orig. pronounced like th in 
thing: now pronounced like t. 






A) Long Vowels 


qdmdtz gddhol 


like a infar 



like ai in rain 


hirfq gddhol 


like / in machine 




like o in fork 




like u in true 

B) Short Vowels 




like a infar 



like e in them 

hirfq qdtdn 


like i'mpin 


qdmdtz qdtdn 

like o in gone 




like u input 

C) Half Vowels 




like e in agent 


hatdph pattdh 


like a very short pattah 

hdldph seghol 


like a very short seghol 


hatdph qdmdtz 


like a very short qamatz qatan 

A point in the middle of a consonant, called daghesh hazaq (daghesh forte, 'strong 
daghesh'), strengthens (i.e. doubles) the consonant. It is marked by the doubling of the 
respective consonant. 

The sign daghesh qal (daghesh lene = Might daghesh'), which is formally identical 
with the sign of the daghesh hazaq, is used with the letters n, D. 3, t. a, 3, to indicate 
their original hard pronunciation. In this Dictionary n, D, 3, 1, a. 3. are transliterated b, 
g, d, k, p, f, whereas n, D, 3, 1, X 3, are rendered by bh, gh, dh, kh, ph, th. 



Form of 
the Letter 

Its Name Its Transliteration 








Marked by ' at the 
beginning of a word 
or when it is pro- 
vided with hamza; 
otherwise rendered 
by a macron. 

Its Sound 

The glottal stop 













b- ' 

















! d ' 


























(like th in English thing) 


(a sharp guttural aspirate; pronounced like 
a strong h with friction sound) 

(like ch in Scot, loch) 


(like th in English this) 



an emphatic s; pronounced like ss in 
English hiss 

palatal d 

an emphatic / 

an emphatic z 

a strong guttural sound; cp. Heb. "3 

a guttural, gargling sound 


an emphatic k 










Vowel Sign 

Its Name 

A) Short Vowels 

-*- fdtha 1 ' 


B) Long Vowels 


kasra 1 ' 
da mm a 1 ' 

Its Trans- 



Its Sound 

Pronounced like a in wan. 
Pronounced like i in pin. 
Pronounced like u input. 

Pronounced like a in father. 
Pronounced like fin machine. 
Pronounced like u in rule. 


c, hdmza 1 '. (sign of the glottal stop) 

(0 tashdid. It marks the doubling of a consonant. It is disregarded in the 
case of a <J after an /'. The assimilation of the J (in the def. art. Jl ) to the so-called solar letters is 
not taken into consideration (as e.g. in aldea, Aldebaran, Altair), unless this assimilation appears 
also in the European (in most cases Spanish or Portuguese) loan word itself (as in arrope. 


Form of 

Its Name 

Its Trans- 

Form of 

Its Name 

Its Trans- 

the Letter 


the Letter 





N v 














short O 




n jt 





short E 



R (Rh initially) 




E(C)o or s 











long E 







<D <p 




















long O 






The mark called macron ( ") is placed over a vowel to show thai it is long. 

The mark called breve ( ") is placed over a vowel to show that it is short. 

The mark ' after a consonant in the Slavonic languages indicates palatalization. 

The mark - after a syllable or a group of syllables (as in ami') indicates that this 
syllable or group of syllables is a prefix. 

The mark - before a syllable or a group of syllables (as in -ation) indicates that this 
syllable or group of syllables is a suffix. 

The mark □ after a syllable or a group of syllables in Hebrew (as in a ??) indicates that 
this syllable or group of syllables is a prefix. 

The mark □ before a syllable or a group of syllables in Hebrew (as innvD) indicates 
that this syllable or group of syllables is a suffix. 

The mark called 'metheg' in Hebrew (a) is placed under the letter stressed in 
penultimate accented syllables. 

Square brackets I I denote the etymological part of the entry. 

All other marks are used here in the accepted sense or are self-explanatory. 


Aharoni: Osiris 

Barth. Jakob: Etymologische Studien zum Semitischen, insbesondere zum hebrdischen Lexicon, Berlin, 

( — ): Die Nominalbildung in den semitischen Sprachen, Leipzig, 1889-91. 
( — ): Wurzeluntersuchungen zum hebrdischen und aramdischen Lexicon, Berlin. 1901. 
(-): ZA 

Baudissin: (in ZDMG) 

Ben Yehudah. Eliezer: Dictionary and Thesaurus of the Hebrew Language. 

Brockelmann, Karl: Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik der semitischen Sprachen, Berlin. 1907-13. 
Brown. Driver & Briggs: (in HEL) 

CEDEL: A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the English Language, by Dr. E. Klein. 
Dalman: Grammatik des judisch-palaestinischen Aramaisch, 1894. 
Delitzsch: The Hebrew Language. 

( — ): Beitrdge zur Assyrologie und semitischen Sprachwissenschaft. 
( — ): Prolegomena eines neuen hebrdisch-aramaischen Worterbuchs zum Alten Testament, Leipzig, 1886. 

Dillmann. August: Lexicon Linguae Aethiopicaecum indice latino. 

Even-Shoshan. A.: ttfrnn pb'Dn. 

Ewald. Heinrich: (LHS) Ausfuhrliches Lehrbuch der hebrdischen Sprache des Alten Bundes, Leipzig. 1855. 

Fleischer. Heinrich Leberecht: (in his additions to Levy's WBTM) 

Frankel, Siegmund: Die aramdischen Fremdworter im Arabischen, Leiden, 1886. 

Freytag: Lexicon Arab-Latinum. 

Frisk. Hjalmar: Griechisches etymologisches WbrlerbucK BD I— III 1960. 

Geiger. Abraham: Urschrift und Obersetzungen der Bibel, Breslau, 1857. 

Gerber, WJ.: Die hebrdischen Verba denominative, inbesondere im theologischen Sprachgebrauch des 
Alten Testamentes, Leipzig, 1896. 

Gesenius-Buhl: Hebrdisches und Aramdisches Wdrterbuch uber das Alle Testament, bearbeitet von Dr. 
Franz Buhl. 

Haupt, Paul: (in ZDMG) 

HEL: The Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, based on the Lexicon of W. Gesenius, By F. 
Brown. S.R. Driver and C.A. Briggs. 


Hoffmann, David: Ober einige phonizische Inschriften. 

Jastrow: A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli etc., 1905. 

Kautzsch: Grammatik des Biblisch-Aramdischen, Leipzig, 1884. 

( — ): Die Aramismen im Alien Testament, Halle, 1902. 

Koehler-Baumgartner: Lexicon in veteris Testamenti Libros, 1958. 

Konig, Eduard: Historisch-kritisches Lehrgebdude der hebrdischen Sprache, BD. 1-3, Leipzig, 1881-1897. 

Kraus, Samuel: Griechische und lateinische Lehnwdrter in Talmud, Midrasch und Targum, Berlin, 

Lagarde, Paul Anton de: (GA) Gesammelte Abhandlungen, 1866. 
( — ): in Orientalia, Heft 2: Semitica, Gottingen, 1879. 
( — ): Obersicht uber die im Aramdischen, Arabischen und Hebrdischen ubliche Bildung der Nomina, 

Gottingen, 1889. 
Levy, Jacob: Wdrterbuch uber die Talmudim und Midrashim, Leipzig, 1881. 
Lewy, Heinrich: Die semitischen Fremdwdrter im Griechischen, Berlin, 1895. 
Low, Immanuel: Die Flora der Juden, 1924. 
Mayrhofer: Etymological Sanskrit Dictionary. 

Meyer, Eduard: Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstdmme, Halle, 1906. 
Noldeke: Neue Beitrdge, zur semitischen Sprachwissenschqft, StraCburg, 1910. 
(— ): (in ZDMG) 

Olshausen: Lehrbuch der hebrdischen Sprache, Braunschweig, 1861. 

Perles, Joseph: Etymologische Studien, zur Kunde der rabbinischen Sprache und Altertumer, Breslau, 1871. 
Rozicka, Rudolf: Konsonantische Dissimilation in den semitischen Sprachen, Leipzig, 1909. 
SchwaUy: (in ZDMG) 

( — y.Idioticon des christlichpaldstinischen Aramdisch, 1893. 
Segal M.H.: (MH) A Grammar of Mishnaic Hebrew. Oxford, 1927. 
Socin, Albert: Arabische Grammatik, 1904. 
Vollers: (in ZA) 
Wagner, Jakob H.: Aramismen. 

ZA: Zeitschtrift fur Assyrologie und verwandte Gebiete. 
ZDMG: Zeitschnft der deutschen morgenldndischen Gesellschaft. 



abbr. abbreviation, abbreviated 

abs. absolute (grammar) 

act. active 

adj. adjective 

adv. adverb 

Akka. Akkadian 

Am. Amos (book of the Bible) 

Arab. Arabic 

Aram. Aramaic 

art. article (grammar) 

attrib. attributive (grammar) 

aiuriL auxiliary (grammar) 

BAram. Biblical Aramaic 
BH Biblical Hebrew 

Cant Canticles (book of the Bible) 

CEDEL Klein's Comprehensive 

Etymological Dictionary of 
the English Language 

Chron. Chronicles (book of the Bible) 

Chr.-Pal. Christian Palestinian Aramaic 

cogn. cognate (linguistically) 

coIL collective, collectively 

colloq. colloquial 

comp. comparative (grammar) 

conj. conjunction 

copul. copulative (grammar) 

corrupt corruption (linguistically) 

cp. compare 

c sL construct state (grammar) 

Dan. Daniel (book of the Bible) 

def. definite (grammar) 

Deut Deuteronomy (book of the Bible) 

diaL dialect, dialectical 

dimin. diminutive 

Eccles. Ecclesiastes (book of the Bible) 

eg. exempligratia ( = for example) 

Egypt Egyptian 

Eng. English 

esp. especially 

Est Esther (book of the Bible) 

etc. etcetera ( = and the others) 

EtWop. Ethiopian 

euphem. euphemistically 

Ex. Exodus (book of the Bible) 

Er. Ezra (book of the Bible) 

Ezek. Ezekiel (book of the Bible) 

f. feminine (grammar) 

fig. figurative 

Fren. French 

rut future 

FW foreign word, foreign element 

Gen. Genesis (book of the Bible) 
gen. genitive 
Ger. German 
Gk. Greek 

Hab. Habakkuk (book of the Bible) 
Hag. Haggai (book of the Bible) 
Heb. Hebrew 

Hiph. Hiph'D (Hebrew grammar) 
Hish. Hishtaph'el (Hebrew grammar) 
Hith. Hithpa'el (Hebrew grammar) 
Hithpalp. Hithpalpel (Hebrew grammar) 
Hithpol. Hithpol'el (Hebrew grammar) 
Hitt Hittite 

Hoph. Hoph'al (Hebrew grammar) 
Hos. Hosea (book of the Bible) 
Hoth. Hothpu'al (Hebrew grammar) 

I. Indian 

IE Indo-European 

i.e. id est {- which is to say) 

imit. imitative (linguistically) 

itnper. imperative (grammar) 

imperf. imperfect (grammar) 

indef. art indefinite article (grammar) 

inf. infinitive (grammar) 

instr. instrumental 

interj. interjection (grammar) 

interr. interrogative (grammar) 

intr. intransitive (grammar) 

Is. Isaiah (book of the Bible) 

It. Italian 

JAram. Jewish Palestinian Aramaic 

Jer. Jeremiah (book of the Bible) 

Job (book of the Bible) 

Joe! (book of the Bible) 

Jon. Jonah (book of the Bible) 

Josh. Joshua (book of the Bible) 

Jud. Judges (book of the Bible) 

Kin. Kings (book of the Bible) 

L. Latin 

Lam. Lamentations (book of the Bible) 
Lev. Leviticus (book of the Bible) 
lit. literal, literally 

m. masculine (grammar) 

Mai. Malachi (book of the Bible) 

Mand. Mandaen, Mandaic 

Med. Medieval 

metath. metathesis (linguistics) 

MH Medieval Hebrew 

Micah (book of the Bible) 

Moab. Moabite 


n. noun 

Nab. Nabatean 

Nah. Nahum (book of the Bible) 

NArab. North Arabic 

Neh. Nehemiah (book of the Bible) 

neut. neuter (grammar) 

NH New Hebrew 

Niph, Niph'al (Hebrew grammar) 

Nhh. Nithpa'el (Hebrew grammar) 

NT New Testament 

Num. Numbers (book of the Bible) 

OAram. Old Aramaic 
Oba. Obadiah (book of the Bible) 
obs. obsolete (linguistically) 
orig. original, originally 
OSArab. Old South Arabic 

p. past 

Pa. Pa'el (Hebrew grammar) 

Palm. Palmyra, Palmyrene 

part participle (grammar) 

pass, passive (grammar) 

perf. perfect (grammar) 

Pers. Persian 

pers. 'personal 

Phoen. Phoenician 

Pi. Pi'el (Hebrew grammar) 

PiL Pi'lel (Hebrew grammar) 

Pflp. Pilpel (Hebrew grammar) 

Pir. Pir'el (Hebrew grammar) 

pi. plural 

PN Personal Name, Proper Name 

Po. Po'lal (Hebrew grammar) 

Pol. Po'lel (Hebrew grammar) 

Polp. Polpal (Hebrew grammar) 

possess, possessive (grammar) 

p. part, past participle (grammar) 

Pr. Proverbs (book of the Bible) 

pref. prefix 

prep, preposition (grammar) 

pres. part, present participle (grammar) 

pres. t. present tense (grammar) 

prob. probably 

pron. pronoun 

Ps. Psalms (book of the Bible) 

p.L past tense (grammar) 

Pu. Pu'al (Hebrew grammar) 
Pul. Pul'al (Hebrew grammar) 
Pulp. Pulpal (Hebrew grammar) 
Pun. Punic 

Qal (Hebrew grammar) 
q.v. quod vide ( = which see) 

resp. respectively 

Rom. Roman 

Russ. Russian 

Ruth (book of the Bible) 

Sab. Sabean 

Sam. Samuel (book of the Bible) 

Samar. Samaritan 

SArab. South Arabic 

scil. scilicet ( = understood, namely) 

Sem. Semitic 

Sept Septuagint 

Shaph. Shaph'el (Hebrew grammar) 

Shiph. Shiph'el (Hebrew grammar) 

Shuph. Shuph'al (Hebrew grammar) 

sing, singular (grammar) 

s.m. same meaning 

Sp. Spanish 

st. state 

subj. subjunctive (grammar) 

subst. substantive, substantival, 

suff. suffix 

s.v. sub voce (sunder the word) 
Syr. Syriac 

TA Tel el-Amarna letters 
Tiph. Tiph'el (Hebrew grammar) 
tr. transitive (grammar) 
Tuph. Tuph'al (Hebrew grammar) 

Ugar. Ugaritic 

ult ultimate, ultimately 

v. verb 

var. variant 

VArab. Vulgar Arabic 

VL Vulgate Latin 

vulg. vulgar (linguistically) 

Zech. Zechariah (book of the Bible) 
Zeph. Zephaniah (book of the Bible) 


K The first Idler of the Hebrew alphabet. 
The nameofthelette is'Aleph', and so 
called in allusion tc its ancient Heb. 
form, representing me head of an ox 
(see 'fix". 1^8". a»d cp. Akka. alpu, 
Arab, alif, Phoen. 'fin, whence Gk. 
Alpha). In PBH it has the numerical 
value of one. K alternates with other 
gutterals. as with n (see e.g. rlD$, Jer. 
52:15, instead of fton), and with » (see 
e.g. 3Krv?. Amos 6:5. instead ofayn!?). It 
also alternates with , (see e.g. D'Kax and 
D"3y, pi. of '?¥). For the inter- 
changeability of K andn see also in the 
conjugational system Heb. V^n and 
Aram. "?y?K. Heb. tysnn and Aram. 
"rysnK. N is used to form secondary 
verbs and nouns (see e.g. nu3K, jms, 
nny^K, njgag). In Aram, it also serves as 
the definite article (see n. ' ) and as the 
most common subst. and adj. suff. (see 

D§ pref. PBH on. upon. [Aram., equiv- 
alent of Heb. :"??. I 

□ K (ljk,, ljn, jjj, l:^, ^;k) prosthetic N. 
usually used in collateral forms of 
nouns beginning with two consonants 
(see e.g. ylij and y1"i]x), esp. before 
foreign words (e.g. Q^ax, "rpix, Mnopx. 


N^' the Aram, definite article (corre- 
sponding to Heb. in). 

N^" the most common subst. and adj. 

suff. in Aram, (corresponding to Heb. 

first suff. riv. I 
3R'm.n.(pl. n1a|j) I father. 2forefather, 

patriarch. 3 ancestor, progenitor. 

4 head (of a family), leader, chief. 

5 God. 6 master, teacher. 7 important, 
great. 8 PBH parent (male). 9 PBH basic 
factor, origin, source, ionh Father (of 
the Christian Church), [cp. Aram, xag, 
Ugar. 'b, Akka. abu, Arab, abu.) 
Derivatives :mn3x, ■vjas. max. 

3N"m.n.'Av' (also 'Ab') —name of the 
fifth month of the Jewish calendar. 
[Akka. abu, Arab. ab.\ 

a as pref. PBH arch-, proto-, chief, 
master. [Properly c. st. of ax' .] 

3Km.n. young shoot, sprout, verdure. 
I Related to Akka. inbu, Arab, 'abb 
(^meadow), Aram. K3}k.] See 1as^. 
Derivative: rrgax,. 

K^Sm.n. ipbh father, daddy. 2 PBH 
'Abba' — title of ancient Rabbis. 3 nh 
reverend (father). I Aram., properly 'the 
father'( = a«ginHeb.).l 

aaK to bring forth shoots, sprout; the 
coming of spring. [Denominated from 
a-gx ( = spring). See as . ] — Hiph. a-gxn 
l PBH (it) brought forth shoots; 2 NH he 
(it) brought the spring, refreshed, 

rvajs f.n. I pbh eruption, rash (disease). 
2NH exanthema. [Formed from as 

"U3N to spell; to arrange in alphabetical 
order. [Formed from the first letters in 
the Heb. alphabet.] — Pi. taax nh i he 
spelled; 2 he arranged (something) in 
alphabetical order. Derivative: twax . 

n»3Km.n.NH spelling. [Verbal n. of 


D'llJSN m.n. pi. FW augurs. [L. augur 
( - diviner, soothsayer; a member of 
the college of priests in Rome, who 
foretold the future), transformation of 
*augos, gen. *augeris (- increase), re- 
lated to augere ( = to increase). I 

Dianas adj. pbh of noble descent, noble. 
[Gk. eugenes (well-born), from eu 
( - well), and genos ( = race, descent, 
gender, kind), which is cogn. with L. 
genus ( - birth, descent, origin, race, 
sort, kind, class; sex, gender). See 'eu-' 
and 'genus' in my CEDEL and cp. 
'eugenic' ibid. cp. also njpaax .1 

njj'JJax f.n. FW eugenics. [Eng. eugenics, 
coined by Sir Francis Galton in 
1883 from the adj. eugenic, which 
derives from Gk. eugenes (= well- 
born). See Dlr?3K. 

laasm.n. mh the common agrimony 
(a genus of plants). [Named after 
abgar, King of Edessa.] 

nas to perish. [ Moabite lax ( - to perish), 
Aram, nax, Syr. i3x (-he perished), 
Ugar. 'bd ( - to perish), Arab, 'dbada 
( = it ran away — said of an animal), 
Ethiop. 'abdda ( = he wandered about), 
Akka. abdtu{- to destroy).! — Qalijx 
he was lost, perished; it strayed (said of 
an animal). — Niph. nags, he (or it) was 
lost, perished. — Pi. lax the de- 
stroyed, wasted; 2 he caused to per- 
ish; 3 pbh he lost.— Hith. laxnn nh he 
committed suicide. — Hiph. Taxn he 
caused to perish, destroyed. Deriv- 
atives: isx, rrjaij, Tox.-nax, rrna$. nag. 
Has. ialK, nnasn, nnaxnn, laxno, "T3X,3 . 

"»38 adj. PBH perishable. [ From iax .] 
rr^f.n.a lost thing; loss. [Formed 

from Tax with subst. suff. n;.] 
]iT?N m.n. destruction, ruin; place of 
destruction, Abaddon. [Formed with 
Tax with suff. ri .] 

nwnax f.n. mh dignity or office of the 

president of the court of justice. 

[Formed from the contraction of ax 

V? ma (see ax') with suff. :.-•. .] 
n^nax f.n. pbh secondary for ■ jf n^ag . 
|T3N, ]T3N m.n. i destruction ruin. 2 nh 

loss. iFormed from Tax wiu. uff. 1^.] 

nas to want, be willing, consent. [Akka. 
abitu ( = wish, will, desire), Arab, abay 
( = he refused). According to Noldeke 
Heb. nax also had mostly a negative 
meaning and the negative part x 1 ? was 
only added for the sake of emphasis. 
W.M. Miiller compares Egypt, 'bj, 
which means both 'to want, wish', and 
'to refuse". The sense development of 
this Egypt, verb seems to have been: 
'he wanted, he wanted forcefully, he 
refused energetically'.] — Qal najt he 
was willing, consented (see Is. 1:19, 
Job 39:9, the only passages in the Bible 
where na$ is without the neg. part. xY 
Derivatives : Mate. |V3N( ?). njt»3$ . 

nas m.n. reed, papyrus. [Possibly relat- 
ed to Arab, aba', Akka. abu (=reed).".] 

ninas, nmasf.n.MH fatherhood, pater- 
nity. [Formed with suff. ma [from ag' 
( = father), cp. max.] Derivative: Tinas . 

wnaKadj.NH fatherly, paternal. 

[Formed frommnax with adj. sufT>5.] 
••nas, VI3N adj. nh fatherly, paternal. 

[Formed from as ( = father), with adj. 

suff. , a.] 
Vnas m.n. MH savine (name of a plant). 

[Borrowed from Arab, abhal.] 

aias m.n. i pbh flute, pipe, reed. 2NH 
tube. 3nh oboe. [Aram, xaiax. Prob. 
a loan word from Akka. imbubu 
( = flute, pipe), which prob. derives 
from base n-b-b (=was hollow); see 
aaa . Arab, inbub ( = pipe, tube), is prob. 
an Aram, loan word.] Derivatives: 
, ;nax,n , 3 : iax.'i3i3x. 

••aiSK adj. nh reedy, tubular. [Formed 

from aiax with adj. suff. \i.] 
JV31SK f.n. NH i a small flute; tubule. 

2Zizyphora (botany). [Formed from 

aiax with dimin. suff. n\,i.] 

|3«K m.n. NH l flutist. 2 oboist. I Formed 
from aiax with agential suff. \j.\ 


■nay adj. pbh lost, perishable. (Properly 
pass. part, of 13$. This is an exception 
because intransitive verbs regularly 
have no passive participle. For similar 
exceptions see mug and cp. words there 
referred to.l 
*U2K m.n. pbh 1 destruction, ruin. 2 loss. 
[Verbal n. of iax (-he caused to 
perish), Pi. of lax.] 
Jl^owjc m.n. nh abutilon (a genus of 
plants of the mallow family). [Modern 
L., from Arab, aubulilun, a name 
coined by the Arab philosopher 
Avicenna (Ibn-Sina).] 
Max interj. woe! alas! [According to 
ReDak, of imitative origin, (cp. 'ixand 
words there referred to). According to 
Barth, a derivative of 3$ (- father), and 
orig. meaning 'my father!'. According 
to Gesenius and Konig, derived from 
,i3X ( - he was willing), and lit. meaning 
'wish, desire'.] 
^pasadj. NH hazy, misty. (Properly 

pass. part, of t]3|<.] 
^SKm.n. pbh arcade, gateway. [From 
Aram. xViax, which is a loan word 
from Akka. abullu (-city gate, en- 
trance gate of a building).] 
^3K m.n. pbh mourning. [Fromb3x.] 
rrx^taN see n'xibta'K . 

DT'3V^13N m.n. FW abolitionism. [Eng. 
abolitionism, from abolition, from 
Fren., from L. abolitionem, from abo- 
litus, p. part, of abolere (=todestroy, 
efface, abolish), which is prob. a back 
formation from abolescere ( = to decay 
gradually, vanish, cease). See 'abolish' 
and '-ion' in my CEDEL.] 

J?2K m.n. nh petrifying, petrification. 
(Verbal n. of jax . See px .] 

DISK m.n. 1 manger. 2 pbh feeding re- 
ceptacle; bowl for working men. 
(From D3X. oiax stands for 013$. For 
the widening of the Hataph-Seghol to 
Tzere cp. the nouns alrx, -ilrx, pox, jidx, 


Diaxadj. fed, fattened. [Pass. part, of 


OiBXm.n. NH feeding, fattening. [From 


]M3Kadj. nh covered with zinc. [From 
rag ( = zinc).] 

y\2K m.n. nh zincification. [Verbal n. of 

pi2N m.n. NH 1 covering with dust, dust- 
ing. 2 pulverization. [Verbal n. of pax, 
Pi. of pax".] 

VTgiajt m.n. nh the avocado tree. [Sp., 
from aguacate, from Nahuatl ahua- 
catl. cp. 'avocado' and 'alligator pear' 
in my CEDEL.] 

nj^ajt f.n. pbh torch. [Of uncertain ori- 

n1a$ m.n. pi. 1 pi. of ax (= father). 2 PBH 

parents, patriarchs, 
ruax f.n. MH fatherhood, paternity. 

[Formed with suff. ruu from ax 

( = father), cp.nmax.] 
Bias m.n. NH buckle. [From Arab. 

ibzim ( = clasp, buckle).] Derivative: 


DT3K to buckle. (Denominated from 
Di3X.] — Pi. DT3X tr. v. nh he buckled, 
fastened with a buckle. — Pu. opx nh 
was buckled. 

ngtax f.n. pbh 1 breaking, corrosion. 
2 moth-eaten condition of garments. 
(According to Fleischer, quoted by 
Levy, the above word is 'perhaps to be 
connected with Pers. bazak (- centi- 
pede, woodlouse)'.] 

1T3K, nt'aKm.n. pbh (pi. D-niax, resp. 
D'-irsfct) accessory, spare part. [Aram, 
x^pjtc, X-JT3X (-spice, condiment; 
whence 'accessory'), from Arab, abzdr 
(- spice, condiment), from Pers. efzdr 

jntas m.n. nh a person in charge of ac- 
cessories. [Formed from ipx with 
agential suff. ]^.} 

njK m.n. MH slaughter. [Back formation 

n3K to slaughter. [Denominated from 
nrax.J —Pi. rqx tr. v. mh he put to 
sword, slaughtered. 

nnas f.n. slaughter (a hapax legomenon 
in the Bible, occurring Ezek. 21:20 in 
the phrase 2-\n nnax, 'slaughter by 
sword'). [Formed from base rax with 
subst. suff. n^. Related to Akka. abdhu 
(-to slaughter, torment), which is 
synonymous with tabdhu (-to 
slaughter). Accordingly the noun nnax 
is related to nnap (-slaughter).] 
Derivatives: rox, njx . 

pnaxm.n. nh diagnosis. [Verbal n. of 
jnax,Pi. of jnax.] 

'H3K m.n. nh protozoan. [Formed from 
. ;ax ( - proto-), and 'n ( - living) .] 

"l&ruxm.n. nh protoplasm. [Formed 
from 33X (-proto-), and ion (-ma- 

jn3K to diagnose. [Back formation from 
n)nax.] —Pi. jnas tr. v. nh he 
diagnosed, diagnosticated. — Pu. jrjax. 
nh was diagnosed, was diagnosticated 
Derivatives:pruK. jrpK. 

JH3K m.n. nh diagnostician. [From 
jnax .] Derivative: nun;x . 

njrjaxf.n.MH the result of testing; 
diagnosis. [A secondary form of njri;n 
(-the action of testing, discrimina- 
tion). nft ? n, the regular form of the 
verbal noun in the Hiph., primarily 

denotes the action expressed by the 
verb, secondarily also the result of 
this action. On analogy of Talmudic 
Heb. nouns like nftax, nftax. h^ik, 
which are aramaisms for n^ian. n'juan, 
nnnn, in nh the form n^x W a S 
introduced to denote the result of an 
action, in contradistinction to the 
form n^y ? n, which denotes the action 
par excellence. The most frequently 
used n^ijx-forms in nh are hj^ijx. 
nynsx, ny^ix, n^tfx.l Derivative: 

n»nas f.n. nh diagnostics. [Formed 
from ]ri3x with suff. nvj .] 

'njnaxadj.NH diagnostic. iFormed 

from nyiax with adj. suff. ->q.\ 
aluax see 31ij1x . 
n^XJnxlBSx seen^^^^dx. 

nioaKm.n.NH protection, securing. 
[Verbal n.ofngax. Pi. of mjax.] 

n»3K to protect, secure. [Back forma- 
tion from nnosx.] —Pi. riBax tr. v. 
nh he protected, secured. — Pu. noax 
nh was protected, was secured. De- 
rivatives:^?*, noaxo. 

nnuaK f.n. pbh protection, securing, en- 
suring. [A collateral form of nrnjan. 
cp. noax.] 

rj'wax m.n. watermelon (a hapax lego- 
menon in the Bible, occurring Num. 
11:5). [Related to Aram, xnnpax. 
Arab, battich is an Aram, loan word .] 

coax m.n. nh lapwing. [Compounded 
of ax ( - father), and b^o ( = clay) .] 

nVosxf.n. ipbh idleness. 2nh unem- 
ployment. [A collateral form of nftari. 
For the difference in meaning between 
these two words see njriax .] 

0«»3Xm.n.NH archetype, prototype. 
[A hybrid coined from Heb. ^ax 
( = proto-) and Gk. typos (.blow 
mark of a seal, pattern). See dud 

3'3X m.n. 1 young ears of corn. 2MH 
the season of spring. 3nh spring of 
life, youth. [From baseaax. cp. Arab. 
abb( = pasture).] Derivative: ^ax 
<3'3Kadj.MH springlike, vernal. [Form- 
ed from a'?* with adj. suff. ^ ] 
Derivatives :ni»a-3K,n'a'3K 
WVMf.n.NH quality of being spring- 
like. [Formed from -r?x ^th suff. 
ni :.] 

my W f.n.NH the genus Erophila (bot- 
any). [Properly f. of the adj. ^ 3 x used 
as a noun, and lit. meaning '(flower) 
of spring . cp. the Modern L. name 
Erophila, which lit. means 'spring- 

T?$adj.NH perishable, losable. [Coin- 
ed from i 3 K ( = perished), according to 



the pattern V"!^ , which is used in NH to 
form adjectives denoting capability or 

t )S!T' , ?N spoonbill (kind of a bird). 
[Compounded of px, c. st. of ax ( = 
father), and <pn ( = the spoon; see <p); 
so called in allusion to its spoon- 
shaped bill. cp. Eng. spoonbill.] 

]i»3K m.n. needy, poor. [Prob. from nax 
and orig. meaning 'desirous, longing, 
yearning', cp. Ugar. 'bjn. Late Egypt, 
and Coptic ebien are borrowed from 
Hebrew.] Derivative: pax . 

n3i s 3K' f.n. sexual desire, libido (a ha- 
pax legomenon in the Bible, occurring 
Eccles. 12:5). [Prob. derived from nax 
( = to desire). cp.njlpx" .] 

nji s 3K"f.n. PBH caper berry. [Prob. de- 
rived from nax ( - to desire), and so 
called in allusion to the simulating 
effect of its seeds, cp. n^»ajj . ] 

nul'axf.n. pbh need, want, poverty. 
[Formed from jVax with suff. m:3 .] 

"IT'3K see vax . 

T • -I T 1 - 

TP3X adj. NH hazy, misty. [From px .] 

nW'SK f.n. nh haziness, mistiness. 
[ Formed from T3X with suff. nvj . ) 

nV'SKf.n. pbh mourning. [Verbal n. of 
"?3X . For the ending see subst. suff. np .] 

pSN to pauperize. [Denominated from 
jlpx.] — Pi. rax nh he pauperized. 
— Pu. r_ax nh was pauperized. 

n^ax f.n. mh feeding, fattening. [Verbal 
n. of oax . For the ending see subst. suff. 

P'ax' m.n. pbh pipe, tube. [Prob. related 
to p'sx ( = river-bed, channel) . ] 

j?'3X"adj.NH dusty, powdery. [From 
pax ( = dust, powder) .] 

P'axm.n. nh alembic, retort. [Prob. 
from Gk. ambix (- cup, cup of a still, 
alembic). Whence also Arab, al-anbiq. 
Of uncertain origin. See 'alembic' in 

V3X m.n. the Strong One — attribute of 
God (occurring in the c. st. vax , in Tax 
a'PJE. 'Protector of Jacob', ^ioot vax, , 
'Mighty One of Israel', Is. 49:26, resp. 
1 :24). [A secondary form of vax .] 

■pax J adj. strong, mighty, valiant. 2n. 
bull. 3 n. NH knight, hero. [From base 
"iax ( = to be strong), cp. vax.] Deriv- 
atives: mv3x, , Tax. 

nivax f.n. 1 MH courage, valor. 2 NH 
knighthood. 3NH chivalry, gallantry. 
[Formed from Tax with suff. mo .] 

'"VBX. adj. nh 1 courageous. 2 chival- 
rous, gallant. [Formed from Tax with 
adj. suff. ■•p.] 

•px to rise (smoke), to raise clouds of 
dust. [Akka. abdku (=to bring, turn). 

Prob. related to pn.] — Qal px nh 
prob. meaning 'it rose' (said esp. of 
smoke). — Pi. px NH it rolled up, 
billowed (said esp. of smoke). — Pu. 
px 1 was rolled up, was billowed (said 
esp. of smoke); 2MH was perplexed, 
was confused. — Hith. pxnn was 
rolled up, was billowed (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring Is. 
9: 1 7 in the form laaxn?) . — Hiph. Taxn 
1 MH he confused, perplexed; 2NH he 
rolled up (said esp. of smoke). 
Derivatives: ^pax, Tax, px, naax, 

1 * 1 ■ 

"S]3X m.n. NH mist, haze, haziness. [From 

njsxf.n. nh cloud of dust. [Formed 

from px with first suff. ng.] 

Vax to mourn, lament. [Aram, ^ax, Syr. 
'ebhdl ( = he mourned), Ugar. 'bl (=to 
mourn), Arab, 'dbbana ( = he mourned 
for a dead person), and prob. also to 
Akka. abdlu ( = to be dry). For the 
change of / to n in Arab. cp. Heb. uby; 
( = image), with Arab, sdnam (-idol); 
Heb. n 1 ?? (= bride, daughter-in-law), 
with Arab. kanna h ( = daughter-in-law). 
See the introductory entry b in this 
dictionary. — Qal bpx tr. v. he 
mourned, lamented. — Hith. "raxrin he 
mourned, lamented. — Hiph. ^pKn he 
caused to mourn.] Derivatives: bnax, 

V3X 1 adj. I mourner, lamenter. 2 deso- 
late. [From "rax.] Derivative iro^ax. 

V3K" m.n. (a word that appears in the 
name of several geographical places as 
in najrip-np ^ax). [Of uncertain origin. 
The most probable derivation is that of 
W.F. Albright, according to whom it 
means 'stream' and is related to bpix 

"735; m.n. mourning, lamentation. [From 


V^K adv. 1 truly, indeed. 2 but, however. 
[Formed from pref. ax and "73 ( = not). 
Related to Ugar. bl, bit (=not, 
nevertheless), Arab, bal ( = on the con- 
trary, nevertheless).] 

mVsx f.n. PBH mourning. [Formed from 
the adj. bqx (= mourning), with suff. 

|3g f.n. 1 stone. 2 weight. [Related to 
Phoen. px, Aram, px, Aram. -Syr. 
xjax, Syr. abhnnd, Ugar. 'bn, Ethiop. 
'ebn (= stone), cp. Egypt, obn 
( = alum).] Derivatives: px, 'juax, 
nuax, ->5ax, n'?ax, jjax . cp. n^ax . 

]3X to petrify, to change into stone. [De- 
nominated from px ( = stone). — Pi. jsk 
tr. v. MH 1 it changed into stone, pet- 
rified^ he fossilized. — Pu.px, mh was 

changed into stone, was petrified. — 
Hith. ]3xnn 1 MH became petrified; 2 nh 
became fossilized; 3 nh was paralyzed. 

]3Km.n. MH son of (used in Arabic 
surnames). [Arab, ibn, related to Heb. 

]133Xm.n.NH Synanceja (fish). [Com- 
pounded of px ( = stone) and p: 
( = fish).] 

'auaxadj.NH stony. [Formed from ]38 
( = stone), through reduplication of the 
third radical, with adj. suff. >p .] 

m»H33Kf.n. NH stoniness. [Formed from 
■•}uax with suff. run.] 

ni33X f.n. nh stoniness. [Formed from 
px with suff. mo.] 

033K mji. girdle. [Prob. an Egypt, loan 
word. cp. Egypt, bnd ( = to wrap up). I 

'33$ adj. mh stony. [Formed from px 
( - stone), with adj. suff. 'P. | 

rWEWf.n. NH stoniness. [Formed from 
^ax with] 

D?33X f.n. dual 1 potter's wheel. 2 mid- 
wife's stool. 3NH workbench. [Dual of 
px, which is prob. a secondary form of 
px( = stone).] 

rP33X f.n. NH fur (coating inside of a 
kettle). [Formed from px {~ stone), 
with dimin. suff. mp . ] 

]33X m.n. NH lithium. [Formed from px 
through reduplication of the : .] 

osxto feed, to be fattened. [Related to 
Akka. abusu, abus(s)atu (= manger).] 
— Qal D3X pbh he fed, fattened an 
animal (in the Bible occurring only in 
the pass. part, oiax, pi. D'Diax). — Niph. 
D3K,J NH was fed, was fattened. — Pi. 
oax nh he fed, fattened. — Hiph. opxn 
nh he fed, stalled. — Hoph. D3NH nh 
was fed, was stalled. Derivatives: oiax, 
n^px,, moaxn, 00x5. 

'OlViDSK adj. fw absolute. [ L. absolutus, 
p.part of absolvere ( = to set free), from 
ab (=away from, from), and solvere 
(=to loosen, set free). See 'ab-' and 
'solve'in my CEDEL. For the ending see 
adj. suff. 'P.] 

Dr»wVlD3Xm.n.FW absolutism. [See 
■•piVlosx and suff. orp . ] 
TNOax m.n. FW absurdity. [SeCTHD-ix .] 

"•Tnoax adj. fw absurd. [L. absurdus 
( = out of tune, harsh, rough, in- 
congruous, absurd), formed from ab 
(=away from), and a derivative of the 
IE base *swer-, *sur- ( = to sound). See 
'ab-' and 'swarm' in my CEDEL. For the 
ending see adj. suff. \) ■] 

m»TNBB»$f.n.FW absurdity. [A hybrid 
coined from *r"D?8 and the Heb. suff. 


'DfntppSX. adj. fw abstract IL. abstrac- 
ts, p. part of absirahere ( = to draw 
away), from abs-, ab- ( = away from, 
from) and trahere ( = to draw), which is 
cogn. with Old I. dhrdjati ( = sweeps 
over, stretches, draws). See 'ab-' and 
' tract' (region) in my CEDEL . I 

n^ipax. f.n. fw abscissa (mathematics). 
[Coined by the Italian mathematician 
Stefano degli Angeli from L. (linea) ab- 
scissa (lit.: 'a line cut ofF), from ab- 
scindere ( = to tear away; to cut off)-! 
OXDSXm.n.FW abscess. [L. abscessus 
( = a going away, departure, abscess), 
from abs, ab (- away from, from), and 
cedere (=to go, go away, yield). See 
' ab-' and 'cede' in my CEDEL . 1 
nyaygscf.n. blister, boil, pustule. 
[Formed from the imitative stem yava 
(= to bubble up), with prosthetic dk and 
first suff. ng.] 
n'JMSyjK f.n. NH varioloid (disease). 
[Formed fromn^ajpit with dimin. suff. 

pnteax m.n. NH aorta. [Compounded of 
ax ( = father) and p-ii j? ( - anery). 1 

n$3Xf.n. l search, inquiry. 2 gathering 
of the poor in the fields for the search of 
their share in the 'Peah' (see nx?). 
[Formed from Aram, xya, 'ya (=he 
asked, inquired) with prosthetic □« and 
subst. suff.rg.cp. rrya.] 

T5K m.n. nh zinc. [Coined by Eliezer 
ben Yehudah (1858-1922) from Aram. 
X5R8, (=tin). Since we have a biblical 
word for 'tin' (^Ta), ben Yehudah 
introduced the word p?x in the sense of 
'zinc', because this latter is similar to 
tin. Aram. xyax lit. means 'the white 
metal', cp. Arab, bdda (=was white), 
'abyadu ( = white), cp. also pa, nya. the 
place name fax (Josh. 19:20) and the 
proper name]$3X (Jud. 12:8). See also 

pax to coat with zinc. [Denominated 

from fax ( = zinc).J —Pi. fax tr. v. nh 

he coaled with zinc, zincked. — Pu. 

y*3i$ NH was coated with zinc, was 

zincked. Derivatives: pax, f3^D. 

pax' to embrace, wrestle. [Aram. pax, 

( = he entangled, twisted). Prob. related 

to pan. Some scholars derive pa$ ( = he 

wrestled) from psx ( = dust), so that its 

original meaning would have been 'he 

got dusty (through wrestling)', and 

compare the sentence nsjja paxnz? nn.1 

on^a} , 'cover yourself with the dust of 

their feet'. For sense development refer 

to Gk. koniesthai ( = to cover oneself 

with dust — said of wrestlers; whence 

the secondary meaning 'to prepare for 

combat'), from konis ( - dust). See pax" . 

It is interesting that Joshua ben Levi 

gives both derivations of the verb paxn 
(Gen. 32:24), and that Rashi, in his 
commentary to this verse, connects 
P3$3 with Aram, paij, which is identical 
with the first derivation given by 
Joshua ben Levi.) — Qal pas he 
embraced, clasped, wrestled with. 

— Niph. psx,} he wrestled, struggled, 
fought. — Hith. pasnn (of s.m.). 
Derivatives: p38. mpa$n, mpaxnn, 

pax" [Prob. base of pas. Prob. related to 
Arab, dbaqa (=he ran away).] — Pi. 
pax pbh i he raised dust. 2 he powdered, 
pulverized. 3 he dusted. — Pu. pa(i pbh 
was covered with dust, was dusted. 

— Hith. p?xnn pbh was covered with 
dust. — Hiph. p'axn NH he pollinated. 

— Hoph. pa^n NH was pollinated. 
Derivatives: piax. n^xn, mpaxnn", 

pax m.n. 1 dust, powder. 2 touch of, 
shade of. [Together with Aram. -Syr. 
n;?3K ( = dust), prob. derived from pax" 
and lit. meaning 'that which flees or 
flies', cp. the second element in p3X#. 
Gk. abax, gen. abakos (=a square 
tablet strewn with dust for drawing 
geometrical diagrams; reckoning 
board), is a Heb. loan word; see 
'abacus' in my CEDEL.I Derivatives: 
p\?x (adj), pax, p'pax, ]ja*. npax, pa«5. 

paKm.n.NH buttonhole, loop. [From 
Aram, xnpax (=loop, leather ring), 
which derives from pax, ( = he 
entangled). See pax 1 . 1 

nj?ax f.n. l powder. 2 spice. 3 NH pollen. 

[Formed from pax" with first] 
'p^Kadj.MH dusty, powdery. [Formed 

from pax (=dust, powder), with adj. 

suff. '3.1 

p'paxm.n.NH grain of dust. [Formed 
from pax (=dust), through reduplica- 
tion of the third radical .] 

wus^ax seewD^px. 

Jjaxm.n. NH stamen. [Formed from p3X 
( - dust, powder), with agential suff. p . I 

■»jj?3{< adj.NH bearing stamens, stam- 
inate. [Formed fromjpax with adj. suff. 

nj?gx f.n. nh coniosis (disease). [Formed 
from pax ( = dust), according to the 
pattern n^g serving to form names of 
diseases (see n^x). Properly a loan 
translation of Medical L. coniosis, from 
Gk. konis ( = dust). I 

nap m.n. (pi. Dnag, also ciax) i pin- 
ions. 2 pbh limb, member, organ (see 
138). [From iax ( = to be strong). 
Related to Aram, x^ax, Syr. 'ebhrd, 
Akka. abru (= pinion). Vollers com- 
pares the Arab, noun wdbar ( = hair). 


"I3X, -I0?X m.n. i pbh limb, member, or- 
gan. 2 nh term (mathematics). [A sec- 
ondary form of iax. It arose through 
back formation from onax (0"na i x), pi. 
of lax, in order to differentiate in 
meaning between -iax ( = wing) and iax, 
13/g ( = limb).] 

13K 1 to be strong. [Related to Akka. 
abdru ( = to be strong).] — Pi. iax tr. v. 
PBH he strengthened, hardened. — 
Hiph. Tgjjn PBH he hardened. Deriva- 
tives: 13X, rv33X. -P38. 

nax 11 to fly, soar. [Denominated from 
-i3X.] —Hiph. -P3Xn he spread his 
wings, flew, soared (a hapax lego- 
menon in the Bible, occurring Job 

13X m.n. PBH lead. [Together with Aram. 
K ?3$' Syr. 'abhdrd ( = lead, prob. 
borrowed from Akka. abar, name of a 
metal, possibly Mead'. Arab, 'abbdr 
{- lead) is an Aram, loan word. ] 

rnax f.n. pinion. [Formed from "iax 
(= pinions) witling, suff. serving to form 
nomina unitatis.] 

n^naxf.n. name of a fish mentioned in 
the Talmud, usually identified with the 
bream. [Prob. from Gk. abramis 
( = bream).] 

jnnpxm.n.PBH la cover of skin. 2NH 
tarpaulin. [Prob. from Avestic barezis 
(= cover). Some scholars derive TT? 3 8 
from Gk. bursinon ( = leathern cover), 
from bursa (= hide, leather), which is of 
uncertain origin, cp. 'burse' in my 

Tpaxm.n. l proclamation of the Egyp- 
tians on the approach of Joseph (see 
Gen. 41:43). 2 PBH title given to a 
young scholar. 3 MH title given to an 
educated young gentleman. [Of uncer- 
tain origin and meaning. Some scholars 
propose various Egyptian derivations, 
others see in it a Sem. word. Several 
Jewish commentators of the Bible 
regard pax as a Hiph. form of a verb 
denominated from ipa (- knee), so that 
■ipax would be a command to those 
present to bend the knee. Friedrich 
Delitzsch derives "ipax from Akka. 
abarakku denoting a dignitary . ] 

'J^SX m.n. PBH waterfowl. [Of uncertain 

pnax. m.n. nh Sirius (the star). [Denom- 
inated from p-nari (-shone, glittered; 
see pna); so called because it is the 
brightest star in heaven, cp.'xp/ij.] 

x^a^SS fw a magic formula. [Late L., 
from Gk. abracadabra, in which word 
the letter c ( - s) was misread for k. It 
was orig. written as a magic formula on 
abraxas stones, whence its name. See 


'abraxas'in myCEDEL.] 

D?j?nas m.n. dual pbh breeches. I Formed 
with prosthetic uk" from Gk. brakai, 
from L brdcae (- breeches), which is a 
Gaulish word borrowed from Teu- 
tonic, cp. Old Eng. brec {- breech- 
es), and see 'breeches' in my CEDEL.] 
ChSNm.n. pbh heather (a genus of 
plants). I From 'tpnax, corrupted form 
of'pnax, name of a kind of olive, called 
also "nti$. , pn?8 is of uncertain origin. 
According to Low 'pttax is an adj. 
formed with suff. J Q from the place 
name Avaris (in Egypt) and means 
'(olives) of Avaris'.] 

D'ttfaK m.n. pi. wild grapes. [Of uncertain 
origin. It is perhaps a metathesized var. 
of Biblical Heb. D'ipxa (-wild grapes); 
see D'qftxa. However, a comparison of 
Dm^m with Syr. 'epshdihd (with change 
of3toD),thePeshitta rendering of D^a; 
( = dried grapes), makes it more prob- 
able that D'lpax, derives from base 
tt?3K = tt7T' (-to be dry), and lit. means 
'dry (grapes)'. See v)t .] 

3JK prep. PBH on the basis of, by way 
of, on account of. [Aram., lit.: 'on the 
back of, formed from pref. ^k (="?¥, 
on, upon), and a*, (-back). See 1 ?? and 
aa.] Derivative: 1 ?^. 

naasf.n.NH agave (plant). [Modern L., 
named after Agave, the mother of 
Pentheus, in Greek mythology. For the 
etymology of this name see 'Agave' in 

'aas adj.NH accidental, incidental, casu- 
al. [Formed fromajx with adj. suff. ""g. 1 
Derivative: m»aa,x. 

m»3»Kf.n.NH accidentally. [Formed 
fronraax with suff. mL] .] 

"MH to bind, tie. [Related to Aram. 1385 
(- he bound, tied), perhaps also to Ak- 
ka. agiltu, if standing for agidtu 
(-bandage, plaster).! — Qal tjx tr. v. 
PBH he joined together, bound, tied, 
united. — Niph. tjn.j PBH was bound, 
was tied, was united. — Pi. t?x nh he 
tied together, united. — Pu.t«< NH was 
bound, was tied together, was united. 
— Hith. Tjxnn nh was tied together, 
was united, was amalgamated. Deriv- 
atives: rrjjx, (the only derivative of this 
stem in the Bible), Talx, nnixnn. t^jd, 
t^n, rrja^, tux, TUX, TJX, HjaX, . 

Wni.n. inh bunch, bundle. 2 PBH tie, 
knoL 3 pbh bandage. 4NH artillery 
group (military). [Frormax .] 

rrjjwf.n. 1 band, bundle, bunch. 2 vault of 
heaven. 3 association, society. [Formed 
from Tax with first suff. ng . ] 

n^f.n.NH division (military). [Formed 
from Tax with first .] 

rnjNf.n. pbh 1 legend, tale, story, myth. 
2'Aggadah' — homiletic section in 
Rabbinic literature. [A secondary form 
of rvj|n. cp. xrnax.] Derivatives: 'rvjjij, 

'TJX adj. MH 1 legendary, mythical. 2 ag- 
gadic. 3 fantastic. [Formed from rrjjx 
with agential suff. ""P. cp.'Tjn. I 

XJVTaxf.n.PBH of the same meaning as 
rrjjs- [Aram, equivalent to Heb.nTax.] 

'rnax adj.NH legendary. [A collateral 
form of Tax. Formed from rnax with 

iaxm.n.FW ego (psychology). [L. ego 
(-1), cogn. with Gk. ego). See T in my 

DPxiaxm.n.FW egoism. [Fren. egoi'sme, 
formed from L. ego ( = 1), with suff. 
'ism'. Seelax and org. ] 

BO'Xfoxm.n. fw egoist. [Fren. egoiste, 
formed from L. ego ( = 1), with suff. 
-isle. Seelax and Dip'O.] 

'BO'Xiaxadj.FW egoist. [Formed from 
oip'xlax with adj. suff. 'Q.j 

■mx adj. pbh bound, tied, joined. [Pass, 
part, of tin.] 

"NJX m.n. NH 1 a binding together. 2 asso- 
ciation, society. [Verbal n. of "rax. See 

Vtuk, VTttm.n.PBH thumb. [Of uncer- 
tain origin. Perhaps derived from ^la 1 
and lit. meaning 'the large finger'.] 

'V™** adj.NH thumblike, tiny. [Formed 
from bTiax, with adj. suff. *g .] 

mx m.n. nut; nut tree. [cp. Aram, xrtox, 
xrtaipx, Arab.y'auz, Ethiop. gauz. These 
words are prob. borrowed from Pers. 
gauz . ] Derivatives : nrtax t , nlag, rmlaft . 

nrtax f.n. pbh nut tree. [Formed from nag 
( = nut), with first suff. ng . ] 

"•riaxadj.MH nutty, nutlike. [Formed 
fromrtax, with adj. suff. 'P.] 

rVTlaxf.n.NH a nutlike fruit (botany). 
[Formed from Hag with dimin. suff. 

DT»»1ax m.n. fw egotism. [Eng. egotism 
( = excessive use of the pronoun /; 
speaking much of oneself; self-conceit). 
Coined by the English poet Joseph Ad- 
dison (1672-1719) from L. ego (=1), 
and suff. '-ism'; see oyxlax. The in- 
trusive t is due to the analogy of nepo- 
tism, in which word the t is organic 
(from L. nepos, gen. nepotis, 'grand- 

BO'ipteX m.n.FW egotist. [See q'tplax and 
suff. 09^.] 

DUN m.n. NH impounding water into a 
lake, pond or reservoir. [Verbal n. of 
Dj»x, PL ofoax .] 

1«K m.n. NH flanking, outflanking. [ Ver- 
bal n. of lax, Pi. of nax .] 

noJJflJK, adj. fw egocentric. [Back 
formation from Eng. egocentric, which 
is compounded of ego and centric. See 
1ax, DJ'VTt?^ and adj. sufT>g .] 

mnwj^ax m.n.FW egocentricity. [See 
ntflylax and suff. nw.] 

"Has adj. pbh gathered together, collect- 
ed, amassed, accumulated, hoarded, 
stockpiled. [ Pass. part, of tjx. SeeTax . ] 

"lWXm.n.NH collecting, gathering to- 
gether, amassing, hoarding, stockpil- 
ing. [Verbal n. of Tax ( = he collected). 
See Tax.] 

rntaxf.n. )a small coin, penny. 2NH 
'agorah' — Israel coin, one hundredth 
of a by& (- shekel). [Prob. connected 
with rna ( = the smallest weight). Several 
scholars see in it a derivative of the 
Sem. base Tax (-to hire), whence also 
Akka. agdru ( = to hire). Whence Aram. 
Tax,, Syr. Tax (-he hired), Arab, 'djara 
( = he let for rent), istdjara (= he hired), 
cp. XTax, rnax.] 

Tax m.n. nh gill. [Frormax.] Derivative: 

rn'ax : f-n. mh binding, tying. [ Verbal n. of 
Tax. For the ending see first] 

"•Tax adj. NH pertaining to the gills, 
brachial. [Formed from Tax with adj. 

i v ?X m.n. FW agio. [It. aggio, agio, from 
lajje, from Gk. allagion (- exchange), 
from allage (-change), which derives 
from the stem of allassein (-to 
change), from alios (- other). See 'else' 
in my CEDEL. The / in lajje was 
mistaken for the It. definitive article 
and was accordingly dropped . ] 

aiViBS'ax. m.n. fw Egyptologist. [Back 
formation from rraftlD^ax .] 

njalVlWB'a^ f.n. fw Egyptology. [Com- 
pounded of Gk. Aigyplos (- Egypt), 
and logia (see rralbo ). Derivative: 

I • V 

nvax f.n. mh collecting, amassing, ac- 
cumulation, hoarding, stockpiling. 
[Verbal n. of Tax. For the ending see 

Va.X. m.n. drop (a hapax legomenon in the 
Bible, occurring Job 38:28 in the 
phrase bp 'baj< (-drops of dew). [Of 
uncertain etymology; possibly related 
to Arab, ta'djjala (- was gathered, was 
collected).] Derivative ^ax. 

Wax m.n. nh a small drop, droplet. 
[Dimin. formed from ^ax (-drop), 
through reduplication of the third 

Q3X adj. sad, mournful (a hapax lego- 
menon in the Bible, occurring Is. 19:10, 
in the phrase BtyJ.-'oax (-aggrieved in 
soul). I A collateral form of oa.?, from 

□ay. J 


QJJtm.n. ilake, pool. pond.2rocds. 3PBH 
marshland. [Related to Aram. Djfl, Syr. 
'eghmd. Akka. agammu( = pool), Arab. 
ma ajim (=pool full of reeds). I De- 
rivatives: qjk. DiDjfl. nsjij, rlDix. 'Wfl. 

UK to impound water into a lake. 
[Denominated from d«j.] — Pi.DjfX tr. 
v. NH he impounded water into a lake, 
pond or reservoir. — Pu. QJ^J NH 
(water) was impounded. Derivative: 


CjKm.n.NH operations branch (at 
General Headquarters in Israel Army). 
[Abbr., formed from the initials of the 
words D'¥y?9 im (lit-: "operations 
DjajKm.n.NH miniature lake, pool. 
[Dimin. formed from ojfl ( = lake), 
through reduplication of the second 
and third radical, cp. najx,.] 
najxf.n. NH miniature lake. pool. 
[Dimin. formed from o«$ ( = lake), with 
first stiff, nc.) 
jlaagm.n. reed, bulrush. [Formed from 
DJtj (= reeds), with suff. ]\a.\ Deriv- 
atives :*}1ai8,nv3lDax. 
'JlOJK adj. NH reedy. [Formed from paix 

with adj. suff. 'a.] 
m'JiOJK. f.n. nh reediness. [ Formed from 
rlaix with suff. ni'n.] 
'Bjxadj. mh lacustrine. [Formed from 

ojx, (- lake) with adj. suff. '0 .] 
rr»2MKf.n.NH coot. [Formed from ojx, 
(= lake) with suff. n'Q.] 

JJKm.n. (pi. nUjxadj. basin, bowl. [To- 
gether with Aram, xj$x, Syr. 'aggdnd, 
Ugar. 'gn, prob. borrowed from Akka. 
agan(n)u (of s.m.). Arab. sijjana h 
( = vessel for washing clothes) is an 
Aram, loan word.] 

JJK m.n. I PBH rim of a vessel. 2 NH brim 
ofahat. [Of unknown origin.] 

0$K m.n. PBH pear. [Together with Arab. 
'ijjds, 'ijjds, 'injds, 'injds (=plum), of 
unknown origin .] Derivative :nojx. 

nDag f.n. nh pear tree. [Formed fromojx] 

«|lXm.n. ipbh wing of a bird. 2NH wing 

of a building. 3 PBH the upper part of the 

arm. 4 flank of an army. [Related to Ti, 

Aram. k^j, x?} ( = wing), Arab. 

jddhafa, qddhafa ( = he rowed). The 

base of these words is prob. «pi ; the x in 

Heb. tjx, is prosthetic. Akka. agappu 

( = wing) is prob. an Aram, loan word. 

C P- T*- "Hi ■ I Derivatives : lix, * xajlj. *'?2i$ • 

«|aK to flank, to outflank. [Denominated 

from iJij.l — Qal «£x tr. v. NH he 

flanked, outflanked. — Pi. ijx tr. v. nh 

(of s.m.). — Pu. im< nh was flanked, 

was outflanked. Derivatives: ^ux, thjd. 

'xgjtj m.n. NH flank man. [Formed from 
•)JK, with suff. 'xa.l 

'?}$ adj. nh of the flank, flank (adj.). 
[ Formed from "Ufl with adj. suff. i a. ] 

"UN to collect, gather. [A base with no 
equivalents in the other Sem. lan- 
guages.] — Qal. tjn tr. v. he collected, 
gathered, accumulated, hoarded, 
stockpiled. — Niph. ij{$} PBH was 
collected, was gathered together, was 
hoarded, was stockpiled. — Pi. -i?x MH 
(of the s.m. as ijx). — Hith. Tfcxnn nh 
was collected, was gathered together, 
was hoarded. Derivatives: *mx, iux, 
nrjix,, rhix. p>x, "ijilx. -lUtjo. ijx.d. 
KTJK m.n. PBH roof (occurring in phrases 
quoted from the Talmud, as in xnjXB 
xnj?'2?J! XV3 1 ? xan, 'from a high roof to a 
deep pit"). [Aram., perhaps borrowed 
from Akka. igdru ( - side).] 
xniK m.n. PBH pay. reward (occurring in 
phrases quoted from the Talmud and 
the Midrash, as in xnix tny? D,D "?> 
"according to the pains is the reward'). 
[Aram., from njx, ( = he hired), which is 
a loan word from Akka. agdru ( = to 
hire). Seerntix, andcp.rnix.] 
tjrutjm.n. FW aggregate. [L. aggrega- 
tes, p. part, of aggregdre ( - to add to, 
attach oneself to, follow; lit: 'to bring 
to the flock'), from ad (=to, toward), 
and grex. gen. gregis( = flock). See 'ad-', 
'gregarious' and verbal suff. '-ate' in my 
CEDEL. cp. also the first element in 

nTJK f.n. nh fee for government and 
municipal services in Israel. [Aram. 
xtix (= pay, reward). Seexnax .] 
]i"UK m.n. NH letter-writer, correspon- 
dence textbook. [Formed from n^x 
with suff. rlc] 

]VUN m.n. MH glossary, lexicon. 
[Formed from "tax ( = to collectX with 
suff. ]1 d .] Derivatives : 'Xjltix, n«1-u$. 

'KJlTJKm.n. NH a glossarist. [Formed 
from fl"iax with suff. 'xo. ] 

DlJl"UKm.n. FW agronomist. [Gk. agro- 
nomos {- rural), compounded of agros 
(= field) and nomos, from the stem of 
nemein ( = to assign, manage; to drive 
cattle, to pasture). The first element is 
cogn. with L. ager ( = field, land); see 
"ij?X. For the second element see 
'nemesis' in my CEDEL.) Derivative: 


]1»131"UJS m.n. pbh (pi. pounds), ago- 
ranome, superintendent of the market. 
[Gk. agronomos, compounded of 
agora {- market) and nomos. from the 
stem of nemein (=to assign, manage). 

'pWl^jjadj.FW agronomical. [Formed 
from Dliri}8 word with adj. suff. 'Q. ] 

rr»1a1"UX f.n. FW agronomy. [Fren. ag- 
ronomic from Gk. agronomos. See 


n«1"ajcf.n. NH lexicography. [Formed 
frompiJX (= lexicon), with suff. niQ . ) 

1111K m.n. fist. [Prob. formed from «m 

(=he swept away), with prosthetic ox. 

Derivatives: Tiix, l$1"iix. mpliix. 
iniKm.n. NH 1 clenching of the fist 

2 boxing. [Verbal n. of «pax, Pi. of 


jlT9l*Ug m.n. FW agropyron (botany). 
[Modern L. Agropyron (lit.: 'field 
wheat'), from Gk. agros (afield), and 
pyros ( = corn, wheat) .] 

rPDllJKf.n. NH hewn stone (used in the 
Stone Age). [Formed from^nix (- fist), 
with suff. n'g.) 

]Di"iJX m.n. nh 1 boxer, pugilist. 2 knuck- 
le-duster. [Formed from ^liix with 
agential suff.]g.] Derivatives : rn^ViJX. 

nus1-iH$f.n.NH boxing. [Formed from 
l^nix with suff. mo.] 

'SDllJKadj.NH boxing, pugilistic. 
[Formed fromftVux with adj. suff.'Q. ] 

^tynjK m.n. vase, bowl, basin (occurring 
twice in the Bible, Ez. 1:9). [Of uncer- 
tain origin. Prob. related to Aram. 
XV97?, Gk. kartallos ( = basket) .] 

JIJN m.n. NH collector. [Formed from 
nix (= to collect), with agential suff.]?.] 

nwnasf.n. NH collecting. [Formed from 

"lto^aKm.n. FW aggressor. [L. aggressor 
(= one that aggresses), from aggressus, 
p. part, of aggredl ( = to go to, ap- 
proach, attack), from ad ( = to, toward), 
and gradi ( = to step, go), from gradus 
( = step). See 'ad-', 'grade' and agential 
suff. '-or' in my CEDEL.] 

'S'lpnaK adj. fw aggressive. [From L. 
aggressus, p. part, of aggredi. For the 
ending see suff. '-ive' in my CEDEL.] 

nva'onaij f.n.FW aggressiveness. [Form- 
ed from , ? , i?n>x with suff. ma.] 

rPBlJN f.n.FW aggression. [ L. aggressio 
{- a going to; an attack), from aggres- 
sus, p. part, of aggredi. See iltn;ix and 

*]"UK to clench the fist [Denominated 
from 11-iix (= fist).] — Pi. l^x tr. v. NH 
he clenched the fist. — Pu. «p?K NH was 
clenched (said of the fist). —Hith. 
tpjxnri nh he boxed. Derivatives: 
inax. mDnjxnn, TOXD, 'ftJtjo, n^xno. 

nnax adj. fw agrarian. [Ultimately, 
from L. agrdrius (- pertaining to land), 
from ager ( = field, land), which is cogn. 
with Gk. agros (= field). Seeijj>x .] 


nnj»« f.n. letter, epistle. [Together with 
BAram. rnjx, xn^x, Aram. xrnjx, Syr. 
N^ngN. prob. borrowed from Akka. 
egir(u(- letter).! Derivative :]1"ax. 

18 m.n. mist, vapor, gas. [Prob. a loan 
word from Akka. edu ( = flood, 
inundation). Some scholars connect 
Heb. iK with Arab, 'iyad ( - mist), cp. 
rs. cp. also rrjx.] Derivatives: mx" . 
3TX' to grieve. [Related to the bases 3ix 
and an.] — Hiph. angr? he caused to 
grieve, saddened (a hapax legomenon 
in the Bible, occurring Sam. I 2:33 in 
the form thk^, antfnb). 
3"TK" to make polite. [Denominated from 
anx.l — Hith. 37xnn nh he became 
1'HKadj.& n. fw adagio (music). [It. 
adagio, formed from L. ad ( = to, 
toward), and agio (= leisure), from VL 
adjaefns, pres. part, ofadjacere ( = to lie 
at, lie near). See 'adjacent' and cp. 
'ease' in my CEDEL.] 

rns 1 to bring about, to cause. [Possibly 
the base of nWx.] 

TIN" to vaporate, evaporate. [Denomi- 
nated from ik. See collateral form tx.] 
— Pi. thk tr. v. NH vaporized, evap- 
orated; steamed, stewed. — Pu. rn^ NH 
was turned into vapor, was vaporized, 
was evaporated. — Hith. rrjxnn NH (of 
s.m.). Derivatives: 'nx, mx9, mxo, 
ttjkd, nnxnn. 

'?rn 'pn^iKadj.PBH meanwhile. [Aram., 
■"33^8 is formed from pref. ox ( = on, 
upon; see "?¥), pref. 07 and '^n ( = so) .] 

rrnsf.n.PBH wavelet. [From Aram. 
xnnx ( = waves), cp. Aram, 'ddhiy 

"•nx m.n. NH vaporization, evaporation. 
[Verbal n. of nix. Pi. of mx. See its 
collateral form "n'x. I 

DHN mji.MH ducat. [Lit.: 'the red coin' 
(See dix).] 

JlTK m.n. lord, master, possessor. [Re- 
lated to Phoen. px, Ugar. 'dn (-lord, 
master); possibly derived from px, pi 
( = to rule, judge), cp. 'Adonis' in my 
CEDEL. Derivatives: njnjj.nuntj.rpjnx,. 
mnx, 'px,. 

n^TX fji. pbh mistress, lady. [Formed 
from inx with first] 

rwaVlxf.n.MH mastery, lordship; au- 
thority. I Formed from rnx with suff. 

rvjlTKf.n.PBH mistress, lady. [Formed 
fromjVix. with suff-n^.] 

pHK. adj. l attached to, fastened to. 
2 pious, devout, religious, observant. 
[From pix. Properly pass. part, of the 
otherwise not used Qal. In sense 2 it is 

clliptically used forn^a pnx ( = attached 
to religion).] 

ttftlK m.n. NH neutralizing (physics, 
chemistry). [Verbal n. of Ettx, Pi. of 


'Thtadj.MH misty, vaporous. [Formed 
from ix (= mist, vapor), with adj. suff. 

T7H adj. NH polite, courteous. [Intro- 
duced by Eliezer ben Yehudah 
(1858-1922) from Arab. 'adib 
( = cultured, refined, educated, well- 
bred, polite) . ] Derivative: 21K. 

manxf.n. NH politeness. [Formed from 
3px with suff. ma .] 

m s 7« fji. NH mistiness, evaporation. 
[Formed frompx with] 

mp'lKf.n.NH piety, devotion, devot- 
edness, religiosity. [Formed from pnx] 

T^K adj. great, mighty, powerful, ma- 
jestic. [From nx.] 

nivnxf.n. PBH mightiness, powerful- 
ness. [Formed from v?8 with suff. 


ttfHK adj. NH indifferent, apathetic. 
[Coined by Eliezer ben Yehudah 
(1858-1922) from Aram.-Syr. tfix, 
(= he was silent, was indifferentX back 
formation from Syr. rnjfix (=form; 
species; idea), which is a loan word 
from Gk. eidos (- form, shape) .] 

mtfHKf.n. nh indifference, apathy. 
[Coined by Eliezer ben Yehudah from 
ttfpx and suff. mc] 

mx to be red. [cp. Arab, 'ddima, 
Ethiop. 'addma {- was red), Ugar. 'dm 
(=to be red). Prob. orig. related to dt 
( = blood), and lit. meaning 'to be of the 
color of blood' .] — Qal dhj intr. v. was 
red. — Pi. dix PBH he reddened. — Pu. 
D^x, Di^ (=was reddened). — Hith. 
Dixnn became red, reddened. — Hiph. 
D^xn became red, reddened, blushed. 
Derivatives: nio^xnn, D'nx?. Dixp, 
n^imx, nwpix, mmx, no38. ngTxn, 
Dix. Dix, D793i|. no797{c. T*°7S» ,2 ? 1D 78- 

onx m.n. (with no. pi.) 1 a man. 2(colloq.) 
man, mankind. 3 'Adam', name of the 
first man (according to the Bible). 
[Properly meaning 'the one formed 
from nm^, the ground'. See hdtx, and 
cp. Phoen. mx. cp. also Ugar. 'dm 
( = man), 'b 'dm ( = the father of 
mankind). According to Noldeke, Heb. 
D79 became — through assimilation of 
d to n before m — Arab, 'andm 
( = creatures), whence perhaps, through 
dissimilation, Akka. amelu, awelu 
( = man). For the connection between 

7197$ and 07X cp. L. homo (=man), 

humdnus (-human), which are related 

to humus ( - ground, soil), cp. 'Adam' in 

my CEDEL.] 
OIK adj. red. I From dix ( = to be red).] 

Derivatives ^^x.npmx. 
DTK' m.n. name of a red jewel; car- 

nelian or ruby. [From dix ( = to be 


oYx»m.n. 1 PBH red color, redness. 2NH 
1 ipstick. [ From dix ( = to be red) . ] 

D"7»7K adj. reddish. [Formed from dtx 
( = to be red), with reduplication of the 
second and third radicals, cp. ?i$y 
( = greenish), -Trnmtf ( = blackish), "T9?9:i 
( = crooked), ^30 (= round).] Deriv- 
atives: ms797X,, nD7P7X, . 

rwananK f.n. nh red color, reddishness. 
[Formed fromD^Dix, with suff. ma .] 

nannnxf.n. nh rubeola (disease). 
[Properly subst. use of the f. of dipix, . ] 

n»"jN f.n. ground; soil, earth, land. [Prob. 
derived from dix ( - to be red), and orig. 
denoting 'the red arable ground', cp. 
Akka. adndii {- pieces of land, places 
of residence), which is a loan word 
from Heb. ntoTX,, the change of m to n 
being due to the assimilation of them to 
the d. For the ending of no7X, see suff. 
ng. cp. dix.] 

'TWOTXadj. nh reddish. [Dimin. formed 
from dix ( = to be red), through 
reduplication of the third radical. For 
the ending see adj. suff. 'a.] Derivative: 

nWMOTTCf.n.NH reddishness. [Formed 
fronrarais with suff. ma .] 

JVJWniKf.n.PBH reddishness. [Dimin. 
formed from otK (- to be red), with suff. 
n'a. cp. n""3«3^ ( = whitishness), nnnni? 
( = blackishness).] 

paixm-n. 1MH redskin. 2NH pyrrhula 

(bird). 3 NH myripristis (fish). [Formed 

from dix with suff. Jin . ] 
"•JiaiK adj. reddish, ruddy. [From dtx 

(- to be red). J 
JV31»7K f.n. peony (a genus of plants). 

[Subst. use of the f. of the adj.^^x .] 

T'imxm.n.MH title of a Hasidic rabbi. 

1 - 

[Formed from the initials ofuTlDujnx, 
13371, 'our master and teacher'. ] 

rn»TNf.n.MH redness. [Formed from 
dix (= to be red), with suff.mD.] 

nia'mKf.n.MH reddishness, ruddiness. 
■ 1 - 

[ Formed from dix with suff. m a . ] 

lltnwO'J'BTX m.n. FW administrator. [L. 
administrator, from administrate, p. 
part, of administrdre ( = to manage, 
carry out, attend, serve), from ad (-to, 
toward), and ministrdre ( = to serve). 
See ^D9 , ^■ , ^?• For the pref. see *-ad' in my 




'ytpDD'J'PTS adj. FW administrative. 
(L. administrdtivus. from adminis- 
trdtus, p. part, of administrdre. See 
-)1D399T97& and adj. suff.'a.] 
rPinoPTPTK f.n. FW administration. [L. 
administrdiio. from adminitrdtus, p. 
part, of administrdre. See -1ID399T978 
and suff. rra.) 
^WSm.n.FW admiral. [Prob. short- 
ened from Arab. 'amir-ar-rahl 
( = commander of transport, officer 
commanding a transport fleet), whence 
also Portuguese amirahls, amirat, 
Fren. amiral. It. ammiraglio. See 'ad- 
miral' in my CEDEL. Derivative: 
rnVrpiKf.n.FW admiralty. [Formed 

from ^7*978 with suff. run .1 
nomKf.n. nh erythema (disease). 
[Formed from 07$, through redu- 
plication of the third radical, according 
to the pattern n^y§ . cp. nnix . 1 
nsnx fji. rubeola (disease). [Coined by 
Eliezer ben Yehudah (1858-1922) 
from dix. ( = red), according to the 
pattern nb?g serving to form names of 
diseases on the analogy of rnng 
( = bright spot on the skin),rbr (= wart), 
n^ (= scab, scurf), ngVj ( = scar), nj$3 
( = inflammation), n$n# ( = wasting 
disease, consumption). Properly a loan 
translation of Medical L. rubeola 
(= measles), which was formed from L. 
rubeus (- reddish), from ruber (= red), 
cp. nona, n^o. n^ns. nfttf. nfflt. nV?n. 
nn»x, n^x, n^na, nj?$a, nftjs. nnj, ntf*?, 

J1K m.n. 1 base, foundation, pedestal, 
socket (of a column). 2 NH railway 
sleeper. [Of uncertain etymology.] 
Derivative : 11171$. 

nmxf.rLPBH lordship; authority. 
[Formed fromjVix with .) 

' the Lord, God. [LiL: 'my 
Lord', the pi. of majesty of jtrx 
(=Lord), with the suff. of the first 
person. The spelling with Qamatz 
serves to distinguish it from 'jlix, 
( = my lords). See jVrx.) 

n 7? ! 3" , ?.78 m.n. PBH name of an apelike 
animal mentioned in the Mishnah. 
Perhaps the orangutan. [Of uncertain 

n'375 f.n. nh windowbox. [Formed from 
HX with suff. n>3.\ 

?TXm.n.PBH dropping tube, dropper. 
[Of uncertain origin .1 

pric to attach, fasten, connect [Related 
to Aram, jrjx, (=was attached to, was 
fastened to), cp. the related bases pm, 
pin. I — Qal occurs only in the pass, 
part, (see pnxj. — Niph. p7|$ MH was 

attached, was fastened. 
TW to be wide, to be high, to be glorious. 
[Phoen. 'adr, Ugar. adr ( = mighty, 
glorious, majestic). I — Niph. tjx} was 
mighty, was glorious, was majestic. 
— Pi. tjx MH he made glorious, 
glorified, exalted. — Hith. Tjxrn mh 
was glorified. — Hiph. Tnxn he made 
glorious, glorified. Derivatives: thx, 
tttk, nix, rmx, nyjxij, nnixnn, 17x3, 

Tt^ 1 m.n. 1 splendor, magnificence. 
2 garment, mantle. [Related to nnix. 
For sense development see ibid. ] 

TtK" m.n. 1 either a kind of a cedar or a 


kind of an oak. 2 NH maple tree. [Aram. 
X77X, perhaps related to Gk. kedros 
■nN m.n. PBH skin (of a stuffed animal). 
[Aram, nix, x~nx ( = skin of an animal), 
which prob. derives from base mx 
(q .v.). cp. rnix.) 

17s m.n. 'Adar' — name of the twelfth 
Jewish month. [A loan word from Ak- 
ka. Addaru, Adaru, which is prob. 
related to Akka. iddar (^threshing 
floor), and properly means 'month of 
the threshing floor'. According to 
Friedrich Delitzsch, Akka. Addaru, 
Adaru lit. means 'the dark or clouded 
month' and derives from Akka. adaru 

NVlKm.n. 1 threshing floor. 2 PBH a 
circular place for assemblies. [Aram., 
BAram. and Syr. xnix (- threshing 
floor), perhaps borrowed from Akka. 
iddar, adru. Arab, dndar is an Aram, 

K|VIK, nJjTW adj. PBH on the contrary. 
[Aram., lit. meaning 'upon the greater', 
and formed from pref. sk ( = "?¥, on, 
upon), pref. ;ji (= which), and xan 
(- great), cp. the pref.a x in 'Tx. xa^x. 

nYTKf.n.PBH fishbone. [Aram. X77X; of 

unknown origin.) 
llniKm.n. nh camera obscura. [From 

Aram, x^x.) 
irniKf.n.NH eider (duck of the genus 

somateria). [Hebraization of eider, 

from Icelandic aedar.] 



n^VH&f.n.FW (pi. nlD'77X andnlx^nix) 
address. [Fren. adresse, back forma- 
tion from adresser {-10 address), from 
adrecier (=to raise, erect), from a 
(=to), and drecier ( = to direct), from 
VL direciidre, from L. directus, p. part. 
ofdirigere (= to put into a straight line; 
to direct, guide). See 'a' and 'direct' (v.) 
inmyCEDEL .) 

llriKm.n.MH an ancient Persian gold 
coin. [A Persian loan word. cp. 
Avestic zaranya, Pers. zar ( = gold) and 
see ipni- cp. also Gk. dareikos (=a 
Persian gold coin), which is of the same 
origin as iIstjk, .| 

nnsTTKf.n.PBH (pi. ninarix, mxr^rjx) 
legal permission to seize the debtor's 
property; right of seizure. [Aram. 
xn?Tix, lit.: 'permission to reach', from 
VIS, from V} (=he stepped, walked, 
treaded) which is related to Heb. tq-j (of 
s.m.). Formally, Aram, xqarix is 
equivalent to Heb. njvin. cp. Aram. 
xn'Tiax and Heb. ^arj, Aram, xijpax 

l^niK m.n. FW adrenalin(e) (chemist- 
ry). [Coined by the Japanese chemist 
Jokichi Takamine in 1901 from L. ad 
( = to, toward), L. rendlis ( = pertaining 
to the kidneys) — from ren ( = kidney) 

— and chemical suff. -in. See 'ad-' and 
'renal' in my CEDEL.) 

nvis f.n. 1 splendor, glory, magnifi- 
cence. 2 robe of state; cloak, coat, 
mantle. [Prob. formed from "nx (q.v.) 
with suff. nj. cp. nix and nix 1 . 
According to Haupt rmx is related to 
Akka. udru ( = camel) . ] 

ttTTK to be indifferent. [From Aram.crjx, 
(-he was silent), was indifferent. See 
tf'ix and cp.niuhxnn.) — QalaTjx intr. 
v. NH he was indifferent. — Pi. tfix NH 
he made indifferent, neutralized. — Pu. 
Ehx NH was made indifferent, was 
neutralized. — Hiph. tf'ixn NH he 
made indifferent, neutralized. — Hith. 
ttttxnn NH behaved indifferently, was 
apathetic. Derivative: fisftx. 

JitthKm.n. NH apathy (psychology). 
[ Formed from tfix with suff. Jl- .) 

anx to love. [Related to Ugar. ahb (=to 
love), perhaps also to Arab, hdbba 
( - he got in motion) . ) — Qal anx. tr. v. 
he loved, liked. — Niph. anx^ he was 
loved, was liked. —Pi. anx pbh he 
loved passionately. — Pu. anx pbh 1 he 
became beloved; 2 he fell in love. 

— Hith. anxnn 1 he was loved by; 2 he 
fell in love with. — Hiph. 371x0 PBH he 
caused to love. Derivatives: cananx, 
anx, nar]x, o^inx,, ant$3, maqxnn, ananx, 
jansj, anlx, amx, an£}, anxp. an'xo. 

ank seeo'a^R- 

anx m.n. MH (in Biblical Heb. only in the 
pi. cranx,) love, amour. [Back formation 

nrjnx f.n. love. [Properly inf. ofanx ( = he 
loved). For the ending see subsL suff. 
ny. For the infinitival origin of the word 
cp. e.g. Deut. 7:8 and 1 1:3 nans'? ( = W 
love); cp. also nxi? ( = fear), ^?IJ 
( = eating food) . I Derivative: l§23tf - 


ananN to flirt. ICoined by Eliezcr ben 
Ychudah ( 1 858- 1 922) after Hos. 4: 1 8 
i2n 13^9- I See anx and cp. DTjnanx,, 
jarpnx,.! —Pi. anartfl intr. v. nh he 

D'ananx m.n. pi. nh flirt. [Coined by 
Eliezer ben Yehudah from the verb 


jananxm.n.NH philanderer. [Formed 
fromananx with agential suff.|Q.] 

D , 3nK.m.n. pi. love (a hapax legomenon 
in the Bible, occurring Pr. 7:18). PI. of 
anx, from anx ( = to love).] 

]3HN m.n. NH lover. [Formed from anx 
with agential suff.jg. I 

|rpns adj. NH amorous, flirtatious. 
[Formed from nanx with agential suff. 

"tnK to sympathize. [Coined by Eliezer 
ben Yehudah ( 1 858- 1 922) on the basis 
of Arab, hdwada ( = he was indulgent). 
See rrjrix.] — Qal -nx nh he sym- 
pathized with. — Niph. tnxj nh was 
sympathized. Derivatives: rnnx, "nnx, 

*TTTIK adv. pbh mutually. [Formed from 
pref. ex (="??, on, upon), and yrjn 
(= each other).] 

rnriKf.n.NH sympathy. [Coined by 
Eliezer ben Yehudah from tnx ( = to 
sympathize) with first suff. ng.J 

anx interj. woe! alas! ah! [Of imitative 
origin, cp. Syr. nnx, Arab, 'ah, 'ahdn, 
hah, Akka. a-a ( = oh! ah!), cp. also 
Eng. ah, oh! and its equivalents in the 
other iElanguages.] 

3inx adj. loved, beloved. I Pass. part, of 
anx (= he loved). See anx .] 

"ranx adj. nh sympathetic, congenial. 
[Pass. part, of "nx. See mx and cp. 

'"l^K. abbr. nh vowel letters in non- 
vocalized Hebrew. [Abbr. of it, xn, i^x, 

"P-iinx, inix m.n. pbh horseman, sta- 
bleboy. [Of unknown origin.] 

pO'linK, m.n. PBH Ahriman, the spirit of 
evil in the Zoroastrian religion. [From 
Avestic anra mainyu ( = the evil spirit); 
lit.: "the hostile spirit*.] 

, nx pron. meaning 'where' (occurring 
three times in the Bible, Hos. 13: 10 and 
14). [Prob. formed from demon- 
strative pref. ax_ and deictic n, a var. of 
n, which appears e.g. in xn (q.v.) .] 

TftX m.n. name of God. I Lit.: 'I am', 
imperf. of n^;j (= was). Shortened from 
nvix ntfx n;nx, 'I am that I am' (Ex. 

"TTiKm.n. nh I umbrella. 2 lampshade. 

n^nx f.n. inh pitching a tent, tent 
making. 2 pbh pi. nftvix,, the laws 
concerning the uncleanness of a tent 
[Verbal n. of^nx. See^nx and first suff. 

nlV» pbh 'Ahiloth', name of a 
Tosephta tractate of the order nVi^y. 
[Properly pi. of n^nx,. cp.nftnx.] 

*?nx to pitch a tent, to dwell in a tent. 
[Denominated from bn'x ( = tent).l 
— Qal Vnx intr. v. he pitched a tent, 
dwelled in a tent. — Pi. "?nx pbh he 
pitched a tent. — Hiph. Vri^n pbh he 
shaded, overshadowed. Derivatives: 

*?ri'x m.n. i tent, shelter. 2 tabernacle. 
3 dwelling, habitation, [cp. Aram, x^nx 
(emphatic St.), Phoen. *;nx, Ugar. 'hi 
(=tent). Usually connected with but 
prob. not related to Arab, 'ahl 
(- relatives, kin, kinsfolk, adherents, 
inhabitants, people), cp. Egypt 
'(a)har(a). Derivatives: nj^nx, Vnx?, 
V'nx, "7nx, nbnx, Tftnx, nV?nx, na^nx. 

*?nxm.n. (pi. o^nx, and nlVri^) laloe. 

2 pbh an alkalic plant used as a soap. 

3 NH mesembryanthemum (botany). 
[Of uncertain origin. Perhaps bor- 
rowed from agaruh, aguruh 
(=aloewood), which are prob. of 
Dravidian origin. Gk. aloe ( = aloe), is 
prob. a Heb. loan word. See 'aloe' in 
my CEDEL.] 

n^nil f.n. proper name 'Oholah', sym- 
bolic name for Samaria. [For a^nx 
( = her tent), short for 'she who has her 
own tent', in contradistinction to na^nx 

]1*?nx m.n. NH small tent. [Formed from 
"?n'x with suff. ]Vj.\ 

nlVnx f.n. pi. pbh 'Oholoth', name of a 
Mishnah tractate. [From "7n'x. cp. 

na^nx f.n. proper name 'Oholibah', 
symbolic name of Jerusalem. [For-^nx 
aa ( - my tent is in her), short for 'she 
in which my tent (i.e. the Temple) is'. 
See"7n'x andaaandcp.n^nx.] 

rpVjlXf.n. pbh encampment, a camp 
formed from tents. [Formed from "7nx 
(-tent), with suff. nj3.] 

ixconj. or. [Related to Aram. 1x, Syr. tx, 
Ugar. 'u, Arab, au, Ethiop. 'aw, Akka. 

onxiXm.n.FW oasis. [Gk. oasis, of 
Egypt, origin, cp. Coptic ouahe ( = oa- 
sis), whence also Arab. waha h (of s.m., 
properly "dwelling place'), from ouah 
( = to dwell).] 

□Blx pref. fw ob- (in words of Latin 
origin) i toward, to. 2 against. 3 across, 
over, upon. 4 down. 5 completely. [L. 

ob-, from ob (= toward, against, in the 
way of; about, before; on account of; 
instead of), from IE base *opi-, which 
stands in gradational relationship to IE 
*epi-. See 'epi-' in my Cedel and cp. 

3lx'm.n.(pl. n1a1x), skin bottle. [Of 
uncertain etymology, cp. alx" (a hapax 
legomenon occurring Job 32:19 in the 

3lK" m.n. (pi. nlalx) I necromancer, sor- 
cerer. 2 ghost. [Of uncertain etymol- 
ogy. Some scholars connect this word 
with Arab, aba (=he came back), so 
that alx would denote the ghost coming 
back from the other world, cp. Fren. 
revenant ( = ghost), properly subst. use 
of the pres. part, of revenir ( = to come 
back). However, it is more prob. that 
alx in the above sense is ultimately 
identical with alx ( = skin bottle), and 
would properly refer to the dull sounds 
made by the ghost. This etymology 
gains in probability if we compare Syr. 
xniST (= necromancer) with Arab. 
zukra h {= wine skin).] 

"I3lx adj. lost, forlorn. [Properly part, of 

Bj??a1x m.n. fw object. [Med. L. objec- 
tum (lit.: 'something thrown before'), 
neuter of L. objectus, p. part, of obicere 
( = to throw or put before or against), 
from ob ( = toward, against, in the way 
of; about, before; on account of, 
instead of), andjacere ( = to throw). See 
'ob-' and 'jet' (=to spurt forth) in my 
CEDEL. Med. L. objectum is properly a 
loan translation of Gk. problema (=a 
problem; lit.: 'something thrown be- 

'yp^alKadj.FW objective. [Med. L. 
objectivus, from objectum ( = object). 
Seeopjalx and adj. suff. 'a.] 

rwa'DiralK f.n. fw objectivity. [Formed 
from , a , Pi?;3lx with suff. ma .] 

*?3*X m.n. l stream, rivulet, watercourse. 
2NH aqueduct. [Of uncertain origin. 
According to Jensen, a proper name 
for the River Ulai (cp. ^ix ^x, Dan. 
8:2), and lit. meaning that which car- 
ries its waters to the sea', and related to 

n'W'VslK f.n. fw debenture. [L. obli- 

T 1 - 'I 

gdtio (=a binding, obligation), from 
obligates, p. part, of obligdre ( = to 
bind, put under obligation, oblige), 
from ob (see o^alx) and ligdre ( = to 
bind). See 'ligament' in my CEDEL and 
cp. 'obligation' ibid. 

p^ValX m.n. fw obelisk. [Gk. obeliskos 
(=a small spit, an obelisk), dimin. of 
obelos (=a spit, needle, pointed pillar, 
obelisk), which is of uncertain origin.] 

mfj?ri trams 


rp$?ntppalx f.n. fw obstruction (csp. in 
Parliament). [L. obstructio{ = a building 
up), from obstructus, p. part, of 
obstruere ( = to build up, wall up; to bar. 
render impassable; lit.: 'to build 
against'), from ob (see o;£31k) and 
struere ( = to build). See 'structure in my 
CEDEL . For the ending see suff. rr o . I 
TntonoalXf.n.FW observatory. [From 
L. obsen-dre (=to watch, regard, ob- 
serve), from ob (see ojtsIk) and servdre 
( = to save, deliver, preserve, protect). 
See 'conserve' in my CEDEL and cp. 
'observatory' ibid. For the ending see 

rPX3lXf.n.FW ovation. [L. ovdtio, from 
ovo. ovdre (=to exult, to triumph in 
ovation), which stands for *e K a>6, from 
the imitative base *e M a-, whence also 
Gk. euazein ( = to utter cries ofjoy; lit.: 
'to cry eua' in honor of Bacchus'). I 

rnwnata f.n. fw overture (music). 
[Fren. ouverture ( = opening), from 
ouvrir (=to open), from VL *6perire 
( = to open), from L. aperfre ( = to open), 
but influenced in form by L. cooperire 
( = to cover). See 'aperient' in my 
CEDEL and cp. 'overture' ibid .] 

Six m.n. pbh sumach (kind of a tree). 
[From Syr.Kji K.| 

TrtXadj.NH I copulative. 2 copula 
(grammar). [Properly part, of t;k.] 
Derivative: ttj1k. 

jTtfxm.n. nh classer, classeur (file). 
I Formed fromTtlK with suff. \Q.\ 

ODUiX, Bpuag m.n. fw the month Au- 
gust. [L. Augustus. Named after Au- 
gustus Caesar, the first Roman em- 
peror. Lit.: 'venerable, august'. Re- 
lated to augere ( = to increase). See 'auc- 
tion 'in my CEDEL.] 

■Ulx 1 m.n. I mh lexicographer. 2NH col- 
lector. [Subst. use of the act. part, of 

I IK.] 

"UlX"m.n.NH hamster. [Of the same 
origin as "U1K'.] 

••nnjlXadj.NH Ugaritic. [Formed with 
adj. suff. V J from nnjiK ( = Ugarit) name 
of an ancient city in north Syria, whose 
ruins form today the artificial mound 
called Ras Shamra. The name Ugarit, 
which occurs in Babylonian, Hittite 
and Egyptian records, derives from 
Akka. Ugdn'tu, from ugdrfytu, which 
was formed from Sumerian ugdru 
( = field), with gentilic suff. -iytu (cor- 
responding to Heb. '•a).] 

"nx base meaning 'to bend'; 'to oppress'. 
I Whence tk ' . See nl-riK .] 

*nx m.n. brand, firebrand. [Related to 
Aram. *hk, Syr. ktik ( = brand, fire- 
brand), possibly also to Arab, 'lid 

(= wood). For the interchangeability of 
K and s? see the introductory article to 
letter K.| 

HTlKf.n. fw ode. [Gk. ode, contraction 
of aoide (=song), which is related to 
aeido( = sing), which prob. is cogn. with 
aedon (= nightingale), aude (-voice, 
tone, sound), audao ( = \ talk, speak), 
cp. 'ode' and words there referred to in 

rpjlVlWlTix f.n. fw odontology. [Com- 
pounded of Gk. odon (- tooth) and of 
-logia (see rrjl^a). Gk. odon was 
assimilated from edont, prob. orig. a 
pres. part, of IE base *ed- ( = to eat), and 
lit. means 'that which eats'. See 'tooth' 
in my CEDEL and cp. the second 
element in jvtId??.] 

nlTix, nVr'x f.n. pi. cause (?), inducement 
(?) (used only with the prep, by : ntt'K by, 
nrrtK by, 'because of, 'concerning'). [Of 
uncertain origin. Several scholars de- 
rive it from base tik ( = to bend, turn, 
enclose), appearing in Arab, 'dda ( = he 
bent), SArab. tik ( = around, about), 
cp. Heb. ^13 ( = on account of), which 
is related to bfy (= he rolled), and MHn^p 
(- cause), from Biblical Heb. n^p (=a 
turn), from 33IJ ( = he turned, enclosed). 
Others derive nlTlK from base tik, 
whence Arab, dddd ( = he brought 
about, caused).] 

"it^'Tix m.n. fw audiometer. [A hybrid 
coined from L. audire ( = to hear), and 
Gk. metron (= measure). See 'audible' 
and 'meter' (poetical rhythm), in my 
CEDEL. cp. the first element in 

nntonlx f.n. fw auditorium. [L. audi- 

T I 

torium ( = lecture room, hall of justice), 
properly neuter of the adjective audi- 
torius ( - relating to hearing), used as a 
noun and lit. meaning 'the place where 
something is heard', from audftus, 
p. part, of audire (=to hear). See 
'audible' in my CEDEL. cp. the first 
element in "loplnlK.] 

njOHtaf.n.Fw the Odyssey (used also 
figuratively for any long wanderings). 
[Gk. Odysseia, from Odysseus .] 

mx to desire, long for. [Base of uncertain 
etymology.] — Pi. n^x he desired, 
longed for. — Hith. rnKnn he desired, 
longed for, lusted after. Derivatives: 
nw, 'uk, n«Knn, njKip, njK ( n. 

nix f.n. desire. [FrommK.] 

anix m.n. lover; friend. [Properly act. 
part, of arjK (= he loved); seennK .] 

in1x adj. & m.n. nh i sympathizing, sym- 
pathetic. 2 follower, adherent. [SubsL 
use of the act. part, of inK (=he 
sympathized). cp.nnK.] 

'11X m.n. MH desire. I Verbal n. of hjk, Pi. 

TJX m.n. I pbh gander. 2 goose (as used in 
the collective sense). [From Aram, kj^x, 
which, together with Syr. Kj], is a loan 
word from Akka. usii, ussu, which 
itself is borrowed from Sumerian uz. 
Arab, fwazz, wazz, is an Aram, loan 
word. cp. tiik. cp. also rns and words 
there referred to.] Derivatives: nflx, 


rmxf.n.MH goose. [Formed from tjx 
with subst.] 

nnxm.n.NH goosestep. [Verbal n. of 


Jinx m.n. nh gosling. [Formed from tjk 
withdimin. sutT.jla.] 

|1t1x m.n. FW ozone. [Ger. Ozon, coined 
by the German chemist Christian 
Friedrich Schonbein in 1840 from Gk. 
ozein (=to smell); so called by him 
because of its strong smell. See 'ozo-' in 

rnx to walk like a goose, goosestep. 
[Formed from tik through redupli- 
cation of the third radical.] — PL ttik 
intr. v. nh he goosestepped. 

lulxm.n. FW auto (colloq.). [Short for 


D101X, Dloax (before a vowel doIx. 
gd3k) fw auto-, resp. aut-. [Gk. auto-, 
resp. aut-, from autos ( = self, same), 
which is of uncertain origin .] 

rps?nn»xltjlx, rrx^xjipxtoax f.n. fw 
autoemancipation. [A hybrid coined 
from Gk. autos ( = self, same; seelolK), 
and L. emancipdtio (seerrys^&x .] 

0«10iXm.n. fw bus, omnibus. [A 
hybrid coined from Gk. auto- (= self), 
and bus, shortened from omnibus, 
short for Fren. voiture omnibus 
( = vehicle for all). The term voiture om- 
nibus was introduced by Laffitte in 
Paris in 1820, from L. omnibus ( = for 

"•DiJi'aioix, »D">Jl 9 a1oax adj. fw autobi- 

. TE . ' . T 1 r - j 

ographical. [Formed from n^3jl*3l«Jlx 
with adj. sufF. 'p.] 

mD*ul»Blolx, rrsiJl'atoaxf.n.Fw auto- 
biography. [Compounded of crtolx and 

'3>1tJlX, 'HltttX adj. fw autogenous, self- 
generated. [From Eng. autogenous, 
which was coined by the English 
biologist Sir Richard Owen in 1846 
from Gk. autogenes ( = self-produced), 
from auto- (see nlolK) and the stem of 
gennein (= to produce). See '-genous' m 
my CEDEL. For the ending of^oix see 
sutT. , g.l 

OiTTTlOlx, Bj7T»Tl03Xm.n.FW autodi- 
dact, one self-taught. [From Gk. 



autodidaktos (= self-taught), from 
auto- (sec ntolx) and didakios 
( = taught), verbal adj. of didaskein 
( = to teach). Seenj^pjrrn .] 
npilBlX m.n. fw auto-da-fe. I Portuguese 
auto-da-fe (lit.: 'act of faith'), from L. 
actus de fide (-an act concerning 
faith). L. actus derives from actus, p. 
part, of agere ( = to do, act). L. fide is 
the ablative of fides (- faith). See 'act', 
'de-' and 'fidelity' in my CEDEL.] 

^SlntolK, y»al»1»3K m.n. fw automo- 
bile. [Lit.: 'moving of itself '. A hybrid 
coined from Gk. auto- (see alolx) and 
L. mobilis (- movable). See 'movable' 
in my Cedel. The modern Greek calls 
it autokineto{- moved of itself).] 

DOltrfX, BD1&3X m.n. fw automaton. 
[Gk. automaton, neuter of automatos 
( = acting of one's own will, happening 
of itself), compounded of auto- (see 
□1d1x) and IE *mntos {- thinking), from 
base *men- {- to think), whence also 
Gk. mentor (= adviser). See 'mind' in 

■•D»1b1X, 'P^&ax adj. FW automatic. 
[Formed from dzj1d1k with adj. suff. ■• a.] 

'0Wb1x, »dWB3X adj. FW autonomous. 
[Formed with adj. suff. '3 from Gk. 
autonomos (= living by one's own 
laws), which is compounded of auto- 
(see a1olx) and nomos ( = law). See 
'nomo-' in my CEDEL.] 

rraWtrtx, nvtfjtoax f.n. fw autonomy. 
[Gk. autonomia {- independence), 
from autonomos. SecpWolx .] 

n'BOHOtolX, ntJOHOtoSK f.n. FW auto- 
suggestion. [Compounded of aldx and 
n 7??jio.] 

rmpptolxf.n.FW autostrada. [A hybrid 
coined from atolx, shortened from 
automobile, and It. strada ( = street, 
road) . | 

'StolXadj. fw Utopian. [Back forma- 
tion from rrsloix. For the ending see 
adj. suff. \i . | 

n;slDWf.n.FW Utopia. [Modem L. 
Utopia, coined by Sir Thomas Moore 
(1779-1852) from Gk. ou (=not), and 
topos ( = place). See 'topic' in my 


3^i?1olK m.n. fw autoclave. [Fren. au- 
toclave (lit.: 'self-locking'), a hybrid 
coined from Gk. auto- (seecrtolx), and 
L. cldvis ( = key). See 'clavicle' in my 

onjrtolK, tj^oaK m.n. fw autocrat. 
[Fren. autocrate, from Gk. autokrates 
{- ruling by oneself), which is com- 
pounded of auto- (seeolo1x) and kratos 
(- strength, power, rule). See '-crat' in 

nnni?1olK, nvrjfl&sx f.n. fw autocracy. 
| Fren. autocratie, from Gk. auto- 
krateia, from autokrates (see 

n»"HlwlK, n&ntoax f.n. fw authority. 
[Fren. autorite, from L. auctoritds 
( - invention, advice, opinion, influence, 
command), from auctor (= master, 
leader), an agential noun formed from 
auctus, p. part, of augere ( = to 
increase). See 'auction' in my CEDEL 
and cp. 'octroi' ibid.] 

■n^WX adj. fw utilitarian. [Back for- 
mation from Eng. utilitarian, which 
was coined by Jeremy Bentham 
(1748-1832) from utility, from Fren. 
utilite, from L. utilitds, from utilis 
( = useful), from the stem of un"( = to 
use). See 'use' in myCEDEL.] 

orno^WlK m.n. fw utilitarianism. (See 
, ?V , '? ,t ? 1K andDPq].] 

rrj?"i»1x f.n. fw autarky, self-sufficiency. 
[Gk. autarkeia, from autarkein ( = to 
be self-sufficient), which is com- 
pounded of auto- (seeDloIx) and arkein 
( = to suffice), which is related to arkos 
{- defense), arkios ( = safe, sure), and 
cogn. with L.arcere( = to enclose, keep 
away, ward off). These words stand in 
gradational relationship to Orcus, 
name of the god of the infernal regions 
in Roman mythology, cp. ojppj?.] 

'1x interj. woe!, alas! [Of imitative 
origin, cp. Aram, "n, Syr. ■*], Arab, way, 
Ethiop. way, Akka. ua ( = woe!). cp. 
also ^2$, rrlx, 'x, 'In, and see 'woe' in 

3^1x m.n. enemy, foe, hater. [Properly 

act. part of a:x . See t*x .] 
.TiX interj. woe!, alas! (a hapax lego- 

menon in the Bible, occurring Ps. 

120:5). [Formed from 1x with para- 

gogic na (cp.nip^, derivative ofo^)-] 
Vnx i adj. foolish, silly, stupid. 2 m.n. a 

fool. [From Vix".] Derivatives: mVnx,, 

mVnxf.n.MH foolishness, silliness, stu- 
pidity. [Formed from Vnx, with suff. 

'V^X adj. foolish, silly, stupid. [Formed 
fromVnx, with adj. suff. 'P.] 

")*]*. m.n. PBH air. [ From Gk. aer (= air), 
of uncertain origin.] See 'air' (at- 
mosphere) in my cedel and cp. words 
there referred to. cp. n'Tnx,, m»Tn$, -nix, 
i?x, "'XT'ix,. rvnx,, fl"H$' ^H8 ■] 

ruxyix f.n.NH airmanship; aviation. 
[Formed from'XTifl with .] 

"•xn'ix m.n.NH airman. [Formed from 

-nx, with suff. ^xo.] 
n»X}*iX ( f.n. nh airwoman, [f. of'XTnx, .] 
rn^x, f.n. nh atmosphere. I Formed from 

-r)X, with first suff. ng.] 
njrpalVlxf.n.FW aerobatics. [A hybrid 
coined on the analogy of Eng. 
aerobatics from -mx, ( = air), and the 
stem of Gk. bainein ( = to go). Eng. 
aerobatics itself was coined on the 
analogy of acrobatics (q.v. in my 

njriDFTlTix f.n. fw aerodyn amies. 

[Compounded from t*ix, ( = air), and 
nj7 , p}'H ( = dynamics).] 

DlYTiT»lXm.n.FW airdrome. [A hybrid 
coined on the analogy of Eng. 
aerodrome from Heb. "mx, ( = air), and 
Gk. dromos ( = course). See 'drome- 
dary' in my CEDEL.] 

]lTlXm.n.NH aeroplane, airplane (now 
mostly superseded by 0109). [Coined 
by Eliezer ben Yehudah (1858-1922) 
from Tnx, ( = air) and suff. |1d .] 

nwlVlKf.n. nh aviation. [Formed from 
jVvix, with suff. ma.] 

'TlXadj.MH airy, aerial. [Formed from 
■vn$(= air) with adj. suff. --a.] 

nn^Kf.n. nh air force. [Formed from 
-hx, ( = air) with suff.n^a.] 

JWVIX f.n. NH airiness. [Formed from 
"•-^■nec C= aerial) with suff. ma .] 

Vote m.n. food (?), nourishment (?) (a 
hapax legomenon in the Bible, occur- 
ring Hos. 1 1 :4). [Prob. frombox . ] 


O'D^p^xsee trp^aij. 

*]$*Xsee i??<. 

^1X' to be in front. [From this base prob. 
derive the words ^o, bXa. This base is 
prob. identical with Vik, 'to be strong', 
with the derivatives ^x, ^x", ^jx, n^x, 
n^x'. rftx, jlVx, possibly also "rx and 
m^x, and Arab, awwal, Aram. ^Hj, 
nftx (= beginning), cp."?ix" .] 

ViX" to be foolish. [Whence """nx, rfrjx, 
Vnft. cp. base ^x\ Since the ideas of 
'strong, fat and foolish' are related, 
some scholars identify this base with 
Vix'( = to be strong).] 

V*X m.n. health, sound (a hapax lego- 
menon in the Bible, occurring Ps. 73:4 
in the phrase D^x xnai, generally 
rendered by 'and their body is sound'. 
[Prob. from Vix 1 .] 

moJaVHXm.n.FW ultimatum. [Late L. 
ultimatum, neuter of ultimdtus, p. part 
of ultimdre {- to come to, or be at, an 
end), from L. ultimus ( = lastX super- 
lative of uls (= beyond), whence ulter 
( = that which is on the other side), 
ulterior (- farther, beyond). See 
'ulterior' and 'most' in my CEDEL. cp. 

rnp/^xadj.FW ultra, extreme. [L. ultra 
( = on the other side, beyond), related to 



niter ( = that which is on the other side). 
nniB^K F\v combining form meaning 
•extremely', as in 'j-iTlD-rn^x ( = ultra- 
modern). | Fromrntp^x .| 

'^x adv. perhaps, maybe. [Perhaps 
compounded of 1x and x*> and lit. 
meaning 'or not', cp. Akka. uld. Barth 
connects ,l ^x with Aram. 'Xj 1 ? (= would 
that). I 

^Tj^lKadj.FW oligarchical. [Back for- 
mation from n^nr^x. For the ending 
see adj. suff.'C.] 

rrs^lKf.n. fw oligarchy. [Gk. oli- 
garchia (= government by a few 
persons, oligarchy), from oligarches 
{ = oligarch), which is compounded of 
oligos ( = small, little; in the pi. 'few'), 
and archos (= leader, chief, ruler). See 
'oligo-' and '-arch' in my CEDEL. ] 

nTX^SO'VlK f.n. Olympiad. [Gk. Olym- 
pias, from olympia (a district in Elis in 
ancient Greece, where the Olympian 
games were held), from f. of olympios 
( = pertaining to Olympus or OlympiaX 
from olympos (= Olympus), which is of 
unknown etymology .] 

D^K 1 conj. but, however. [Prob. related 
to Akka. ellamu (=in front of, op- 
posite). cp.o^x"(n.).] 

dVik" m.n.(pl. 0'2?Vix) l porch, vestibule. 
2NH hall, parlor. [Prob. a loan word 
from Akka. ellamu ( = in front of), cp. 
Q^x. cp. alsoQ^K'(conj.).] 

rv»3$^K seen^x. 

Ol|?^Nm.n.FW ulcer. (From L. ulcus 

( = a sore, ulcer).] 
iVlKm.n.PBH penknife. [Of unknown 


n^jKf.n.NH folly, foolishness. [Formed 
from Vix" with subst. suff. n3. ] 

DlKm.n.FW ohm (electricity). [Named 
after the German physicist Georg 
Limon 0/im( 1787- 1854).] 

D"iKm.n.NH UN (United Nations). 
[Abbr. of nVrgxo max for nlax pnx 
n1-rnxo (=UNO — United Nations 





jalKm.n. pbh row of corn in the field. 
[Of uncertain origin; possibly related to 
Arab, 'immdn (of s.m.), or a loan word 
from Gk. ogmos (=row, line), which 
stands in gradational relationship to 
agein (= to lead), for whose etymology 
see 'agent' (adj.) in my Cedel .] 

fttfK m.n. l trainer, educator. 2 peda- 

gogue, tutor. iSubst. use of the part, of 
19$ ( = he brought up). Sec px . | 



rujplK f.n. foster-mother, nurse, gover- 
ness, [f. ofjalx.l 

]1K' m.n. I strength, power. 2 manly vig- 
or. 3 wealth, riches. [Of uncertain 

fix", njlK, '31k m.n. resp. f.n. pbh (pi. 
nUlx, resp. ni»?lx) deed of purchase. 
[Gk. one ( = buying, purchasing; deed 
of purchase), which is cogn. with Old 
I. vasndh ( = purchase money), vasndm 
( = reward). L. venum or venus ( - sale), 
vendlis ( = that which can be bought). 
Sec 'venal' in my CEDEL. cp. the 
second element in rr^x .] 

|ixm.n. (pi. D'^x) l trouble, sorrow, 
wickedness, iniquity. 2 idolatry. lOf 
uncertain origin. There are only three 
more 'segholate' nouns of this form and 
they all have ai as their second radical: 
ty (= iniquity), mo ( = death), ^n 
( = middle). The regular form should 
have been jjx, etc.] 

J1K m.n. pbh skein. [Of uncertain 

HKrtNf.n. pbh I deception, deceit, fraud. 
2 overreaching, imposition. I A second- 
ary form of nxjln.] 

lV»V«]Km.n.FW Evangel Gospel. (Gk. 
euaggelion (= reward of good tidings; 
gospel), from euaggelos ( = bringing 
good news), from eu ( = well), and 
aggelos (= messenger). See 'eu-' and 
'angel* in my CEDEL andcp.nnjax.] 


naiK, nsK f.n. pbh lobe. [Aram, xjix, xjx. 
Assimilated from xjtix ( = ear; see]T"x); 
so called in allusion to its shape, cp. 

rrstaaWN f.n. Fw onomatopoeia. (Late 
L. onomatopoeia, from Gk. onomato- 
poiia ( = the formation of a word in 
imitation of a sound; lit.: 'name- 
making'), from onoma, gen. onomatos 
( = name), and a derivative of poiein 
( = to make). See'tyo^ and di«? .] 

nulNf.n. nh strength; potency. [Formed 
from rlx (= strength), with suff.nia . ] 

"»31K seerlx". 

mong^Km.n. fw universe. [L. uni- 
versum ( = the whole world, the 
universe), properly neuter sing, of the 
adj. universus ( = whole, general, 
universal; lit.: 'turned into one'), from 
linus (=one), and versus, p. part, of 
i'ertere( = toturn).| 

mj , »l? , ia , '3 ! iKf.n.FW university. [Med. L. 

universitds {= university), from Late L. 
universitds (- a number of personsX 
from L. universitds ( = the whole, the 
whole world, associated into one 
body), from universus { = whole, 
general, universal). See oio'iyp x.j 

^ngnw adj. FW universal. [L. univer- 
salis {- belonging to all, universal), 
from universus. Seetwna^px . ) 

|10 , 3lXm.n.FW unison (music). [Fren. 
unisson, from Late L. unisonus 
( = having one and the same sound), 
compounded of L. units ( = one), and 
sonus (= sound). See 'uni-' and 'sound' 
(noise) in my CEDEL.] 

■•anlD'HXadj.FW uniform. [L. uniformis 
( = having one form), from unus ( = one), 
and forma (= form, shape). See 'one' 
and '-form' (n.) in my CEDEL. For the 
ending see adj. suff."^.] 

WanlD^Kf.n.FW uniformity. [Formed 
from , 9"ilD' , ?ix with suff.rnc .] 

rniK, rvSK. f.n.NH lobule. [Formed from 
njix with dimin. suff. rva. ] 

7V»HN, WJKadj.NH lobular. [Formed 
from n^ix, resp. n'ax, with adj. suff. ""D.] 

]3lKm.n. NH onanist; masturbator. 
[Named after |}1x (Onan), son of Judah 
(see Gen. 38:39).] Derivatives: nujlx, 


]SlK m.n. pbh mourner (before the 
burial). iProperly subst use of the act 
part offlx. Seepx (= to mourn).] 

ni33lN f.n.MH mourning (before the bur- 
ial). I Formed from plx with suff. ni □ .] 

rU33lN f.n.NH onanism; masturbation. 
[ Formed from ftlx with suff. ma .] 

••JJlKadj.NH onanistic. I Formed from 
|)1x with adj. suff. ""a.] 

K^HIK, n^K f.n. ounce. IGk. ounkia, 
from L. uncia (= the sixteenth part of a 
pound, an ounce), from oinicia, oincia 
(lit.: 'unity'), and related to L. unus 
( = one). See 'uncia' in my CEDEL. cp. 

Vj?3lK, ^nc m.n. pbh hook. [A loan 
word from Gk. ankyle ( = bend of the 
arm, hook), which is related to ankylos 
( = crooked, curved), ankol ( = elbow), 
and cogn. with L. ancus ( = crooked, 
curved), angulus (= angle, corner). See 
'angle' (corner), and 'angle' (fishhook) 
in my CEDEL.] 

•"VjMiKadj.NH (also *rtp}$) unciform, 
uncinate. I Formed from ^x (resp. 
'rtp}!?) with adj. suff.X) .] 

j1»ao1xm.n.FW osmium (chemistry). 
I Modern L. osmium, coined by its 
discoverer, the English chemist 
Smithson Tennant in 1803 from Gk. 
osme (= smell, odor), which is cogn 



with L. odor (- smell, odor); so called 
because of the strong odor of its oxide. 
Sec 'odor' in my cedel and cp. 
'osmium' and words there referred to 
ibid. I 
niSTDlXf.n. NH non-permissiveness, 

strictness. I Formed from "ip1x. prcs. 
part, of "ipx (see nox), with suff. ]v and 
suff.m.:. | 

npix m.n. baker. ISubst. use of the act. 
part, of n^x ( = he baked). Seerrax . | 

rPXMlsIx f.n. fw opposition. [L. oppo- 
sitid (=a placing against), from 
oppositus, p. part, of opponere ( = to 
place against), fromo^seeqralxjand 
ponere (=to put, place). Sec 'position' 
in mv CEDEL. For the ending see suff. 

OlSte m.n. FW opus. I L. opus, gen. operis 
(= work, labor, exertion), whence opera 
( = service, pains, work, labor), operdrf 
( = to work, labor). Related to ops, gen. 
opis {= strength, power, might, abun- 
dance, wealth, riches, treasure), and 
cogn. with Old I. dpas- (- work), dpas- 
(= work, religious act). See 'opus* in my 
cedel and cp. DiD'psix, rn?ix, 

DlDteiX m.n. fw opossum. [Algon- 
quian apasum ( = a wild animal) . I 

DPJioiteix m.n. opportunism. [Fren. op- 
portunisme. SecDO^witeix andDrj.) 

DO'JVJnisix m.n. fw opportunist. [Fren. 
opportunisie. coined by Rochefort in 
1876 from L. opportunus (- suitable, 
convenient. seasonable. advanta- 
geous), and suff. -iste and applied by 
him to Gambetta. L. opportunus stands 
for ob-portunus and lit. means 'leading 
to the port or harbor', from ob- (see 
op^lx) and portus ( = harbor). See 'port' 
in my CEDEL. | 

'OD'Jltsnisix adj. fw opportunistic. 

[Formed fromoo^D-itelx with adj. suff. 

v .1 

irntptttostef.n.FW optometry. [Com- 
pounded of Gk. optos (see 'oslx) and 
-metria ( = measure of), from metron 
( measure). See' metry' in my CEDEL.] 

"•u^Xadj.NH optic, optical. [Formed 
with adj. suff. v: from Gk. optos 
( = seen; visible), verbal adj. ofopsomay 
i-\ shall sec), whence also ops, gen. 
opos ( = eye. face), opsis ( = sight). See 
'opuc' inmyCEDEL.I 

W»»09lK m.n. FW optimum, the best. [ L. 
optimum, neuter of optimus ( = best), 
which stands for opitumos, seen in ops 
(-wealth); accordingly optimus orig. 
meant 'the richest', but was used later 
in the senses 'the most esteemed, the 

most distinguished, the best'. Sceoralx 

■•D'UDlX adj. fw optimistic. I Back forma- 
tion from Drp'pgix. For the ending see 
adj. suff. -V. I 

nv»n?9lKf.n.FW optimism. [Hebraiza- 
tion of Divpglx. For the ending see 
suff. m::. I 

DPD'USiXm.n.FW optimism. [Fren. op- 
timisme, from L. optimus ( = best); see 
□wdsIx. The word optimisme was 
coined by the Jesuits. It first occurs in 
the 'Memoires de Trevoux' conducted 
by them (in the number for February 

'Xp'BSta m.n. FW optician. [ Back forma- 
tion from njrpslx .| 

n^o^Kf.n.FW optics. [Ultimately from 
Gk. la optika ( = optics), neuter pi. of 
optikos (= pertaining to the eyes or 
sight), from optos ( = seen. visible). See 



DVSiX, J^SiX m.n. FW opium. [L. opium, 
resp. directly from Gk. opion ( = poppy 
juice), from Gk. opos ( = vegetable 
juice). I 

'Vx^ppiXadj.FW official. [From L. 
officium {- service), which stands for 
opi fact ion (lit.: 'work-doing'), from 
ops, gen. opis {- strength, power, 
might; seeoi9lx),and the stemof/acere 
( = to make, do), cp. L. opi-f ex 
( = workman, artist; lit.: 'one who does 
a work'), which has the same two 
elements. See 'fact" in my C ED el.) 

|D1x m.n. wheel. [Of uncertain origin, 
cp. d:391x, j|?1x, ?13?1x and the second 
element in jQton ,]5Vn. cp.js'x ,|DX .J 

JTfSDiX m.n.NH motorcycle. [Com- 
pounded of jslx ( = wheel), and yti 
( = movement, motion). Derivatives: 


■•SrtasiXadj.NH of, or pertaining to. a 

motorcycle. [Formed from 5I39IX with 

adj. suff. "a. | 
]yl3?iXm.n. nh motorcyclist. [Formed 

fromyl3?lx with agential suff.]^.] 
D?3DiX m.n. dual bicycle. [Coined by 

Eliezer ben Yehudah (1858-1922) in 

the (inexact) form d?1?x as the dual of 

jdAx(= wheel).! 
]39lXm.n.NH bicyclist, cyclist. [Back 

formation from D^jglx. For the ending 

see suff. !>,:.[ 
na'oasix f.n. fw offensive. [From Med. 

T • I V 

L. offensivus (~ pertaining to striking), 
from L. ojfensa (-a striking against), 
from ofjensus, p. part, of ojfendere 
( = to strike against), from ob- (see 
Djr^lx) and fendere ( = to thrust, strike), 
from IE base *g w hen- ( = to strike). See 

'defend' in myCEDEL.^g-j.] 

wpolXm.n.FW offset (printing). [Eng. 
offset, compounded of off (adv.), and 

rrsstef.n.FW option. [Fren. option, 
from L. optionem, accusative of opiio 
{- choice), from opio, opere, p. part. 
optus (=to choose), whence also 
opindri (=to think, suppose). See 
'opine' in my CEDEL. For the ending of 

rnsrtxf.n. fw opera. [It. opera ( = work, 
labor, composition), from L. opera 
{- service, pains, work, labor), from 
opus, gen. operis ( = work, labor, 
exertion). SeeoiDlx and cp. nt^glx .] 

nwnp^x f.n. fw operetta. [It. dimin. 
formed from opera (see rnslx) . ] 

■q'ttnsix adj. FW operative. [Late L. 
operdtivus, from operdtus, p. part, of 
operdrf ( = to work, labor). Seeoi9lx .] 

JV"i9lx f.n. nh operetta. [Hebraization of 
I L operetta. See rnjislx . ] 

rn^nslxf.n. fw operation. [L. operand 
(=a working, operation), from ope- 
rdtus, p. part, of operdrf ( = to work, 
labor). Seecnsix.) 

px to make haste, hasten. [Perhaps 
related to Arab, 'assa ( = he urged).) 
— Qal fx intr. v. & tr. v. 1 he made 
haste, hurried. 2 he urged. — Hiph.fxn 
1 he urged; 2NH he hastened, 
accelerated. — Hoph. pxin NH was 
hastened, was accelerated. Derivatives: 
yx, n^'x, n^xn, f kq, nyixn . 

nyixm.n.(pl. nl-i? 1 *) 1 supply. 2 store- 
house, granary. 3 treasure, treasury. 
[Of uncertain etymology, cp. Aram, 
nylx, x^ylx, which are prob. Heb. loan 
words. In senses 2 and 3 "iy1x is 
elliptically used for n^lxn n-a (lit.: 
'house of supplies, storehouse').] 

nyix m.n. NH curator. [Subst. use of 
-15OX. part, ofiyx; see ixx.] 

n^XD^irlK f.n. fw occupation. [L oecu- 
pdtid ( = a seizing, taking possession 
of), from occupdtus, p. part, of oc- 
cupdre (=to seize, take possession of, 
possess), from ob- (see ojralx) and 
capere ( - to seize, take). See 'captive' in 

-nxo,7iXm.n. fw octahedron (geome- 
try). [Gk. oktaedron, neuter of the ad- 
jective oktaedros ( = eight-sided), com- 
pounded of okta- ( = eight) and edra 
( - seat; base, side, face). See 'octa-' and 
'hedron' in my CEDEL.] 

n3^;7lXf.n.FW octave. [From L. octdva 
(=an eighth part), f of octdws 
( = eighth), from odd ( = eight). See 
'octave' in myCEDEL. cp. -latjplx.l 

nSl0J7lX m.n. fw October. [ L. October 



(mcnsis) (lit.: 'the eighth month"), from 
octo (= eight). The Roman year began 
with March, cp. 139999, 139311. 139^5. ] 
J9J?iX m.n. fw octane (a hydrocarbon of 
the methane scries CnHm). [Coined 
from Gk. oct-, combining form mean- 
ing 'eight', and -ane, suff. used to form 
names of saturated hydrocarbons .1 
TjTiK, X^jTlXf.n. PBH ounce. [A var. of 

s;pnx. n;j?3^K.| 
Dlrjrtx m.n. PBH ocean. IGk. okeanos 
( = the great river encompassing the 
whole earth), hence 'the great Outward 
Sea' (opposed to the Inward or 
Mediterranean), the Ocean, which is of 
uncertain etymology . ) 
nrnj?ixf.n. FW ocarina (music). [It. 
ocarina, dimin. of oca ( = goose), from 
L. auca ( = goose; properly 'bird'), back 
formation from avicula ( = a little bird), 
from avis ( = bird). See 'aviary' in my 
CEDEL. The instrument was called 
ocarina (lit.: 'a goose pipe') in allusion 
to its shape. I 
TlX' to give light, shine. [Related to 
Aram, hk ( = to give light, shine), Ugar. 
V (of s.m.). Akka. urru, uru (flight, 
day). Arab, 'dwwara ( = enkindled), 
'u war ( = heat, glow).] — QalTiK intr.v. 
was lit, shone. — Niph. UK) was 
brightened, was enlightened. — Hiph. 
tkh it gave light (said of the sun or the 
moon), shed light, brightened, shone. 

— Hoph. iwn NH was lit, was lighted. 
Derivatives: TtK'(n.). UK, ttIk 1 , onw, 
n-nlK. niKn, 11x9, nilKD, rnwo, ikid, 
HKj.rniKn. cp.i;x. 

tix " to air, ventilate. [ Denominated from 
tik (= air), cp. ijko. cp. also 171 K.] 

— Pi. iik tr. v. NH he aired, ventilated. 

— Pu. nx nh was aired, was ventilated. 

— Hith. iiKTin NH was aired, was 
ventilated. Derivative :iJK. 

TlX' m.n. (pi. D'llx, also nniK) I light, 
brightness. 2 daylight. [From tik 1 . cp. 
Ugar. V ( = light), cp. also UK" and the 
second element in H3J9, innqo, Htdi, 
HpiT, H>nj9 . | Derivatives : n;ilK, m'llK. 

TiX"m.n. pbh evening. [Lit.: 'light (see 
UK'); formed on the analogy of Aram. 
KniiK (= evening), which was formed 
euphemistically from UK ( = to give 
light). See hk 1 .] 

"NX m.n. fire. [From nK'.cp.onw .] 

"IJX m.n. nh breather, ventilator. 
[Formed fromijK, Pi. ofnx .] 

3Tix m.n. way layer, ambusher. [Subst. 
use of the act. part, of 31K 1 .] 

'Sj'llx adj. NH waylaying. [ Formed from 
3i1k word with suff. Tv . I 

J"rtK m.n. weaver. [Subst. use of the act 
part of nx." 

rrnlKf.n.FW orgy. [Gk.orgia ( = secret 
rites, orgies), related to organon 
( = instrument). Sec ftilx and'^ilx .1 

J$"l1x m.n.FW organ. [From L. organum, 
from Gk. organon ( = instrument; bod- 
ily organ; musical instrument), which is 
related to orgia (- secret rites, orgies), 
and in gradational relationship to ergon 
( = work).| 

'MTlXadj.FW organic. [Formed with 
adj. suff. 'a from Gk. organon( = instru- 
ment, implement, tool, engine; a 
musical instrument which derives from 
IE base *wer§- (= work, to work), 
whence also Gk. ergon ( = work). See 
'ergon' in my CEDEL and cp.aiK in this 
dictionary, cp. alsopiK .] 

."TOJ^TlK f.n. FW ordinate (mathematics). 

[ L. Ifnea ordindla ( = parallel line), f. p. 

part, of ordindre ( = to set in order. 

arrange; to order), from ordo, gen. or- 

dinis (=a straight row, regular series, 

order, class, rank) which is cogn. with 

Gk. ordein ( = to begin a web); prob. 

derived from IE base *ar- ( = to join). 

See 'article' in my CEDEL and cp. 

'order' ibid.] 
rnlx 1 f.n. light. [Formed from nix 1 with 

first suff. n^. cp. nyiK". cp. also Aram. 

KpiiK (= evening light, evening, night), 

and seeilK". cp. alsoT]lK3> .] 

rrYlx" f.n. name of a plant (a hapax le- 
gomenon in the Bible, occurring Kin. II 
4:39). [Prob. derived from tik 1 and lit. 
meaning '(herb) of light', hence 
derivatively identical with mix 1 . ] 

rnlxm.n. PBH picker (of fruits). [Subst. 
use of the part, of nix ( = he picked 
fruits). See nix. I 

rnix f.n. stable; crib (a hapax legomenon 
in the Bible, occurring Chron. II 
32:28). [A metathesizedvar.ofnvnj.) 



jrux seen?«. 

TnjXm.n.NH airing, ventilation. [Verbal 

nix m.n. NH packer. [Subst. use of the 
acL part, of tik. Seerm .] 


rniK, rn'X m.n. wanderer, wayfarer. 
2 visitor, guest. [Subst. use of the part 
of rrjK ( = he wandered). See rnK and cp. 

xnylx, xn-Tx m.n. pbh (pi. rT?lx) way, 
path. [Aram., emphatic state of rniK. 
nix, which is equivalent to Heb. rrj'x 
( = way; path). I 

nrnlx, nm'x f.n. traveling company, car- 
avan. I Properly f. of nilx ( = visitor, 
guest), used in a collective sense, cp. 
Akka. harrdnu ( = way), which in TA 

has also the meaning 'traveling com- 
pany, caravan*. For sense development 
cp. n^j ( = exiles), f. of n^U( = an exile).) 

"HDTlx m.n.FW orator. (L. orator ( = 
speaker, orator), from oratus, p. part 
of orare (=to speak, pray, beseech), 
which prob. derives from the IE 
imitative base *6r-, *>-, appearing also 
in Homeric Gk. are (=1 pray), cp. 

rrnlD-jIXf.n.FW oratorio. [It. oratorio, 
from ecclesiastic L. ordtorium (= place 
of prayer), subst. use of the neuter of 
the L. adjective ordtorius ( = pertaining 
to prayer), from oratus, p. part, of 
orare. SeeilDTiK.] 

Vy»an1x m.n. fw original. [From L 
origindlis ( = primitive, original), from 
origd, gen. originis ( = origin). For the 
ending of original see suff. 'al' in my 
CEDEL.] Derivative^tyrilK. 

'tyi/Hlx adj. fw original. [L. origindlis. 
See tymx and suff. \;.] Derivative: 

m'tyanlx f.n. fw originality. [Formed 

from , >j , ? , '! ,lK with suff. ma . ] 
nnlxf.n. NH phot (physics). [Formed 

from Hk with suff. n* j.] 

]f»Tix m.n.FW Orion. IGk. Orion, of 
uncertain origin.] 

mnixf.n.NH luminosity. [Formed from 
tik with suff. 'a and suff. ma . I 

oniKm.n. pi. 'Urim*. one of the two 
objects attached to the breastplate of 
the high priest (Dvprn oniK). [Of 
uncertain origin. It is prob. not con- 
nected with iik (= he cursed), nor with 
the Akka. Pi. inf. form uuru, stem ikk 
or vk ( = to send forth an edict), as 
several scholars would have it, but 
identical with pi. of hk ( = fire, flame) . I 

fnlx m.n. pbh learning. [Aram., a var. of 
k;i1k (= learning; the Law). SeeKnnlK .] 

03nix m.n.FW Orient. [Fren. orient, 

IV ! 

from L. orientem, accusative of oriens 
( = the rising sun. east), properly pres. 
part, of orior, oriri ( = to rise, become 
visible, appear), from IE base *er-, *or- 
( = to set in motion, stir up. raise).] 
^ranlKadi. fw oriental. [From L 
orientdlis (= pertaining to the east. 
Eastern. Oriental), from oriens (see 
qnlK). For the ending see adj. suff.'a.] 

DT^rnlN m.n. fw orientalism. [Formed 
from L. orientdlis (see '^?1k) with 

09 , V9?!7^ m.n. fw orientalist. [Formed 
from L. orientdlis (see '^nix) with 

rrsgynlXf.n.FW orientation. [Fren. ori- 
entation, from orienter (=to set 
forward to east), from orient ( = east). 



and subst. sufT. n;2fa (-ation). See 

O^nl K.I 


mvnxf.n.NH airiness. [A collateral 

nniKadj.NH airy. [Coined by H.N. 
Bialik (1873-1934) from vjfl ( - air) on 
the analogy of the adj. ,l ? , '??n (= dull 
red). I Derivatives: nrrnix. nvynix. 

mnniKf.n.NH airiness. I Formed from 
■nniK with cp.nn-niK .] 

jr'ilx f.n. NH radium (now superseded by 
Di'T)). [Coined by Eliezer ben Yehudah 
( 1 858- 1 922) from i1x ( = light) and suff. 
n'" on the analogy of Modern L. 
radium, which was formed from L. 
radius (=ray). in allusion to its power 
of emitting energy in the form of rays .] 

XTinlKf.n.FW instruction, teaching the 
Torah. [Aram., emphatic state of xnlx, 
formed from n1x (= he taught). Aph'el 
of ""V; properly a loan word from Heb. 

]'llVn1x, pjlVlilK m.n. PBH clock, horo- 
loge, timepiece. [Gk. orologion (lit.: 
'that which tells the hour"), from ora 
( = hour), and logos ( = telling, saying). 
Gk. ora is cogn. with Avestic jar 
( = year), L. hornus, for *h6yorinos ( = of 
this year). See 'year' in my CEDEL . Gk. 
logos derives from the stem of legein 
( = to pick up. choose: to speak, 
declare): seeoljV?. 1 

|U*,x-jn1X m.n.FW orangutan. [From 
Malay orang (=man). and (h)utan 
( = forest, wild), used only of the savage 
tribes inhabiting the Sunda islands. The 
word was misunderstood by the Euro- 
peans and applied by them to this 
anthropoid ape.) 

wnixm.n.FW 1 the god of heaven, 
husband of Gaia, the Earth goddess 
(Greek mythology). 2 name of a planet 
[L., from Gk. Ouranos, from ouranos 
( = heaven, sky), which prob. is cogn. 
with Old I. Vdrunah (= the god of the 
evening sky) in Hindu mythology, cp. 

ovriix m.n.FW uranium (chemistry). 
[Modern L. uranium, coined by its 
discoverer, the German chemist Martin 
Heinrich Klaproth in 1789, from the 
name of the planet Uranus, which was 
discovered by Herschd in 1781. See 

llVin^lx m.n.FW ornithologist. [Gk. 
orniihologos ( = one who speaks of 
birds), compounded of ornis, gen. or- 
nithos ( = bird), and -logos (seeotaV?).) 

rrilVlrv'rriKf.n.FW ornithology. [Mod- 
ern L. ornilhologia, from Gk. or- 
niihologos. SecJftln'jnlK and suff.rvn .| 

Vs"llK m.n.NH chiaroscuro. [Com- 
pounded of "ilx (-light), and "?¥ 
( - shade).! 

'VlpnlKadj.NH audio-visual. [Com- 
pounded of i1x ( = light), and b\y 
( = sound; voice), and suff.Tj.l 

V|jn1x m.n. oracle. [L. ordculum, for 
*6rd-tlom ( = divine announcement, 
oracle), formed with instr. suff. *ilom 
from ordre (- to speak, pray, beseech). 

■nix to air, ventilate. [Formed fromvitj 
(=air), through reduplication of then.) 

— Pi. -nix tr. v. nh he aired, ventilated. 

— Pu. mix nh was aired, was 
ventilated. — Hith. "nixnn nh was 
aired, was ventilated. Derivatives: 
-mix, -nix, "nixD. mixp. cp. -y\]K. 

■niXm.n. nh ventilator. [Formed from 
"itix. Pi. of mix. I 

"•Dialrnlx adj. fw orthographical. [Back 
formation from rrsiilFnlx. For the 
ending see suff. "•:. I 

n^ntfrnlK f.n. fw orthography. [Gk. 
orihographia ( = correct writing), com- 
pounded of orthos {- right, correct), 
and -graphia (seerrsnj) . | 

D|?i*nnilK, os1"rin-i1x m.n. fw orthodox. 
IGk. orthodoxos {- having the right 
opinion), from orthos ( = right) and 
doxa (= opinion), which stands for dok- 
sa and is related to dokein ( = to seem 
good, to seem, think, believe). See 'de- 
cent' in my CEDEL andcp.ojyft.l 

"•PiTiTirnlK adj. fw orthodox. [From 
opmrnlK and suff. "3.\ 

rpp*?1tirnix f.n. fw orthodoxy. [Gk. 
orthodoxia ( = right opinion), from 
orthodoxos (see opmrnlx) . | 

tsinnix m.n. fw orthopedist. [Back for- 
mation from nnslrnlx .] 

'"ralrnix adj. fw orthopedic. [Back for- 
mation from rri9lrnlx .) 

! T'^ n "^ K f- n - Fw orthopedics. [Formed 
from Gk. orthos ( = straight, right) and 
pais, gen. paidos ( = child), which 
derives from IE base p^u- { = small, little, 
few). See 'few' in my CEDEL and cp. 

Sftx to make a noise. [From Aram.\zft{t 
( = he made a noise, shouted), which is 
of uncertain origin.] — Pi. uftx mh it 
rustled. — Hith. tfixnri nh it rustled. 

ttftNm.n.NH rustle. [Back formation 

v r: 

nttfmf.n.MH rustle. [From Aram, tfw 

( = it rustled). See tfix and first suff. n^. | 

Derivative: tfix. 
tfltfix m.n. nh rustle. [Verbal n. oftf#)K- 

*jpE7i2j->sqftR 1 pbh a magic formula 

(according to Rashi, two words mean- 

ing 'day and night"). 2NH prattle, 
nonsense, idle chatter. [Of unknown 
etymology . I 




U/tthK to rustle. [Formed from tfix, 
through reduplication of the third 
radical.! — Pi. tftf-jx intr. v. nh it 
rustled. Derivative: ufttfix. 

nlK'm.n. (pi. n1nlx)i sign, signal, symbol, 
token. 2 miracle. [Related to Aram.-Syr. 
xnx, Arab. 'dyaH= sign). These words 
are traceable to the common form 
awayat, and prob. derive ultimately 
from base mx ( = to sign, ma k), whence 
possibly also nx 1 . cp. nnlx iX, nnx.l 

nlK"f.n.PBH (pi. n1»n1x) letie, '(of the 
alphabet). [From nix ( = sign), cp.rvx.] 

niX'to consent, agree: base of rrtxj. [Of 
unknown etymology . I — Niph. n1X3 he 
consented, agreed. Derivatives: mnlxn, 

nix 11 to signal. [Denominated from nix 

(=sign). cp. nnx.] — Po'lel nnlx tr. v. 

nh he signaled. — Po'lal nnlx nh was 

signaled. Derivative: nnlxn. 
'nix, in1x r etc. — see nx (particle 

denoting the accusative). 

TX, ■»!$ adv. then, at that time. [Prob. 
orig. a noun meaning 'time'. Related to 
Arab, 'idhd, 'idh ( = then), BAram. and 
Aram. n.K- Aram, frrn, Syr. fnpn 
(=then). According to most scholars 
the orig. form was 'is in Heb. and 'idhd 
in Arab, (whence the shortened forms 
rx.resp. 'idh).\ 

B03TX m.n.FW asbestos. [Gk. asbestos 
(lit.: 'unquenchable, inextinguishable'), 
from pref. a-, and sbestos, verbal adj. of 
sbennunai ( = to quench, extinguish), 
which derives from IE base *g»es- 
( = to quench, extinguish).! Derivative: 

pODSTXm.n.NH asbestos hut. [Formed 
from opaix ( = asbestos) and dimin. suff. 

nmiTXf.n. NH the China tree; the 

V I*. 1 T I * 

margosa tree. [A loan word from Pers. 
dzdd dirakht (=free tree; i.e. 'noble 
tree'), cp. 'azedarach' in my cedel .] 

'nmiTX adj. MH meliaceous. [Formed 

from n^nrx with suff. \2 . ! 
rnnrxf.n. pbh warning, exhortation. 

[Formed from ini" ( = to warn), with 


aim m.n. (pi. 0*31115, also cans,) mar- 
joram; others identify it with hyssop. 
(altx stands for attg; seeonx and words 
there referred to. It is related to Aram. 



xairx, Syr. x?u (of s.m.). prob. also to 
Akka. ziipii ( = 'a garden plant*). Arab. 
ziifd. Ethiop. 'azob ( = hyssop), and Gk. 
hyssopos ( = an aromatic plant) are 
Heb. loan words. Sec 'hyssop' in my 
CKDEL.I Derivatives: "31tx, rvalTX. cp. 

'alTKadj. nh hyssoplike. [Formed from 
21^s\vithsuf^.■• :.| 

ji»3"iTK m.n. pbh lavender. [Perhaps di- 
min. formed from 21TX . I 

jvaitx f.n. NH Origanum dayi (name of a 
plant). I Formed from 31tx with suff. 

"TJlTN adj. fw esoteric. [Gk. esoierikos 
(lit.: 'pertaining to those within"), from 
esotero( = more within), comparative of 
eso (- within), which is related to es, eis 
( - into), and to en ( - in). For the ending 
see suff. \ .| 

jWKm-n.MH balancing, leveling, weigh- 
ing carefully. [Verbal n. of TJX. Pi. of 

"K : '.| 

nits adj. girded. [Pass. part, of itx. See 

"iiism.n.(pl. antta) 1 girdle. 2mh zone, 
region. |i1tk stands for iltg; see oiax 
and cp. words there referred to. It is 
prob. related to Arab, "tzar ( = loincloth, 
wrapper, covering), Ugar. iwzrt 
( = loins). cp. iix.] Derivatives: rrjlTK,, 
'-rt:x. -i-itx. 

n^itsf.n.PBH belt, girdle. [Formed from 
■rtTN with suiT. «-,:.! 

"lits adj.NH zonal, regional. iFormed 
from -n:x with sufi*.' ;.| 


ms'TN f.n. Fw azimuth (astronomy). 
[Fren. azimuth, from Arab, as-sumiii, 
pi. of as-sami (-the way), from as, 
assimilated form of a!- ( =the) and samt 
( way). Seer."::. I 

rn'TKf.n.NH girding. I Verbal n. ofiTx. 
Sec-.:x anj first suff. 7i r .\ 

■nSTNm.n. NH reference. [Verbal n. of 

13TK. Pi. of-.3iX -I 

"OTX to commemorate, to refer to. 
I Denominated from ~3?tk.| — Pi. nsix 
nh he referred to. — Pu. nam NH was 
rei erred to. Derivative :"ii3ix. 

rnsisf.n. 1 that part of the meal offering 
and of the shewbread. which was 
burned. 2PBH the Divine name. 
Tctragrammaton. 3 PBH memorial, 
commemoration. 4NH memorial 
prayer. I From 13T (-to remember); 
properly verbal n. of vain, Hiph. of 
hdt. cp. rnsirj, which is a collateral form 

Vtk to go. go away. [BAram and Aram. 
7!K. Syr. Vix ( = he went, went away, was 
gone). Arab. 'azal( = eternity), 'azaliyy 

( = long since past, eternal), cp. zdla 
(he went away.l — Qal "?nj intr. v. 
I he went away, was gone: 2 it was 
exhausted. Derivatives:^. xftx.Dnftx. 
Vtk m.n. nh (in t-Vtk) weakness, 
helplessness. |Back formation from 

K^tNm.n.MH 'ozla', name of a con- 
junctive accent placed over the word; 
its form is a. [Aram. ( = lit.: 'going'), 
from Vix ( = he went). See?TX . ] 

anV]Kf.n. NH weakness, helplessness. 
[Formed from t rtyx (Deut. 31:36). 
where, however, n^ix (with a long 
Qamatz) is the third person f. of Vis (see 
Vtk). In contradistinction, the Qamatz 
in the noun "P-n^yx is short. For the 
second word in "T"n^x see t. cp. t^tx 

S.V. >TX.| 

VaTNm.n.PBH (pi. d^dtx) cutting tool, 
knife. [Formed from prosthetic ux 
from Gk. smile ( = cutting tool, chisel, 
knife — whence also Syr. k^ot, jrVgi 
— which derives from IE base *smei-, 
*smi- (=to carve, cut). (See 'smith' in 
my CEDEL). Arab. 'izmfl{- shoe-knife) 
is a Syr. loan word. I 

IJHDW m.n. PBH emerald. IFormed with 
prosthetic x from Gk. smaragdos 
which itself is of Sem. origin. See njna.l 

]TK f.n. (dual d^jtx) tear. 2 PBH handle. 
[Related to Aram. xjiix. Syr. xjix, 
Ugar. udn, Arab, udhn, Ethiop. ezn, 
Akka. uznu (=ear).] Derivatives: TJX', 
^tx, n^yx, mTx, ujxp. cp. njx. cp. also 

H K,D - 
TJK 1 to give ear, listen. [Denominated 
from tj'x. I —Qal Tjx mh he listened, 
hearkened. — Hiph. ptxn mh he gave 
ear. listened, hearkened. — Hoph. Tjxn 
NH was listened to. Derivatives: njrxn, 

]TN " to balance. [Denominated from 
D , )TXb(= balances, scales).] — Pi.TJxtr. 
v. he balanced, leveled, weighed 
carefully, tested, proved (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring Ec- 
cles. 1 2:9). — Pu. rx mh was balanced, 
was leveled. — Hith. ijxnn MH was bal- 
anced. Derivatives: tjtx, nwxnn, rt$9. 

|TK m.n. PBH bell, weapon, implement (a 
hapax legomenon in the Bible, occur- 
ring Deut. 23:14 in the form ^.x). [Of 
uncertain origin. I 

■•JTK adj. nh auricular. [Formed from TJX 
( = ear), with suff. xi.\ 

nnrxf.n. nh auricle, receiver, earphone. 
[ Formed from tjx with suff. rr;a. ] 

rvSTNf.n. nh 1 auricle (anatomy). 2re- 
ceiver, earpiece, ear cap. [Formed from 
Tjx with suff. rml 

nj^TNf.n. NH alarm [A secondary form 
of nj^Trj. For the difference in meaning 
between these two words see njrjax . | 

D'ifTK m.n. pi. chains, fetters (in the Bible 
occurring only Jcr. 40:1 and 14). |A 
collateral form of D'j?!. SeepT' .) 

"ITX to gird. I Prob. denominated from 
-i1tx (= girdle), cp. Akka. mesiru 
( = girdle), whence Syr. "'J'lT'Tp 
( = girdles). I —Qal nix tr. v. re girded, 
put on. — Niph. "iixj was girded. — Pi. 
ttk mh he girded, encompassed. — Pu. 
-ijx MHwas girded. — Hith. Trxnri he 
girded himself. Derivatives: ■wx.nnTxn, 

rnnTK m.n. nh naturalizing. [Verbal n. of 
rrjjx. See rnTX.] 

sSyx f.n. (pi. niyl-iTx) arm. [A collateral 
form of ylij. cp. BAram. yyrx ( = arm). 
For the pref. see prosthetic ex . 1 

1V1TK m.n. NH zonation. [Verbal n. of 


rnTS m.n. homeborn. native, citizen. 
[Prob. formed from rnT" with prosthetic 
jr.\ Derivatives: rntx, mrnjx, ttitx, 

mrx to naturalize. [Denominated from 
rntx.| — Pi. rnTX tr. v. nh he 
naturalized. — Pu. rniK NH was 
naturalized. — Hith. rnjxrn nh 1 he 
became naturalized; 2 he became 
familiar. Derivatives: miTX, mrnmnri, 

mrntK f.n. NH citizenship. [Formed from] 
'rnm adj. nh civil, civic. [Formed from 

rnTX with suff. "'ul 
jmTN m.n. NH civilian. [Formed from 

rnTXwithsuiT.T,3.1 Derivative: ^rnyx. 
'sn^TK adj. nh civilian. [Formed from 

jrnTx with suff. r^.] 
TiTK to zone. [Denominated from "iitx 

through reduplication of the "i.| — Pi. 

TiTX NHhe zoned. — Pu. n^TX NHwas 

zoned. Derivative: nntx. 

HK 1 m.n. 1 brother. 2 kinsman. 3 friend. 
4MH friar. [Related to Phoen. nx, 
BAram. nx, xnx, xnx, Syr. xnx. Arab. 
'ah, 'ahu, Ethiop. 'ehu, Akka. ahu 
( = brother). I Derivatives: D-'xnx, njrjx, 
Tjnx.n^rtx. cp. xnx. cp. alsonnx. 

nK"m.n. fire port, brazier, fireplace. [A 
loan word from Egypt. 'ah.\ 

rw "' interj. woe! alas! [Of imita- 
tive origin, cp. Arab, 'ah, 'dhhu(-{\e\). 
cp. alsonnx and nx.) 

n'xm.n.(pl. D'n'x) eagle owl, Bubobubo 
Aharonii (ornithology). [Imitative of its 
cry. cp.nx 111 .! 

xnKm.n. pbh oh my brother! (used in 
the vocative). [Aram., emphatic state 
ofnx. Seertx 1 .] 


no 1 ?™ 

D'Kns m.n. pi. siblings. I From nx.l 
ins adj. i one, single. 2 first. 3 someone. 
I From inx. Related to BAram. in. f. 
rrjn, Aram, in, f. x}n, Ugar. 'hd 
( = together). Arab, 'ahad, f. 'ihda, Ak- 
ka. erf« r Ethiop. ahatti{ = one). cp.n7rjx. 
cp. alsoirjx?, "rtn^, tin 1 ? . ] 
ins to be one; to make one, unite; 
whence inx (q.v.). Related to trr (of 
s.m.).] —Pi. inx tr. v. mh he united, 
joined, combined. — Pu. ~to$ NH 
became united — Hiph. "Priori NH he 
unified. — Hoph. ingn NHwas unified. 
— Hith. inxnn was united, unified. 
Derivatives: inx, in, nrmx, nn[j, nirjx, 
■nnx, vnx, nin^n, nnnxnn, nnjjo, 
combining form Din", and the first 
element in l?1in. 

nnnNf.n. mh unity. [Formed from inx 
with suff. ma.] Derivative iTinnx. 

niinspl. some, few. [pl.of nnx( = one).] 
Vinnsadj. mh united, unified. [Formed 
from nnrix with suff. 'g.] Derivative: 


ni'nnriK f.n. NH unitedness. unity. 
[Formed fronrrmns with suff. ma .] 

DHPW some, a few. [ pi. of Tnx( = one) . ] 
rnns f.n. the number one. [Formed from 

inx ( = one), with suff. ng .] 
nnK to join; to stitch together. [Ac- 
cording to several scholars base of 
Heb. n$' ( = brother) etc. According to 
others, denominated from n$' .] — Pi. 
nnx pbh l he joined; 2 he stitched or 
pieced together, mended. — Pu.nnx nh 
i was joined; 2 was stitched or pieced 
together. — Hith. nrtxnn pbh lwas 
joined; 2 was stitched together; 3 grew 
together. Derivatives :^n$, 'inx, mnxnn, 

*riK.m.n. (pi. Dirtx,) l reeds, Nile grass. 

2 meadow. [An Egypt, loan word. 
Other Egypt, loan words are n^x, pn, 
□nln, xjg, tf#'", possibly also *x 
( = island), xg'j.Van^.] 

"Wis. adj. mh united. iFrormnx .] 

"tins m.n. MHunity, union. iVerbal n. of 
inx, Pi. of inx.] 

njnx f.n. l brotherhood. 2 brotherly love. 

3 NH fraternity, (a hapax legomenon in 
the Bible, occurring Zech. 11:14). 
Denominated from nx 1 . cp. Syr. xrunx,, 
Arab. 'uhuwwa h , Akka. ahutu 
(= brotherhood).] Derivatives: ninx, 

niriK f.n. declaration (a hapax lego- 
menon in the Bible, occurring Job 
13:17). [From mn ( = to show, state, 
pronounce). I 

rnnK to fraternize, to become a friend. 
[Denominated from njnx (_ broth- 
erhood; fraternity).] — Hith. rqrjxnn, 

Nith. nirjxn? he fraternized, became a 
friend. Derivative: nvinxnri. 

nnij'adj. l seized, held. 2 taken out of a 
number. 3holding. [Pass. part, of irj(<. 

nnK "m.n. nh rate, proportion. [Subst. 
useofnnx 1 .] 

MPllJ adj. PBH stitched or pieced together, 
mended. [Pass. part, of an (otherwise 
nonexisting)Qal. See nnx.l 

^r»N m.n. l pbh joining. 2 stitching or 
piecing together, mending. 3NH 
growing together, symphysis. [Verbal 

•"•^nNf-n- statement. [BAram., properly 
Aph'el inf. of mn ( = to show, state, 
pronounce). See mn.| 

VlPlX m.n. NH good wish, congratulation. 
[ Verbal n. of bm . See bnn . ] 

TiMN m.n. l the hinder part, backside, 
back. 2 west. [From inx, whence also 
Aram, x^rtnx,, Arab. uhur.\ Derivatives: 
rnlnt<, ninx,, D?"iln^, 'nm$, n^nx, 

□linK NH combining form meaning 
•retro-'. [From-rtnx.] 

"iinK m.n. pbh delay, lateness. [Verbal n. 
of inx. Pi. of nnx.l 

rninxf.n.NH the back part of a shoe. 
[Formed fromilnx with first suff. ng.] 

niPK adj.NH hind, hindmost, backward, 
posterior. [Formed from"rtnx with suff. 

Dninx m.n. dual MH l the hind part, 
buttock. 2 the back part (i.e. outside) of 
a vessel. [ Properly dual of ilnx . ] 

'ninK adj.NH hind, hindmost, back- 
ward, retrospective. [Formed from"rtn)j 
with suff. 'J^:. J 

rrnlnx, n'snhK adv. backward(s). 
[Formed from -rtnx. cp. n^ntt^ 
( = mournfully).] 

n1ns(pl. nVnx,) l sister. 2 female relation, 
kinswoman. 3 sweetheart, companion, 
mate. 4friend. 5NH nurse. [Related to 
Aram. xnnx,. Syr. xnn, Ugar. 'hi, Arab. 
'uht, Ethiop. 'eht, Akka. ahdtu 
( = sister).] 

TiinK adj.NH brotherly. fraternal. 
[Formed from mnx ( = brotherhood), 
with suff.v,..] 

tPK to seize. [Related to Aram, inx,, Syr. 
Trjft, Arab, 'ahadha, Ethiop. 'ahdza 
(^he seized), Ugar. 'hd. Akka. ahdzu 
( = to seize), cp. rtnp.] — Qal td« tr. v. 
I he grasped; caught, seized, clutched, 
held, fastened; 2 he bolted, shut. 

— Niph. tn$. was caught, was seized. 

— Pi. ;nx (a hapax legomenon in the 
Bible, occurring Job 26:9 in the phrase 
xp? ')? inx? and prob. meaning 'to 
close'). — Hith. tnxnn nh he settled (on 

the land). — Hiph.rrijhu pbh he caused 
to seize, caused to hold, fastened. 

— Hoph. ;nxn was fastened. Deriv- 
atives: nnx 1 , unx", inx, njnx,, nrrix,, 
nin*<ri, mtqxn. rmrjxnri, 7nx,9. inx?. 
ninx,;?, nnxn, rtprixn. 

tnxm.n. nh i handle. 2 grip, grasp. 
[Frominx .] 

njrjK f.n. possession, property, estate. 

[Formed from inx with first| 
i?Tnx to maintain. [Back formation from 

npjrix.] — Pi. pjnx tr. v. nh he 

maintained. — Pu. p\n% nh was 


nj?jnKf.n. NH maintenance (of vehicles, 
buildings, etc.). [A secondary form of 
npjnn.] Derivative:pinx. 

ntlVlK m.n. Orlaya (botany). [Lit.: 
'brother of the carrot', from ■•nx,. c. st. of 
nx ( = brother), and ija ( = carrot), cp. 
the first element in Drrvnx,, natfyifct, 

tpik adj. NH unified, uniform, homo- 
geneous. [From inx.] Derivative: 

niTPiK f.n. NH unification, uniformity. 
[Formed fromTnx, with suff. m^ .] 

nrriKf.n.PBH l holding, seizing. 2sup- 
port. [Verbal n. ofinx. Seemx and first] 

OWiV'nx m.n. NH Dorycnium (botany). 
[Lit.: 'brother of the lotus", from 'nx,. c. 
st. of nx ( = brother), and oWb ( = lotus), 
cp. lU'nx, and words there referred to. ] 

t^'ynxm.n.NH Biarum (botany). [Lit.: 
'brother of the Arum', from tj^, est. of 
nx ( = brother), and ^V ( = Arum), cp. 
lynx, and words there referred to .[ 

£PIK m.n. NH nephew. | Formed from nx 1 
with dimin. suff.fg.] Derivativein'^nx. 

n'rriKf.n. nh niece. [Formed from^nx 
with suff. n^g.] 

DnTPiSm.n.NH Spartium (botany). 

[Lit.: 'brother of the broom', from 

■•nx, c. st. of nx ( = brother), and Drn 

( - broom), cp. ^n■ , ^x and words there 

referred to . ] 
nattfriK m.n.NH Peucedanum (botany). 

I Lit.: 'brother of the dill', from 'nx, . c. st. 

of nx (= brother), and roo ( = dill). cp. 

nn'nji and words there referred to. I 
Vnx to wish. | Back formation from 

"•^nx.] — Pi. Vnx tr. v. mh he wished. 

— Pu. ^rnj nh was wished for. 
Derivatives: ^nx.bnxp^n^o. 

, ?n^' ^"iS interj. O that! would that... (in 
the Bible 'Vrjx occurs only Ps. 119:5, 
■•^nx occurs Kin. II 5:3). I Of uncertain 
origin. According to Olshauseru com- 
pounded of nx ( = woe!) and 'V. & 
(- would that), cp.bnx.] 

nijVns f.n. the name of a precious stone 



(Ex. 28:19 and 39:12). usually iden- 
tified with the amethyst (on the basis of 
the Scptuagint rendering amethystos). 
I Of uncertain etymology. Most schol- 
ars see in it a derivative of base D^n ( = to 
be strong). According to them the word 
n^nx lit. means 'the stone that has the 

power of making strong*. Others derive 

it from Egypt, hnmt, the name of a red 

precious stone. I 
D"nK abbr. nh V.I. P. (very important 

person). I Formed from the initials of 

the words i'xd w?v2n D'tfjx, (=very 

important people).] 
ponxm.n.NH storage. I Verbal n. of 

]t?nx. Seejonx.l 
priK to store. I Back formation from 

nj^nx.l — Pi. jpnx ir. v. NH he stored. 

— Pu. jgrnj NH was stored. Derivative: 

nj^nK f.n. nh storage. I A collateral form 

"i§riKm.n. NH fossil. I From "inn 1 (=to 

nnx to be or remain behind. [Aram, ins, 
Syr. irrtx, Arab, 'ahhara ( = he put off), 
'ta'dhhara (=he was behind, was late, 
tarried), Akka. uhhuru ( = he remained 
behind), Ugar. ahr{= later, afterward) .] 

— Qal inx. he was late, tarried (a hapax 

legomenon in the Bible, occurring Gen. 

32:5 in the form inx}). — PI inx. 1 he 

delayed, tarried; 2 he caused one to 

delay, kept back. — Pu. inx pbh he was 

late. — Hith. inxnri pbh he came late. 

— Hiph. Tnsn mh he delayed, 

postponed. — Hoph. ingn pbh was 

delayed, postponed. Derivatives: in^ip 

jlinx, nrjqx, n^njjn, nnnsnri, nngp, 

-rfnx, ivix, ins, ins, 'Kicjx,, prob. also 

"inK adj. 1 another, other. 2 next. 3 
strange. [From "inx. cp. BAram. i^nx, 
Aram. n n . x - D nK ' Syr. xjnnx, SArab. 
-inx, -irixx, Arab, 'ahar ( = another).! 
Derivative: nnnjt. 

">nK l adv. after, behind, afterward. 
2 prep, behind, after. iOrig. a noun 
meaning 'the hinder pan' and a 
derivative of "inx, whence also Moabite 
inx, Ugar. 'hr {- after), Aram, x^nx 
( = behind), cp. "nnx.l Derivatives: 
-" i nx, - nnx. 

:mnK combining form meaning 'post-', 
as in 'non^-inx ( = posi-war). [From 
-inx( = after).| 

'tnnx, nnx pbh tadj. responsible, 
liable. 2n. guarantor. I From inx ( = to 
be or remain behind). Accordingly 
"•xinx lit. denotes a person who stands 
behind someone or something, for 
whom or for which he has accepted 
responsibility.! Derivatives: ""X-jrjx, 

'xnns adj. nh responsible. [From vnqx. 
For the ending sec suff. 'a J 

jnqs adj. 1 last, latter, next. 2 the one 
behind. 3 future. [From inx. cp. TA 
ahru-un-u ( = behind him), Syr. xnnx, 
Arab, dhir (= last), Akka. ahru 
(-future). I 

nnnxf.n. nh otherness. I Formed from 
inx with suff.niLi.] 


""■n* prep. 1 behind. 2after. [This prep. 

was orig. a noun meaning the hinder 

part'. It is properly the c. st. of inx 

runnsf.n.PBH surety, warranty, 

responsibility, liability. [Formed from 

nrjx withsuff.n^.l 

nnqx f.n. 1 end. 2 posterity, future. 
3 remnant. [Formed from inx with suff. 


nnrjK adv. mh otherwise. [Properly f. of 
inx( = another), used adverbially. ) 

]9"nu7nsm.n. satrap. [ A loan word from 
Old Per. khsharthrapdvan ( = ruler of 
the province), compounded of khsha- 
thra (- province) and a derivative of 
pd(y) (-10 guard, protect). The first 
element is related to Old Pers. khshaya 
( = king), khshaya l hiya (-power); see 
'satrap' in my CEDEL and cp. the first 
element in lajntp. The second element is 
cogn. with pateisthai (=to feed); see 
'food' in my CEDEL. I 

ftntfnK adj. belonging to the king, royaL 
I A loan word from Old Pers. khsha- 
thradna, formed from khshathra 
(-dominion, government, province), 
with adj. suff. ana. I [f. of inx. | Derivative inn" 1 . 

UK adv. slowly. [See ddx (-to slow 
down). I Derivatives: 'tpx. oxdx. cp. 
nux. cp. also ax 1 ?. 

UK m.n. sorcerer, magician (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring Is. 
19:3 in the pi. D'DX, from which the 
sing, ux is a back formation. [ Borrowed 
from Akka. edimmu, etimmu (- ghost 
of a dead person), which itself is a 
Sumerian loan word . I 

okuk to slow down. [Pilp. of uox. For 
other Pilp. verbs formed from s"» 
verbs cp. tan and words there referred 
to. I — Pilp. dxdx tr. v. NH he slowed 

3t?Km.n.NH paper clip, clasp, fastener. 
[From Aram, x^x (=hook. clasp), 
which is of uncertain origin.] 

opa^Km.n. fw atavism. [Formed from 
L. aiavis (-father of a great-grand- 
father, ancestor), from pref. al- 
( = beyond), and avus (-grandfather); 
see'uncle' in my cedel . For the ending 

see suff. npg. cp. 'pi^^x, . | 
^auK.adj.FW atavistic. [Sec org^ 
and the suffixes oprj and \j .| 

TDK m.n. bramble, buckthorn. [Related 
to Aram. -Syr. XTTpx, Arab, 'atad, Akka. 
etidu and itlitti.\ 

HOK to slow down. [From ux (whose 
base, however, is ddx .| — Pi. n^x tr. v. 
nh he slowed down, delayed. — Hith. 
n^xnn nh was slowed down, was 
delayed. Derivative:m»xnn. 

1UK pbh 1 prep, on account of, because 
of. 2 interrogative particle introducing a 
question to which a negative answer is 
expected. [Aram., a collateral form of 
lozpx. abbreviation of ^u^x (of s.m), 
which is related to Syr. toog, VH99 (of 
s.m.). I 

ViUK m.n. F\v atoll. [Prob. from Malaya- 
lam adal(= uniting). I 

DlUKm.n.FW atom. [Ultimately from 
Gk. atomos ( = atom). properly 'uncut, 
indivisible', from privative pref. a- and 
lomos, from temnein ( = to cut), which 
derives from IE base *tem-, *tm (=to 
cut), cp. 'tome' in my cedel. cp. also 
the second element in n^tojx, .) Deriv- 
ative: , Z?'iOX ) . 

DWK adj. 1 shut, closed. 2 mh solid, dull, 
obtuse. 3NH impermeable, impervious. 
[Pass. part. ofopx.SeeDDX.l 

DWK m.n. nh caulking, impregnating. 
[Verbal n. ofopx. Pi- ofo&x. Seeoox .) 

'OiUKadj.FW atomic. [Formed from 
Dtox with suff. v. I Derivative: ni'zplDX,. 

m'OIBKf.n.FW atomicity; atomism. 
I Formed fronrptox, with suff. n\c.\ 

]1UK m.n. thread, yarn, cord. [Of un- 
certain etymology. It is possibly a loan 
word from Egypt, 'dmy (-linen of red 
color). Gk. olhone ( = fine white linen), 
is prob. borrowed from Heb.l 

UUK to slow down. [ From ox ( = slowly) . ) 
— Hiph. oxn nh he slowed down, 
decelerated. — Hoph. own nh was 
slowed down, became slow. Derivative: 

DPUUK m.n. fw etatism. [Fren. etatisme. 
from etat (= state), from L. status 
(which properly means 'mode of 
standing"), from p. part, of stare (^to 
stand). See "tjv 1 ? an d suff. dt 1 .-. I 

■•UK adj. NH slow; adagio (music). 
I Formed from ax with suff. V.| 

■N'BK m.n. fw etude, study. [Frcn. etude, 
from L. studium (-study), which is 
related to sluderc ( = to apply oneself to. 
to study). Studere prob. meant orig. "to 
strike at something', whence "to aim at 
something', and is related to tundere 
(-to beat, strike). See 'stint' and cp. 
'study' (n.) and 'etude' in my cedel. I 



Vrt'rt'&Sadj.FW etiological. I Back for- 
mation from rraftVoK. For the ending 
see stiff.':.?. | 

rraiVVON f.n. fw etiology. |Late L. aeti- 
ologia, from Gk. aitiologia (=an 
inquiring into causes), from ailiologein 
( = to inquire into causes), from aitia 
( = cause), and logia (seenjaftn .| 

n^WNf-n-NH slowness. [Formed from 
■■on with suff.rm:, .] 

DTON adj. NH impermeable, inpenetrable, 
waterproof. [Coined from don ( = to 
close, fill up), according to the pattern 
"ry^, which is used in NH to form 
adjectives denoting capability or fit- 

na'tJNf.n.NH closing, stoppage, filling 
up. caulking. [Verbal n. ofDD$. SeeDDK 
and first suff. n v.] 

liVia'DN m.n. fw etymologist. [ Back for- 
m ation from rraftlD-ipK . ] 

'li^D'ON adj. fw etymological. [Back 
formation from rvaftlDTpK. For the 
ending see suff.'^. I 

rp^ian?^ f.n. FW etymology., [Ultimate- 
ly from Gk. eiymologia, properly 'the 
study of the true sense of a word', com- 
pounded of etymon ( = thc true sense of 
a word according to its origin), proper- 
ly neuter of etymos ( = true), and -logia. 

niD'DK f.n. NH l impermeability, impene- 
trability. 2 dullness. [Formed fromff'pK] 

H'UKm.n. pbh a small hole in cheese, 
bread, etc. [Aram., prob. meaning lit. 
"droplike hole', and formed from ^p 
( = drop) with prosthetic nx. See T»' • I 

Bg'BK m.n. fw etiquette. [Fren. en- 
queue, from Old Fren. estiquier, esti- 
quer ( = to stick on, attach), from Dutch 
stikken{- to stitch).] 

n'h'tbn f.n. pbh jest (used esp. in the 
phrase k^oki x?in, "jest, derision, 
laughing-stock"). [Aram., from Vzp 
( = he played, sported, jested), which 
prob. meant lit. 'he enjoyed himself in 
the shade", and is ultimately identical 
with V?p (=he covered), lit 'he over- 
shadowed". Aram. V?u in this sense is 
related toVw. cp. ttyby . ] 
P^ON m.n. NH italianization. [Verbal n. 
of p"?OK J 

rpVox f.n. fw (pi. nlK^VuK,) atelier. [ Fren., 
from astelier, from astelle ( = shiver of 
wood), from Late L. asiella (of s.m.), 
from L. aslula, which is prob. a blend 
of ussula (- shiver of wood), and 
hastula (=a little spear). Assula is a 
dimin. of ass is (-board, plank); see 
"ashlar" in my cedel. Hastula is a 
dimin. of hasia ( = spear); sec 'hastate' 
ibid. | 
T'VpN m.n. pbh l butcher shop. 2 a group 

of booths put up for a fair or bazaar; 
fair, bazaar. [A secondary form of 
rVvN, itself an alteration of v^p? (of 
s.m.), which is borrowed from Gk. 
kaialysis ( = dissolution, putting down; 
unyoking of the draft animals of a 
caravan; place where such animals are 
unyoked; resting, lodging; guest 
chamber; caravanserai), from kata- 
lyein (=to dissolve), which is formed 
from kata (=down), and lyein (=to 
loose, loosen). See 'catalysis' in my 


oVbk 1 m.n. FW Atlas (one of the Titans in 
Gk. mythology). [L. Atlas (gen. 
Atlantis), from Gk. Atlas (gen. 

Atlantos), which stands for A -lias 
and lit. means 'the bearer (of 

oVoK" m.n. fw adas (a collection of maps 
bound into a book). [First so called by 
the geographer Mercator because the 
figure of A tlas supporting the world was 
frequently put on the page of such col- 
lections. The first part of Mercator's 
Atlas appeared in 1585.Seeo^S'-l 

oVon 1 " m.n. fw atlas — name of the first 
vertebra (anatomy). [From Atlas (See 
o^tps '); so called because it bears the 
skull. This name was first given to the 
first vertebra by the Belgian anatomist 
Andreas Vesalius(1514-1564).] 

D^X' v m.n.FW atlas (silk-satin). [Arab. 
atlas (=lit.: 'wiped smooth'), from 
idlasa{= he wiped, smoothed away).] 

p^UN to italianize. [Back formation from 
'P^yx (= Italian).] — Pi. pbpx tr. v. NH 
he italianized. Derivative ip^DK. 

DBK to shut, shut up. I Arab. 'atama(=he 
stopped up). Related to ddo, dddd.] 

— Qal dijk (of s.m.) he shut, closed. 

— Niph. opx) mh was shut, was closed. 

— Pi. opx nh he shut, closed, made 
impermeable, caulked, impregnated. 

— Pu. d^ nh was shut, was closed. 
Derivatives: oiux. DTpx, njppijj. nurpx,. 


Dps m.n. nh gasket, obturator. [From 


D13N m.n. NH l closure, stoppage. 2 lower 
part of the wall. 3 infarct. [From ddk. 
cp. Arab, utum (-fortress), utdm 
( = retention of wine).] 

natpK f.n. pbh flank. [ From Aram, nijon, 
assimilated from xppy. (-bones; loin), 
which is related to Syr. ni?o ( = bones), 
Heb. oyy ( = bone), cp. jrop . ] 

rrj'DplapK f.n. fw atmosphere. [Ulti- 
mately from Eng. atmosphere, which 
was first coined by the English 
bishop and scientist John Wilkins in 
1638 with reference to the moon (which 
in reality has no atmosphere). The word 
atmosphere was formed from Gk. 

atmos (- steam, vapor), and aphaira 
(-ball, globe, sphere). Gk. atmos is a 
contraction of aetmos, which prob. is 
related to aella ( = tempest, whirlwind), 
from IE base *we- ( - to blow). See 'wind' 
(air in motion) in my CEDEL. For the 
second element see rrj'pp. Derivative: 
'VSOiDUK adj. fw atmospheric. [Back 
formation from rrypDlDOK. For the 
ending see suff. v;. I 
1BX to shut up. close, bind. [Arab. 
'a'lara ( = he bent), "itar ( = what 
surrounds, what encloses, frame). | 
— Qal ion tr. v. he closed, shut (a 
hapax legomenon in the Bible, occur- 
ring Ps. 69:16). — Niph. ipxj. MH was 
closed, was shut. Derivatives: "ipx, 

"itf X adj. left-handed. [ However, it is more 
probable that "ipx denotes in the Bible 
'one who can use both hands alike', cp. 
Jud. 20:16 with Chron. 12:2. cp. also 
the Septuagint rendering of ipx, am- 
photerodoxios, and the Vulgate's 
translation: qui ulraque manu pro dex- 
tra utebalur (Jud. 3:15), resp. it a 
sinistra, ut dextra proeliantes (ibid. 
20: 16). Short for Ira; -p ipx &>% (Jud. 
3:15; 20:16), usually rendered 'a man 
bound with reference to his right hand' 
(from ion. "to bind'), i.e. "left-handed', or 
"a man whose right hand was bound"; 
so that he might learn to use the left 
hand also . I Derivatives: nntDK. mux. 

rrsnwxf.n. FW atrophy (disease). [Gk. 
atrophia (=want of food), from 
atrophos( = not nourished, ill-fed), from 
privative pref. a- and trophe (-food, 
nourishment), which stands in grada- 
tional relationship to trephein (-to 
make solid, thicken, congeal curdle; to 
nourish; lit.: "to make thick'), from IE 
base *dhrebh- (-to make firm, curdle). 
See "draff in my cedel and cp. 
'trophic' ibid. cp. alson^np-i^ri . J 

nn»Xf.n.NH left- handedness. [Formed 
from ipx with suff. nra . ] 

n s nt5S f.n.PBH vermicelli. [From Aram. 

t • : • 

"HON. xrvnpx, whence also Arab. 
'itruyya><{- vermicelli), from Gk. iirion 
(= a kind of cake), which isof unknown 

rPSiriDNf.n. fw attraction. I Fren. at- 
traction, from L. attractions, drawing 
together, attraction), from at tract us. p. 
part, of atlrahere (-to draw to, 
attract), from ad ( = to. toward), and 
trahere (=10 draw). See "draw' in my 
CEDEL and cp. 'tract" (region) and 
words there referred to, ibid. For the 
ending of ^pips see suff. hvj . | 

niggf.n. FW left -handedness. I Formed 
from "ipx (-left-handed), according to 



the pattern n^S serving to form names 
of diseases of defects (seenj^x) . I 

'K' m.n. island, isle. (According to 
several scholars, contraction of "nft 
( = place where one betakes oneself for 
shelter), from nix. which corresponds 
to Arab. awd(y) (=he sought refuge, 
sought shelter), hence 'X would have 
denoted orig. "(the mariner's) place of 
refuge'. Others see in 'x a loan word 
from Old Egypt, iw ( = island, coast).) 
Derivative: jl'x. 

'8" m.n. either Canis aureus ( =jackal) or 
Canis lupaster. IProb. contraction of 
■ng. from the imitative base mx C-to 
howl). Barth compares Arab, ibnu 
'dwd(y), vulg. Arab, wdwf (- jackal), 
cp. n»x.J 

'K'" interj. woe!, alas! (a hapax lego- 
menon in the Bible, occurring Eccles. 
10: 16). [Of imitative origin, cp. 'ix and 
words there referred to .1 

'8'\ nnt negative particle meaning "not*. 
[Related to mh 'X ( = not), Phoen. 'x 
( = not). Akka. ai, e,i{- not) .1 

'NT cogn. PBH if. [Aram., formed from^x 
( - if), with apocope of the j. See dx and 
cp. the first element in x^'V'x . | 

'8 adv. where? [Fronrxjcp.rrx. Related 
to Ugar. iy ( = where), Syr. x?^x 
( = where?). Arab, 'ayy, Ethiop. ay. Ak- 
ka. ayu (= which? who? where?), ta 
a vami ( = where?), cp. it>x and the first 
element inR'x, tjjj'x, xto'X . | 

O'K NH a combining form equivalent to 
Eng. some-, the first element of com- 
pound pronouns like , 9~ , x( = someone), 
QW'S (-sometime), d^"'x ( = some- 
where). [Coined through back forma- 
tion fromm _, x, nrx.] 

'85 pbh suff. forming nomina opificum 
from n" 1 ? verbal stems, as 'XJ3 
( = builder), from ma ( = to build); ""XM 
( - collector), from nai ( = to collect) . 

TV, to be hostile to, to hate. [Ugar. 'b, 
Akka. ayydbu (-enemy). Barth con- 
nects this base with Arab, wa'iba 
( = was angry, was hostile).! — Qala:x 
tr. v. was hostile to, hated. — Niph. a?t« 
mh was hated. Derivatives: a^x, nyx, 

nysf.n. enmity, hatred, grudge, malice. 
I Formed from 2'X with first suff. n;; . I 

TSVrta'Nf.n.FW evolution. [L. evolutio 
( = an unrolling of a scroll, an opening 
of a book), from evoluius, p. part, of 
evolvere ( = to unroll, unfold), from e 
(-out of; see "Dj?x), and where ( = to 
roll), which derives from IE base *we- 
lu, *welw-, enlargement of *wei, *wai 
( to bend, turn, twist, roll), whence 
also Gk. eilein (-to roll, turn, twist), 
cp. "volute' in my CEDEL. For the 

ending of rrjpVla'K see suff. rra. cp. 

O'yxm.n.FW ibis. [L. ibis, from Gk. 
ibis, from Egypt. /lift. | 


itysm.n.FW igloo, snowhut. [Eskimo 
igdlu ( = snowhouse) . I 


TK 1 m.n. PBH distress, calamity, mis- 
fortune. [Prob. from base "nx ( = to 
bend; to oppress), cp. Arab. 'dda{- he 
bent, curved, crooked), 'aid {- bur- 
dening). I 

TK" m.n. pbh feast (of gentiles). [A var. 
of t?. JAram. X7 , y, Syr. XT? ( = feast; 
lit.: 'that which returns every year'), 
from ti» {- to return, to occur). SecTy. 
Arab, 'id {- feast) is an Aram, loan 
word. This spelling tx (for Ti?) is prob. 
due to an association withTX' .] 

TK to vaporize, to steam. [Denominated 
from ix ( = mist, vapor) .1 — Pi. t.x tr. v. 
NH vaporized, evaporated; steamed, 
stewed. — Pu. tjx nh was turned into 
vapor, was vaporized, was evaporated. 
— Hith.TxnrtNH(ofs.m.). Derivatives: 
-n»x, niTxnn, txd, txd. 

HKTK f.n. FW idea. [Ultimately from 
Gk. idea (=form, kind, sort, nature, 
class, species, opinion, notion, idea, 
ideal form). The original pre-Platonic 
meaning is 'look, semblance'. Gk. idea 
prob. derives from idein {-\a see) 
which is related to oida (=1 know), 
eidon ( = I saw), eidos (-form, shape; 
lit.: 'that which is seen'), eidolon 
( = knowing, learned), and cogn. with L. 
videre ( = to see). See nn and cp. 

rrjI^KTNf.n.FW ideology. \Fren. ideo- 
logie, coined by the French philosopher 
Destutt de Tracy (1754-1836). from 
Gk. idea (see nxTX) and logia (see 

"?KT»Km.n.FW ideal. [Fren. ideal (n.). 

from ideal (adj.), from Late L. idedlis. 

from idea, from Gk. idea. SeenxTX. 

For the suff. -dlis see adj. suff. '-aP in 

my CEDEL. | Derivative ^xtx. 
'Vsts adj.FW ideal (adj.) [Formed from 

'tx'tx with suff. v.. I Derivative: 


m'VxTK f.n. fw idealism. [Formed from 
,- ?xtx with suff. ni:j.l 

OT' I ?KTKm.n.FW idealism. [Borrowed 
from Fren. idealisme, from ideal. See 
'txtx andsuff.oiv.l 

txt^ntk f.n. FW idealization. |Fren. 
idealisation, from idealiser(-io ideal- 
ize), from ideal (n.). See^xTX and suff. 

09 ,I ?8T8m.n.FW idealist. [Fren. idea- 
lisle, from ideal (n.). Seeb'XTX and suff. 

07 VPK conj. pbh because (occurring in 
quotations from the Talmud, as in 'tk 
djtj? -iy1n, * because it is small, it may be 
lost'). [Aram., formed from pref. ux 
( = ■7?, on, upon), c. st. pi. of t ( = hand), 
andpref.u-j (= which; that).) 

ul'T'Km.n.FW idiot. [Fren. idiot, from 
L. ididla, from Gk. idiotes (- private 
person, one not holding office, layman, 
an ignorant). See ofrn.l Derivative: 


'Bl'TK adj.FW idiotic. [Formed from 
ovyx with suff. v.) Derivative: 

m'OVTK f.n. FW idiocy; idiotism. 
[Formed from'tpVTK with suff.m^ .[ 

DVTKm.n.FW idiom. [Ultimately from 
Gk. idioma (- peculiarity, esp. pecu- 
liarity in a language), from idioumai 
(= I make my own), from idios (tone's 
own). SeeoVnri.] Derivative: ■"V^tx. 

'OBi'TK adj. fw idiomatic. [Formed 
from dVtx with adj. suff. v. I 

rnonj?3'°1 r T'Nf.n.FW idiosyncracy. [Gk. 
idiosynkrasia (=a peculiar tempera- 
ment; lit.: 'a proper blending together'), 
compounded of idio (-one's own, 
proper; seeol'nn), syn ( - with; see -T9). 
and krasis (= a blending), which is 
related to krates ( = a large bowl for 
mixing wine and water). These words 
derive from IE base *kerdi-, *ker- (-to 
mix, blend). See 'rare' (underdone) in 
my CEDEL and cp. 'crasis', 'crater', 
ibid. For the ending of rnpnprpl'TX see 

''"TTN adj.FW idyllic. [Back formation 
from rrVTX .) Derivative:ni*y , TX. 

njV'TNf.n. FW idyl. [L. idyllium, from 

Gk. eidyllion (= a little picture; whence 

'a short descriptive poem*), dimin. of 

eidos (^ form, shape), which is related 

nvV'TN f.n. FW idyllicism. [Formed from 

'Vtx with suff. nv:.[ 
«r>TN m.n. (also n^'x, f.n.) the Yiddish 

language. [Ger. jiidisch (= Jewish). 

from Jude ( = Jew). from L. Judaeus, 

from Gk. ioudaios, from Aram. "h^t;. 

vr}w. from Heb. *"nrp ( = Jew, Jewish). 

n'Tx is Hebraization of a^T*. C P- 

, ^ , 7".| Derivative: DT , ur , 7 , x. 
DPttf'TK m.n. FW Yiddishism. [Formed 

from Vi-x with suiT. o\\ '■. I 
TJTS pron. pbh that, the other. I Aram. 

and BAram.. prob. formed from pron. 

pref. .-x and -]i (-this. that), which 

is related to Arab, dhdkr (this, this 

one). I 
jTS m.n. pbh bast. |Of uncertain origin. 

It is perhaps borrowed from Gk. 

iieinon (-of willow), from Uea 

( = willow), which prob. is related to iius 



( = the edge or rim of anything round), 
from IE base *n-e/'-( = tobend, twist). I 

n s N f.n. hawk, falcon, kite. |Prob. of 
imitative origin, cp. Arab, yu'yu ( = a 
kind of hawk), which is also imitative, 
cp. also 'K". I 

n>N adv. where? [Lengthened form of 'x 
(sec '•x). cp. nan ( = behold), which is a 
lengthened form of ]n . I 

in'N pron. pbh he, himself. (Aram., 
formed from pron. pref. lt>x and (X)in 
( = he). See xin. | 

■>rPN pron. pbh she. herself. I Aram., 
formed from pron. pref. JK, and (x)7i 
(=she). SeeK'n.! 

"N'Nm.n.NH vaporization, evaporation. 
| Verbal n. of -rx (see tn). cp. the 
collateral form ,! nx.J 

rp'Nm.n.MH qualification. [Verbal n. of 
T£g. SeeTX.I 

Di'Nm.n. MH threat, threatening. [Ver- 
bal n. of Q'X. See D'X.] 

psm.n.NH islet. [Formed from 'x 1 
( = island), with dimin. suff.]1:: .[ 

]1»N m.n. NH negation, annulment, de- 
nial. [Verbal n. of f!X. See px.] 
Derivative: nwi'x. 

ni'H'N f.n. nh negativism. [Formed from 

"U'Nm.n. NH illustration. [Verbal n. 
formed from tx . Pi. of vx . | 

^'8 m.n. NH manning. [Verbal n. of 
tf'X, PLoftf'x.] 

m'Sm.n.NH spelling. (Verbal n. ofn»x. 

nj.'N pron. (in the Bible written in two 
words nr'X) i who? which? what? 
2 pbh some, any. [Compounded of 'S 
( = where), and nj ( = this), cp. irx. inrx, 
■•nlrx, i^x, and the second element in 
%"3. cp. also J'K.l 

mpk, it'K pron. pbh f. of nrx (q.v.). 
[Compounded of 'X (= where) and 1t 
( = this), f. of nr . | 

^r^ pron. pbh who is? which is? 
[ Properly two words: xin nnx . I 

■ AVH, fw combining form meaning 
'equal'Casin-^lrx). [Gk. iso-, fromisos 
( = equal), which is related to Gk. eidos 
( - form, shape). See nxT* ■ I 

l^iT'Sm.n.FW isobar. [Compounded of 
Gk. isos (-equal), and baros ( = 
weight). See nfx and "i^na. . I 

vnt'S f. pron. pbh who is? which is? 
I Properly two words : x^n irx (q.v.). I 

Dioil'Nm.n. PBH isotope. [Eng. isotope 
(lit. : 'having the same place'), from Gk. 
isos (-equal) and topos ( = place). See 
Mrs and nj^jlsto. The term isotope 
was introduced into chemistry by the 
English chemist Frederick Soddy in 
1913 at the suggestion of Margaret 

Todd. I 
rrs^lns f.n. fw isolation. |Fren. isola- 
tion, from isoler, back formation from 
isole, from It. isolato, p. part, odsolare 
( = to isolate), from isola (^island), 
from L. insula, which is of uncertain 
origin. Following the ancients, some 
modem philologists derive L. insula 
from in said ( = that which is in the sea), 
from in (=in), and ablative of salum 
( = the open sea. the high sea), cp. Gk. 
en-alos, en-alios (= in the sea), from en 
( = in), and als, gen. alos (~m. salt, f. 
sea), cp. piorx. For the ending of 
rrs^irx see suff. rra .] 

DnrjlPN m.n. fw isotherm. [Com- 
pounded of Gk. isos { = equal), and 
therme (=heat). See 2irx and oId™.] 

vriniPNadj.FW isothermal. [Formed 
from D?nirx with suff. »g . ] 

DPS m.n. fw (pi. ]"v?rx) ism. [Back for- 
mation from words ending in org . | 

Dinw'K m.n. FW yttrium (chemistry). 
[Modern L.. coined by the Swedish 
chemist Carl Gustaf Mosander 
(1797-1858), from Ytterby, name of a 
town in Sweden, place of its dis- 

fH adv. how, in what manner. 
[Shortened from rn'x (adv.). cp. Aram. 
Tpx (=as. how), Syr. ^x ( = as, such as. 
as if, as it were). Ugar. 'k {= how, why, 
so). Derivatives: -px, nwx . cp. ^n . 

■pK to qualify. [Formed from ^-x (= 
how). | — Pi.^x tr. v. mh he qualified. 
— Pu. ^g MH was qualified. — Niph. 
■sj^xn? mh he acquired a quality, was 
qualified. Derivatives: ^'X.^xd. 

3?N, ns»N where art thou? where are 
you? [Seen.'x.l 

KS'K adv. PBH there is, there are. [Aram., 
contraction ofxs rvx (lit.: 'there is here', 
or 'there are here'). Aram.n'X is related 
to Heb. & ( = there is. there are). For the 
etymology of Aram, xs see n"3. cp. 

n3'K' adv. how. in what manner. 
[Compounded of ::>*% and n^c; see'K 
and nb and cp. ipx . cp. also -O'x, nsj'-x . I 

naw pbh the Book of Lamentations. 


[So called from ro'x ( = how), the first 
word of the first chapter of the Book .] 

n»»N see tx. 

iS'K, n'^X adv. where. I Derivatively 
identical with n^'x 1 .1 

ni^N f.n. MH (pl.nV^-x) quality. [Coined 
from T'X ( = how), and suff. wl; as 
loan translation of Arab. kayfiyya h 
(-quality), which was formed from 
kayfa (-how), with suff. -iyya h . 

^niS'N adj. MH qualitative. [ Formed from 


nM'N, nw'N adv. how. [Compounded of 
^■•xandn^^so). See'x andrtjj.) 

]3'X adv. pbh where. I Aram., formed 
from 'X (= where) and jxs. ( = here). See 
'X and 1x5. 1 Derivative: px. 

OS's seeoj^x. 


in^S'N adv. NH somehow. [Com- 
pounded of T'X and xwtf (q.v.). ] 

n^rs pbh was worthy. [Aram., from 
-i#3 (= was worthy), equivalent of Heb. 

rPSfri'rD'Nf.n.FW ichthyology. [Com- 
pounded of Gk. ichthys ( = fish), and 

"HNDtoD'N m.n. fw Ichthyosaurus 

(paleontology). [Compounded of Gk. 
ichthys ( = fish) and sauros {- lizard), 
which is prob. related to saulos 
( = twisting, wavering) . J 

■??K m.n. (pi. Q^'x) 1 ram. 2 head, chief, 
leader. 3 projecting pillar, pilaster. 
[Prob. meaning lit. 'the strong animal" 
and derived from Vix 1 ( = to be strong). 
Related to Ugar. 7, Akka. ailu (- ram). 
Coptic oile, aile (-ram) is a Heb. loan 
word. cp. ^x, rnft-'x. For the sense 
development of "rx ( = ram: head, chief, 
leader), cp. nny ( = he-goat; prince, 
chief), Akka. lulimu, and Arab, kabsh 
(=ram; chief, head, leader).) 

"?JK m.n. hart, stag. deer. [Prob. of the 
same origin as ^rx ( = ram). Related to 
Phoen. ^-x. Ugar. \i, Aram. x>x, 
Aram.-Syr. x^x. Arab, 'ayyil. 'iyyal, 
'uyyal, Ethiop. hayyal (-hart, stag, 
deer). Akka. ayalu is prob. of s.m.) 
Derivative: n^*x. 

TT - 

TH m.n. pbh grape worm. [Aram, x^x, 
prob. a loan word from Gk. eyle 
( = worm. maggot), which prob. is a 
verbal n. of eilein ( = to wind, turn 
round), from IE base *wel- ( = to bend, 
turn, twist, roll), for whose derivatives 
in the other IE languages see 'volute' in 
my CEDEL. Accordingly Gk. eyle 
properly means 'that which twists'.] 

VX m.n. power, strength (a hapax le- 
gomenon in the Bible, occurring Ps. 
88:5). [Prob. fromTix 1 (-to be strong), 
cp. m'rx . I 

n'^x f.n. hind. doe. (Ugar. 'aylt ( = hind. 
doe). See "?;s and first suff. n v and cp. 
Aram. xjj'?;x. Syr. xn^x.) 

H'N pron. PBH which? [pi. of nrx and 

n'T^'Sf.n. fw illusion. [L. illusio ( = a 
mocking, jesting), from illusus, p. part. 
of illudere ( = to play with, sport with, 
mock at; to deceive), from in ( = in), and 
ludere(= to play). See 'ludicrous' in my 
CEDEL. For the ending of rpp^'x see 
suff. n? j. I 



rroH'&l^'S f.n. fw illumination. IFrcn.. 
from L. illumindtio ( = a lighting up; 
enlightening), from illumindtus, p. part, 
of illumindre ( = to make light, 
illuminate), from in- ( = in), and lumen 
(-light), which is related to lux 
(- light). These words derive from IE 
base *leuq- (- to emit light, shine 
bright), cp. n^ec^x. For the ending 
of rr^Tzp^'S see suff. n»a . | 

rn1'y»Xf.n. pbh a barren woman. [A 
derivative of ■??$ ( = ram). cp. Aram. 
xn , ? , i^T (- resembling a man. ramlike), 
from 137 (= male, man, ram) . I 

rrsiowV'N f.n. fw illustration. [L. illus- 
[ratio ( = enlightening), from illustrates, 
p. part, of illustrare ( = to make light, 
light up. enlighten, illustrate, render il- 
lustrious), from in ( = in) and lustrdre 
(=to purify from guilt, to illuminate). 
From lustrum (- purificatory sacrifice 
made once in five years; a period of five 
years), which stands for *leuqs-trom, 
Vouqs-trom (properly 'illumination'), 
from IE base *leuq-( = to emit light). See 
'light' (brightness), and verbal suff. 
'-ate' in my CEDEL and cp. rrxrP^'U-l 

m^K f.n. power, strength (a hapax lego- 
menon in the Bible, occurring Ps. 22:20 
in the form th 1 ^ and prob. meaning 
"my power, my strength'). [See'rx, and 

rnx'V'K f.n. fw Iliad. IGk. Ilias, gen. 
Iliados ( = the Iliad), short for Ilias 
poiesis (lit.: 'poem treating of Ilium'), 
from Ilios, Won (- Ilium, Troy), 
properly 'city of Ilus\ from Ilos, name 
of the founder of Ilium . ] 

xa'V'K pbh if he says, should he say. 
[Aram., prob. the two words rd*^ 'K, 
written in one. See'X' and xyb .1 

TJ^S adv. pbh hither, thither, further, 
afterward. [Formed from demon- 
strative 'x with the deictic element "ft g. 
"ftv? is a collateral form of ^rj" . ] 

D^'g.m.n.(pl. Dvp'rx) l porch. 2 hall. [A 
secondary form ofD^x (n.).] 

fj'K m.n. pbh (pi. mrrx, also oqV'x) tree. 
[Related to Aram. j^k. njTk, Syr. x^'s 
( = tree). and to Heb. rftx (-oak).l 
Derivative: n^x. 

rnV'Kf.n.NH tree frog. [Formed from 
I 1 ™ with suff. n*:;. | 

ffK to threaten, frighten. [Base of D'x 
and nipx .1 — Pi. d«x pbh he frightened, 
threatened. — Pu. o;<< mh was 
frightened, was threatened. — Nith. 
DNjn? mh i became terrible; 2 was 
frightened, was threatened. Deriva- 
tives :CH'X,D^C!?. 

CK adj. fearful, frightful, terrible. [From 
n?y»Kf.n.(pl. rrtff»x, also D'p'x) fright, 

terror, panic. [Formed from D>x with 
first suff. ny. | 

rrsnra'S f.n. fw immigration. [From L. 
immigrdt-(um), p. part, stem of im- 
migrdre (- to go or remove into), from 
in- (-in), and migrdre ( = to move 
from one place to another, to wander). 
For the ending ofrvjfifO'x see suff.rra. 

rrs^'O'S fji. fw imitation. [Fren. imi- 
tation, from L. imitdtid ( = imitation), 
from imitdtus, p. part, of imitdrf (=to 
represent, copy, imitate, counterfeit), 
which is related to imago ( = rep- 
resentation, likeness, picture, image, 
appearance, idea), and stands in grada- 
tional relationship to aemulus ( = striv- 
ing to equal), aemuldri ( = to strive to 
equal. See 'image' and verbal suff. 
'-ate' in my CEDEL and cp. 'emulate' 
ibid. For the ending of rrx^D'x see suff. 


DJj'Km.n.FW 'Imam', the leading priest 
in a Moslem mosque; religious leader 
of Islam. [Arab, 'imam (- leader; lit.: 
'one who precedes'), from 'amma (= he 
was in front, led the way, preceded). 

cp. DISK.) 

^HD'K adj. FW immanent. [Formed 
with adj. suff. ^ from L. immanens, 
pres. part- of immanere ( = to dwell in, 
remain in), from in- (- in), and manere 
( = to remain, stay). See 'mansion' and 

'03Ti9»'s adj. fw imposing. [Formed 
with suff.^] from Fren. imposant, pres. 
p. of imposer, from L. imponere ( = to 
place into, lay upon, impose), which 
was Gallicized after Fren. poser (=to 
put, place). L. imponere is formed from 
in- ( = in) and ponere ( = to put, place), 
which is a contraction of *pozno, from 
*pos(i)no (lit.: i lay aside'), from pref. 
po- and sino (-1 set down, leave). See 
'position' in my CEDEL.] 

'OJoisa^Kadj.FW impotent. [Formed 
with suff. v ? from L. impotens ( = 
powerless, impotent), from /'/:- (= not) 
and potens ( = powerful, mighty, 
potential), pres. part, of posse, for potis 
esse (- to be able).) 

oVlSO'X m.n. FW impulse. [L. impulsus 
(-pressure, stock; incitement, instiga- 
tion), from impulsus, p. part, ofimpel- 
lere ( = to push, strike against; to drive 
forward, urge on: to incite, instigate), 
from in- ( - in) and pellere ( = to drive), 
which prob. derives from IE base *pel- 
( = to shake, swing), whence also Gk. 
lallein (-to wield, brandish, swing; to 
quiver), pelemizein ( = to shake, cause 
to tremble), polemos ( = war). cp. 
'pulse' in my CEDEL. I Derivative: 

'?'l?Vl9»n<adj.FW impulsive. [Formed 
from o^i^x with suff. 'a. I Derivative: 

rw»?'9^9»'K f.n. fw impulsiveness. 
[Formed from ^^wd'k with suff. mu. | 

'V'SVjJtea'K adj. imponderable. [Form- 
ed from L. in- (=not) and Late L 
ponderdbilis ( = that can be weighed), 
from ponderdre (=to weigh), from 
pondus(= weight).) 

W'V'in^SB'X f.n. fw imponderability. 
[Formed from ^'^te^x with suff. 
mu which stands in gradational re- 
lationship to pendere ( = to hang, hang 
down). See 'pound' (unit of weight) in 
my CEDEL. I 

triisa'Km.n.FW import. [From L. im- 
portdre (-to bring into; to bring about, 
cause), from in- ( = in), and portdre ( - to 
carry). Related to porta ( = gate, door), 
portus (- harbor; orig. entrance, 
passage), and cogn. with Old l.piparti 
(- brings over), pdrdyati ( = carries 
over), Gk. peirein ( = to penetrate), from 
IE base *per- ( = to lead across, drive 
across, traverse, pierce). See 'fare' (v.) 
in my CEDEL and cp. 'port' (to carry) 
ibid. cp. also iriteopx.] 

rrxpalnsa'X f.n. fw improvisation. 
[From Fren. improviser, from It. 
improvvisare, from improvviso (- un- 
foreseen), from L. improvfsus (- un- 
foreseen, unexpected), from in- (- not) 
and providere (-to see beforehand), 
which is formed from pro- (- before, 
fore-) and videre ( = to see).l See pref. 
^ns 1 . nn and suff.rru .] 

"lionsa'Xm.n.FW imperator. |L. impe- 
rdlor ( = commander-in-chief, general, 
commander; emperor), from imperd- 
tus, p. part, of imperdre ( = to com- 
mand), from in- ( - in), and pardre ( - to 
prepare), from IE base *per- (- to bring 
forward, bring forth), cp. 'pare' and 
'emperor' in my cedel. cp. also 

DPVxjnsa'X m.n. fw imperialism. [From 
L. imperium. See -ncnDO 1 !? and suff. 

BD^lMD»'8m.n.FW imperialist [See 

I ■ T J V I " 

DI'V*."???^ and suff.op'a.l 
"•VO'VK^n^D'K adj. FW imperialistic. 

[Formed from Dt^NrW* wiln sufr - 

moa'X f.n. FW imperium. [L. imperium 
(= command, order; dominion, em- 
pire), from the stem ot'imperdre (=to 
command). See^o^'K. I 

Dt^l'pnsa'K m.n. FW impressionism. 
[Fren. irnpressionisme, formed from 
impression and suff. -isme (seeDf'Li.l 

o^Sl'^DO'K m.n. fw impressionist 



[Frcn. impressioniste, from the phrase 
ecole impressioniste, coined by the 
French critic Louis Leroy in 1874 to 
ridicule a painting by Claude Monet, 
called Impression — Sunrise.] [Fren. 
impression ( = impression), derived 
from L. impressio (- impression; lit.: 'a 
pressing into'), from impressus, p. part. 
odmprimere (= to press into, impress), 
from in- ( = in, into) and premere (= to 
press). For the ending see suff.D^g. | 
'UD , ?1 , 0^9» , K adj. FW impressionistic. 
[Formed from Dtp^V-tp^p'X with suff. 

msnsa'S m.n. fw impresario. [It. 
impresario, from impresa 

( = undertaking, device), properly f. p. 
part, of imprendere, from VL 
imprendere ( - to undertake), from L. in 
(=in) and prehendere, prendere (=to 
take), which is formed from pre- (for 
prae, before), and hendere, from IE 
base *ghe(n)d- (= to clasp, seize, reach, 
attain, hold). Cp. 'get' in my CEDEL 
and words there referred to . I 

ni?'N, 'nav? adv. pbh when? [Com- 
pounded of 'K (= where), and Tip 
( = when).[ 

nna'Kf.n.fear, terror, panic (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring Ex. 
15:16, and identical in meaning with 
np'K. [Formed from np'N with suff. ring. 
This suff., which was used only in 
poetry, and only with f. nouns ending in 
rr;, was orig. the accusative suff. 
denoting direction or intention, cp. the 
endings of nny^, nnnr^, nn^y, nnjj'y, 



ina'K m.n. pbh i a fear-inspiring person. 
2NH terrorist. [From Aram. (cp. 
BAram. 'Jnp'K), a derivative of xnp-'K 
(=Heb. np^x, 'fright terror').] Deriv- 
atives : nunp'x , ^np' x . 

nine's f.n. nh terrorism. [Formed from 

jnp'K with suff. niLJ.l 
'Jnp'K adj.NH terroristic. [Formed from 

IQP'x with suff. \j.l 

1?N' l m.n. nothing, naught, non- 
existence. 2 adv. expressing negation 
(as specified in the following examples). 
— ]'K preceding a gen. means 'without' 
or Mess', as in d^in r>K ( = powerless, 
helpless), pp px (^endless). — px with 
prepositions : pxa ( = in lack of, without), 
px 1 ? ( ■ so that not, without), pxi? 
( - from lack of, for want of)- — px and 
□ px. ' n most cases negate the whole 
sentence and are to be translated 'there 
is not', 'there are not', 'there were not', 
etc. — ^ px, ■$ pK, etc. mean 'I have 
not', 'thou hast not'. — o^px w 'th 
following inf. usually means 'it is not 
possible to', or 'it is not allowed to'. 

[Related to Moabite ]x, Akka. idnu 
( = is not, is not existing), inu 
( = nothing), Ethiop. en, and according 
to Gesenius to Arab. ayn 
( = weariness). I Derivatives: px, mrg. 
cp. pxp and the first element in ilopx . 
]?K" adv. where? whence? [ Formed from 
■•K (= where), cp. Akka. aina, ainu 
( = where?), Arab, dyna { = where), cp. 
also the second element in pjp ( = from 
where? whence?).] 

f'K to negate, deny, nullify. [Denom- 
inated from px'.] — Pi. px tr. v. nh he 
negated, denied. — Pu. p_$ NH was 
negated, was denied. — Hith. ^xnri was 
annihilated. Derivatives: p*x, j^tp, 

nr'ai'S m.n.FW engineer. [Eng. engi- 
neer, formed with suff. -eer from 
engine, from Old Fren. engin ( = skill; 
invention; machine, engine), from L. 
ingenium ( = nature, natural disposi- 
tion, talent, ability), from in- (=in) and 
the stem of gignere ( = to beget), which 
derives from IE base *gen-, *gene-, 
*geno-, *gn- (=to beget, bear, bring 
forth, produce), whence also L. genus 
(-birth, descent, origin, race, sort, 
kind, class; sex, gender). See 'genus' in 
my cedel and cp. 'ty'xji^rx . ] 

.TMatoWK f.n. FW indulgence. [L. indul- 

t I IV i i ■ ° 

gentia {- indulgence, gentleness, 
complaisance), from indulgeus, pres. 
part, of indulgere ( = to be kind, yield, 
indulge in), orig. 'to be long-suffering, be 
bearing, be patient', which is cogn. with 
Old I. dirghah, Gk. dolichos (=long). 
See'dolicho-' in my CEDEL .] 

■riopna'K m.n. FW inductor. [ L. inductor 
( = one who stirs up or rouses), from in- 
ductus, p. part. oUnducere ( = to lead in, 
bring in; to introduce; to persuade), 
from in- (-in), and ducere ( = to lead, 
conduct, guide, draw), from Old L. 
doucere, from IE base *douk-, *deuk- 
( = to pull. draw), cp. 'duke' in my 
CEDEL and words there referred to. cp. 

rPSp'nrs f.n. FW induction. [L. inductio 
( = a leading in, introduction), from in- 
ductus, p. part, of inducere. See 
-rtopi^'N and suff.rr:j.| 

D ! lxn , 3 , H? , S m.n. fw individuum. [From 
L. indfviduus (- undivided, indivisible), 
from in- ( = not), and dh'iduus (= divi- 
sible), from dividere ( = to force apart, 
separate, divide), which is formed from 
di- ( = apart, asunder), and IE base 
*widh- ( = to separate). See 'window' in 
my cedel and cp. words there referred 

'Vs^TanrS adj. FW individual. [Med. L. 
indfvidualis, from L. indfviduus. See 
DWiryiq'S and suff. vi.| Derivatives: 

nv'pijrrg-'TpK. Dpbxvrg^j'x. 
m^Kn-anrx f.n. fw individuality. 

I Formed from 'Vxvr^px with suff. 

m r J.| 

DT'^Tanj'X m.n. FW individualism. 
[Formed from '"pxrr^px with suff. 
opu. | 

»0'Vl«T>3nrKm.n.FW individualist. 
[Formed from ^Kvr^px with suff. 
op' a] 

Inj'Xm.n.FW indigo. [Fren. indigo, 
from Dutch indigo, from Sp. indico, in- 
digo, from L. indicum { = indigo), from 
Gk. indikon (= indigo), short for indi- 
kon pharmakon (=lit.: 'Indian dye'), 
neuter ofindikos{= Indian). Seen'n .] 

Dial's m.n. FW index. [L. index ( = a 
pointer, indicator; the forefinger; sign, 
mark, indication; guide, witness, in- 
former). Related to indicdre ( = to point 
out, show), from in ( = in) and dicdre 
( = to proclaim, dedicate, consecrate), 
which is related to dicere ( = to say, tell) 
and derives from IE base *deik~-, m dik"- 
( = to show, point out). Whence also L. 
digitus ( = finger; lit.: 'pointer'), the 
second element in L. ju-dex (=judge; 
lit.: 'he who shows or teaches justice'), 
index ( = forefinger, index; lit.: 
'pointer'), cp. 'diction' in my CEDEL 
and words there referred to. cp. also 
i1U9j7 r n and the second element in 

TVjS'S m.n. FW invalid. [Fren. invalide, 
from L. invalidus (= not strong, infirm, 
weak, feeble), from in- ( = not) and 
validus (= strong), from valere ( = to be 
strong, be well), which derives from IE 
base *wal- (=to be strong), cp. 
'valiant' in my CEDEL and words there 
referred to.] 
"IBJIJ'X m.n. FW inventory. [L. inven- 
tdrium ( = list. inventory), from 
inventus, p. part, of invenio, invenire 
( = to find), properly (=to come upon), 
from in- ( = in) and venid, venire (=to 
come), cp. rrxrngrx . ] 

mrsf.n.NH non-existence. (Coined 
from px 1 and suff. ni::.] 

'V^J???'^ adj. fw integral. [Late L. in- 
tegrdlis, from L. integer {- undimin- 
ished, unhurt, unimpaired, whole, 
complete; lit.: 'untouched'X from 
*entag-ros. from in- ( = not). and *lag-. 
the stem of tangere ( = to touch), cp. 
"tangent' in my CEDEL and words there 
referred to. For the ending of'^WfS 
scesuff.\;.| Derivative: n^jj^pK. 

TU'VnjpJ'K f.n. FW integrality. (Formed 
from ,l ?^?9pi< with suff. n«.| 

rpjnaoj'K f.n. fw integration. IL. inte 
grdtio ( = a renewing), from integratus, 
p. part. oUntegrdre (-to make whole, 
renew). See '^vT? and su lir - n . n ' ■ ' 



■ , 3 , p , N-lP3 , N adj. fw intuitive. I Med. L. 
intuitivus, from L. intuilus. p. part, of 
intueri. Secrrf tna)"K and sufDa I 
rPSPKWrN f.n. Fw intuition. |Med. L. 
intuit id, from L. intuilus, p. part, of rn- 
fMOT^lo look at. regard, consider), 
from in- ( = in), and tuen'{-lo look at, 
regard, consider; to look after, pre- 
serve, defend), which is of uncertain 
origin. For the ending see suff. rra . cp. 
, 9 , ?} , K adj. fw intimate. [Formed with 
suff. 'J from L. intimus, earlier intumus 
( = inmost), prop, superlative of L. in 
( = in). See 'in-' (prep, and adv.) in my 
CEDEL.I Derivative: n-tvp'p^x. 

nWDFK f.n. fw intimacy. [Formed 
from'a'prx with suff.m^.) 

'OTJ'Vw'K adj. fw intelligent. [Formed 
with suff. *- from L. inteUigens, pres. 
part, of intellegere, intelligere (=to 
understand, comprehend), which is 
formed from inter- (- between, a- 
mong), and legere {- to gather, collect; 
to pick out. choose; to read). See "$*$ 
and cp. ;rxjr , ?p} , x and Dj^p^x . ] 

n^Jl^gj^f.n. fw intelligence. [L. in- 
tellegeniia, intelligentia, from intel- 
legens, inteUigens. See 'pj^^prx and 

B^ppk m.n. fw intellect. [ L. intellects 
( - perception, discernment, under- 
standing), from intellects, p. parL of 
intellegere, intelligere ( = to understand, 
comprehend). See ^yVp^x and cp. 

*?KlCj?VgrK adj. FW intellectual. [L. in- 
tellectualis (= relating to the under- 
standing), from intellectus, p. part, of 
intellegere, intelligere. See o^p^x and 
suff.'^.l Derivative: m'Vx-iDijVprx. 

nvViHOj^orK f.n. fw intellectuality. 
[Formed from ^xiDj^prx with suff. 

DPVwo^lorK m.n. fw intellectualism. 
[Ger. Intellektualismus, coined by the 
German philosopher Friedrich Wil- 
helm Joseph von Schelling in 1803 
from Late L. intellect udlis (see 
^xiDpVprx) and suff. -ismus (sceov^) . | 

'TpsprK adj. fw intensive. [Formed 
with suff. v : from Med. L. intensivus, 
from L. intensus, a collateral form of 
intent us, p. part, of inlendere (=to 
stretch out, extend; to direct, turn, 
bend, aim; to direct one's attention, to 
apply oneself to, endeavor, intend), 
from in- (- in), and tendered- to stretch 
out), which derives from IE "tend-, 
enlargement of base *ien- ( = to stretch, 
extend). See 'tend' in my CEDEL.I 
Derivaiive:m , ? , 9}p} ,, x. 

n*3'DJp3'Kf.n.FW intensiveness. 

[Formed from'j^p^x with 
nnprKm.n. fw interview. |Eng. inter- 
view, from Fren. entrevue. from 
entrevoir ( = to see imperfectly, catch a 
glimpse of), s'entrevoir ( = to visit each 
other, have a short interview), from 
enlre (-between) and voir ( = to see). 
See 'inter' (prep.) in my cedel and cp. 
^npj»K m.n. FW interval. [L. intervallum 
(=the open space between two pali- 
sades; space between, interval), from 
inter {- between) and vallum (- a 
palisaded wall or rampart), which 
stands for *wal-nom, and is related to 
vallus ( = stake), and to voiles ( = valley). 
These words prob. derive from IE base 
*wal-, *wel- (=to turn, bend, twist, 
roll). See 'volute' in my CEDEL and cp. 
'vallum' and 'vale (valley)' ibid. I 
rrsn*iP3>K f.n. fw intervention. [L. in- 

t : tvi vi* 

terventio (=an interposition), from L. 
intervent-(um), p. part, stem of inter - 
venire ( - to come between), from inter 
( = between), and venire ( - to come). See 

nanpinjt f.n. FW intrigue. [Fren. intrigue, 
from It. iturigo, from intrigare {-to 
intrigue), from L. intricdre ( = to en- 
tangle, perplex, embarrass), from in 
( = in) and tricae ( = trifles, perplexities, 
tricks), which is of uncertain origin. See 
'extricate' in my CEDEL .| 

isaiPJ^K m.n. fw intermezzo. [It. inter- 

T : v i ■ 

mezzo, from L. intermedius (=that 
which is between, intermediate), from 
inter ( = between)and/ne<#us( = middle).! 

Vtf'imWKm.n.FW international; inter- 
nationale. [Eng. International, short 
for International Working Men's As- 
sociation, which was founded in 
London on September 28, 1864. See 

, Vrt , l»7»? , N adj. fw international. [ Eng. 
international, coined by Jeremy Ben- 
tham in 1 780 from L. inter ( = between, 
among), and ndiio ( = nation), which 
derives from ndtus, p. part, of nasci 
( = to be born), which stands for 
*gndsci, from IE base *gn-, zero degree 
of base *gen-. *gene- (-to beget, bear, 
bring forth). Seeij'^'x and ^jVyi. I 

onp^Km.n.FW interest. [Med. L. inter - 
esse (-interest), properly subst. use of 
L. interesse ( = to be between, lie be- 
tween; to take part in; to import, be of 
interest), from inter ( = between), and 
esse (^to be), which derives from IE 
base *es-(- tobe).l 


itoK^T-'K m.n. FW initiator. [Late L. 
intidlor (-an originator), from initid- 
lus, p. part, of initidre ( = to begin. 

originate), from inilium ( = beginning, 
origin), from init(um), p. part, stem of 
inire ( = to go into, enter), from in- ( = in) 
and ire (= to go), which is related to iter 
(=a journey), from IE base *ei- (zt 
eo). See 'itinerate' in my cedel and cp. 
rrjf^N.nprjix. cp. alson^px^x. 
na'PlCX^K f.n. FW initiative. [From L. 
initio t us, p. pan. of initidre. See 
ilDK?2fTx. For the ending see suff. '-ivc' 
in my CEDEL .] 

P^D^K m.n. FW insulin. [Eng. insulin, 
formed from L. insula { = island); intro- 
duced by Banting, Best and Macleod in 
1921. The name was suggested by the 
English physiologist Sir Edward Albert 
William Sharpey (1850-1935). See 
rp^lpx .| 

1l03>Nm.n.MH ithe infinite. 2 God. 
[Compounded of rx (= without, -less), 
c. st. of nx', and ^o ( = end) . | Derivative: 

'StoS'K adj. NH infinite, endless. [Formed 
from ilorx with suff. 'J.I Derivative: 

rWDlorg, n-t'plo-rx f.n. nh endless, in- 
finity. [Formed from 'ptorx with suff. 

P^perx m.n. FW instina. [ L. instinct us 
(- instigation, impulse), from in- 
stinctus, p. part, of instinguere (=to 
incite, impel), which is related to 
instigdre ( = to urge, stimulate, incite, 
goad, instigate), from in- ( = in) and IE 
base *steig- (=to prick, stick, pierce). 
See 'stick' (v.) in my CEDEL . I 

'a'PirrpoJ'K adj. fw instinctive. [See 

Di?.) , pD3 i , xandsuff.v.| 
rPST 9py»N f.n. fw inspiration. [Late L 

inspirdtio, from L. inspirdtus, p. part. 

of inspirdre (-to breathe into, blow 

upon; to inflame, inspire), from in- 

(--in) and spirdre ( = to breathe). See 

or l 7x 1 tD' , i , ?9 and suff. rr . . | 
'■rPD-liDJ'S adj.FW informative. |From 

L. informal us, p. part, of informdre. 

See rrx5"ilDrx and adj. suff. \ ;. I 
rrs»"iiD3 , K f.n.FW information. [Fren. 

information, from L. informdtio (- 

representation, outline, sketch; idea. 

conception), from informants, p. part. 

of informdre ( = to give form to. shape), 

from in- (■- in), mdformdre ( = to form. 

shape), from forma (-form, shape). 

which is prob. borrowed from Gk. 

morphe (-form, shape). The inter 

mediate form was prob. mornta. See 

'form' (n.) in my cedel. For the ending 

see suff. nv:. I 
rpj&DJ'K f.n. fw inflation. |L. injldtio 

(-a blowing or puffing up. inflation). 

from injldtus, p. part, of injldre (-to 

blow into, inflate; to pull up), from In- 



(-in) and Jldre (=to blow). For the 
ending see suff. n;^:j. cp. ^I'^prK. I 

'tf'xVprx adj. FW inflationary. [Formed 
with suff". v from L. inflatio (in- 
flation). Sccrnftprx.l 

"> , 7»BJDJ , XadJ.FW infantile. [L. infantilis 
( = pertaining to an infant), from infans 
(-a young child, a babe; lit. 'that can- 
not speak, not yet able to speak'), from 
in- (=in) and /arcs, pres. part, of fdri 
( = to speak), which derives from IE base 
*bhd- (=to speak, tell, say), cp. 'fame' 
in my CEDEL and the words there 
referred to. For the ending see suff."*^ . I 

ros^UJDrK f-n. FW infantilism. [Formed 
from , *r??9r N with l:.] 

rrxpDJ'K f.n. fw infection. [Late L. 

t * I: v : 

fnfectid, from L. infectus, p. part, of 
inficere { = \.o put into, dip into; to stain, 
taint; to infect), from in- ( = in) and 
facere ( = to make, do), which derives 
from IE base *dho-, *dhe-, *d}i? (=to 
put, place; to do, make, construct). See 
'do' (v.) in my CEDEL and cp. 'fact' ibid. 
For the ending see suff. rr::. . [ 

Zjrnsrs combining form FW infra-. [L. 
infra-, from infra ( = below, under), 
from IE *ndher-. See 'under' in my 
CEDEL and cp. 'inferior', 'infernal', 
'inferno' ibid. 1 

'jTXm.n.FW inch. [Eng. inch, from Old 
Eng. ynce, from L. uncia (= the twelfth 
part of anything; the twelfth part of a 
foot). Seex^»x.[ 

BJVSrfK m.n. fw incident. [Fren. inci- 
dent, from L. incidens, pres. part, of in- 
cidere ( = to fall upon; to happen, 
occur), from in- ( = in) and cadere (= to 
fall). See 'cadence' and '-ent' in my 


"ltoaipr'Km.n.FW incubator. [L. incu- 
bator ( = one who or that which 
incubates), from incubdius, p. part, of 
inciibdre ( = to lie in or upon), from in- 
( = in) and cubdre (= to lie down), which 
derives from IE base *qeu-b ( = to bend, 
curve, arch), whence also L. cubitum 
(- elbow), Gk. kubos ( = hollow above 
the hip of cattle). See 'hip' and suff. 
'-tor' in my CEDEL. | 

to'Jjrfpj'K adv. fw incognito. [It. in- 
cognito (- unknown), from L. incogni- 
tus, from in- ( = not) and cognitus 
( = known), p. part, of cognoscere (= to 
become acquainted with, perceive, 
understand, know), from co-, short 
form of com- ( = with, together) and Old 
L. gnoscere, L. noscere ( = to know), 
which derives from IE base *gene-, 
*gend- ( = to be able mentally, to know), 
cp. 'can' (auxil. v.) in my CEDEL.] 

"rt» , Hi?3 , K m.n. fw inquisitor. [L. in- 
quisitor (- searcher, examiner), from 

inquisftus, p. part, of inquirer e (=to 
seek after, search for, inquire into), 
from in- ( = in) and quarere(- to search 
into), cp. njjrnprN.) 

n^Tli? r* fn> FW inquisition. [L. inqui- 
sitio (=a searching for, an inquiring 
into), from inquisilus, p. part, of in- 
quires. See-ilD , Hj?r K and suff.rr:.: .| 

"71331 prx m.n. fw incunabulum. [L. in- 
cunabula (pi.) ( = swaddling clothes; 
cradle; childhood; origin, beginning), 
formed from in- (=in) and curiae 
( = cradle), which stands for koind (= a 
place to lie down in, bed) from Gk. 
koiman (= to lull to sleep), from IE base 
*k~ei- ( = to lie. settle down), whence also 
L. civis (= member of a community, 
citizen). See 'civil' in my CEDEL .] 

'pijPK adj. fw inert. [Formed with adj. 
suff. v: from L. iners {- unskilled; 
inactive, idle), from in- ( = in) and ars 
( - skill; art), which derives from IE base 
*art, enlargement of base *ar- (=to 
join), whence L. armus ( = shoulder), 
arma{- weapons). 1 

rrjnjPK f.n. fw inertia. |L. inertia (= un- 
skillfulness; inactivity, idleness), from 
iners. Sccenrx and suff.rr j.| 

yitm.n.MH (pi. D"DK) an Essene (one 
of a sect of ascetics first appearing in 
the second century B.C.). [L. Esseni 
( = the Essenes), from Gk. Essenoi. 
Most scholars derive this word from 
Heb. wym (= the modest ones) or from 
□"•s^n (rthe silent ones). It is more 
probable, however, that Gk. Essenoi 
derives from Syr. jxpn, pi. absolute st. 
of xpn ( = pious), cp. the pi. emphatic sL 
x;pn, whence the parallel Greek form 
Essaion. This etymology gains in 
probability by the fact that Philo iden- 
tifies the Essenes with the 'Pious*. I 

nj'Kf.n.'ephah' — a Heb. grain meas- 
ure. [Prob. from EgypL 'pt. For other 
Egyptian loan words in Hebrew see 

nb'K adv. where. [Compounded of'x 
( = where) and n'9 ( = here), cp. x1dx . ] 

KlD , K see x1dx. 

rp-ilD"»K f.n. Fw euphoria. [Medical L., 
from Gk. euphoria ( = well-being; lit.: 'a 
bearing well'), from euphoros ( =easy to 
bear, easily born), from eu (combining 
form meaning 'good, well'), and the 
stem ofpherein ( = to bear, to carry) .) 

K3?'K m.n. pbh the reverse, contrary. 
[Aram., from t]5«. a collateral form of 
1?H ( = he turned). See-pn .| 


ny»Kf.n. nh haste, speed. [Verbal n. of 
px (= to make haste). See fix and first 
suff. ng.) 


f tfj^K m.n. pbh (pi. n^p-'x) likeness, 
image, picture, portrait. [Borrowed 
from Gk. eikoncon (dimin. of likeness, 
image), which is related to eikos 
( = similar, like, is like, is fit). See 'icon' 
in my CEDEL. cp. igVn.] 
0los , »'7j''Km.n.FW eucalyptus (name of 
a tree). [Modern L. eucalyptus, coined 
by the French botanist L'Heritier de 
Brutelle in 1788 from Gk. eu ( = well) 
and kaliptos {- covered), verbal adj. of 
kalyptein (=to cover). So called in 
allusion to the cap covering the bud. 
Gk. eu is properly neuter of eus 
( = good). Gk. kalyptein is related to 
kalybe {= hut. cabin), kalia (= hut, nest) 
and cogn. with L. cella ( = storeroom, 
granary). See 'cell' in my CEDEL and 
cp. the second element in n^^tex .) 
OjTK, OJTK fw l m.n. X — name of a 
letter in the Latin alphabet, whence it 
was taken over into most other 
languages.2 adj. unknown quantity (al- 
gebra). 3 adj. certain name or place. 
"PN to illustrate. [Coined from "nx (= to 
give light), on the analogy of rnjnopi'rx 
( = illustration), from L. illustrdre (=to 
make light).] —Pi. vx tr. v. nh he 
illustrated. — Pu. tx NH was illus- 
trated. Derivatives : -n»x. -i»x, -i»xp. 

T t K m.n. NH illustrator. [Nomen opificis 

"PX m.n. PBH 'Iyar\ name of the second 
month of the Jewish year. [A loan word 
from Akka.aarw.| 

n»rtTK f.n. FW irredenta. [It irredenta 
( = unredeemed), from in- (=not) and 
redenta (- redeemed), from L. 
redempta, f. of redemptus, p. part, of 
redimere ( = to redeem), from re(d)- 
( = back), and emere ( = to take, buy), 
which derives from IE base *em- (= to 
take, buy), cp. 'exempt' in my CEDEL 
and words there referred to . J 

njroaiT'K f.n. fw aerobatics. I Eng. aero- 
batics, coined on the analogy of 
aerobatics from Gk. aer(- air), and the 
stem of bainein ( = to go). See-nx, and 

'SlTKadj. fw ironical. [Back formation 

rrtf'VKf.n.FW irony. [L. irdm'a. from 
Gk. eironeia ( = irony), from eiron 
( = dissembler), from eiro ( = 1 say, 
speak), which is related to rhetor 
( = public speaker, orator; rhetor), and 
cogn. with L. verbum ( = word). See 
'word' in my CEDEL and cp. 'rhetor* 
and 'verb' ibid. I 

DlTK'm.n. pbh iris (name of a plant). 
[Gk. Iris, the goddess of the rainbow in 
Greek mythology, properly personifi- 



cation of iris (-rainbow; lit.: 'some- 
thing bent or curved"), from IE base 
Ve/'- ( = to bend, twist). See 'withy' in 
my cedel and cp. 'orris' (the 
Florentine iris) ibid. cp. alsoDi-ryx.] 

OlTX"m.n. pbh name of a musical 
instrument; perhaps a kind of drum. 
[Of uncertain origin. According to 
Dalman it derives from Gk. aulos 
( = flute). I 

n§lTKf.n.FW Europe. [Gk. Europe 
(whence L. Eitropa which is prob. of 
Sem. origin), cp. Akka. 'erebu ( = to 
enter, go in; to go down, set — said of 
the sun), 'ereb shamshi (- sunset), from 
the Sem. stem 3ty ( = to set —said of 
the sun). Accordingly Europe orig. 
meant 'the Region of the Setting Sun'. 
cp. Hesychius who renders Europe 
with the words chora les duseos (= the 
Land of the Setting Sun), cp. also 
Erbos (= place of nether darkness), 
which derives from Heb. any. The form 
Europe (as if the name meant 'broad 
face'), is due to the natural tendency of 
the Greeks to grecize words foreign to 
their language. For the sense develop- 
ment of Gk. Europe from a Sem. word 
meaning 'sunset, evening', cp. njjpx.l 
Derivative: "bItx. cp. the first element 

T J ■ 

, 9^ , K adj. fw European. [Back forma- 
tion from nglvx. For the ending see 
suff."-.| Derivative: ni»9lTK. 

nV9iTX f.n. fw Europeanism. [Formed 
from ^n-x with suff. m z • . | 

DVPyxm.n. fw iridium (chemistry). 
[Modern L. iridium, coined by its 
discoverer, the English chemist 
Smithson Tennant (1761-1815), from 
Gk. iris ( = rainbow; seeoVrx 1 ). and L. 
suff. -ium: so called by him in allusion 
to the varying color of itscompounds .1 

njjpygf.n. fw Eurasia (i.e. Europe and 
Asia taken together). [Coined from the 
abbreviation of n?lTX and n;px .) 

^^vx adj. fw irrational. [L. iratio- 
ndlis (= without reason, irrational), 
from in- (=not) and rationdlis 
( = reasonable, rational). See 'ty'yi.l 
Deriv ati ve : m^jV^yx . 

M^jrvxf.n.FW irrationality. [Form- 
ed from-Vjfxyx with suff. ma.] 

tfntm.n.tpl. d-^. also dt^x), I man. 
2 husband. 3 masculine. 4 hero. 5 every- 
one, each one. anyone, anybody. 
[Moabite. Phoen. u?x. Of uncertain 
etymology. | Derivatives: #T<, ]\&k\ 
ri!tf , x",rnB? , x. , tp , x. 

tf*x to man. [Denominated from Bf'x.l 
— Pi. #'x tr. v. nh he manned. — Pu. 
&K NH was manned. Derivatives: BM»x, 


im^x, adv. nh somewhere. [Coined by 
Yizhak Avineri from nit ( = some). Qtt> 
( = that, which), and kw ( - he, it) . I 

Jltf'X'm.n. I pupil of the eye, eyeball. 
2 middle. I Prob. dimin. of Wx ( = man), 
hence f?y |Wx, lit. means 'little man in 
the eye', and derivatively identical with 
rWx " . cp. Arab, insan-al-ayn ( = pupil 
ofthe eye: lit.: 'man of the eye'). For the 
meaning of 'middle' cp. Arab, bu'bii 
( = pupil ofthe eye, middle, kernel) .1 

]lB*K"m.n. a small man. [Formed from 
ufxwith dimin. suff. Jin. cp. jWx' .] 

rwt^Xf.n. pbh matrimony, marital sta- 
tus. [ Formed from B^x with suff.mG.] 

"•U^X adj.MH personal, private. [Formed 
from tf'x with suff. ""a.! Derivative: 


nwr^xf.n. (pi. nlv^x, also o"Vx) imh 
individuality. 2 NH personality. [Form- 
ed from '^x with suff. m g. | 

n^X adv. NH personally. [Formed from 
afx with adv. suff. n-- j. | 

Dt^x, D^"»x adv. nh somewhere. 

I X 

[Coined from ^x (= some) and oi? 
( = there).] 

"Hj^X interj. well done! [Aram., fromitfx 
( = to be strong).] 

nnt to spell a word. [Denominated from 
nix { = letter).] — Pi. njx tr. v. nh he 
spelled (a word). — Pu. n»x_ nh was 
spelled. Derivative: ni*x. 

fln^K m.n. entrance (a hapax legomenon 
in the Bible, occurring Ezek. 40:15). 
[Formed from nnx ( = to come), with 
suff. ill*. I 

]1VX adj. l strong, firm, steadfast, stable. 
2NH an ever-flowing (wady). [Ac- 
cording to Barth derives from in\] 
Derivatives: nurrx. ^yx. px. px . 

]"]TX MH the letters i< n, \ x. which serve 
as preformatives ofthe Heb. verb in the 

nwvxf.n.NH strength, firmness, stabi- 
lity. 1 Formed from lyx with : : . ] 

'iJVXadj.NH strong, firm, stable. 
I Formed from iy x with suff. 'G. I 

^]X adv. I surely, truly. 2 but, only, 
however. [Of uncertain origin; perhaps 
derived from the same demonstrative 
base which appears also in the words 

xsx seexyx. 

t»X f.n. Accad. [Babylonian- Assyrian 
Akkad ( = I name of a city in Northern 
Babylonia; 2 name of a district in, or 
the land of, Babylonia). The Septuagint 
renders Tax by 'Archad'; cp. ptp^TJ, a 
secondary form of ptyfll.) Derivative: 

*?jXadj.NH Accadian. [Formed from 

T?x with suff. •'o.] 

nn?Xf.n.NH the Accadian language. 
[Subst. use ofthe f. of n?* .] 

V«Xm.n. PBH digestion, consumption, 
corrosion. [ Verbal n. ofVax, Pi. of?ax .] 

JWXm.n. NH locating, location. [Verbal 
n. ofpx.Pi. ofpx.l 

]J3X m.n. NH marshaler (military). 
[Coined fromip ( = he aimed, directed), 
Pi. ofro'.l 

tyiSXm.n. MH saddling. [Verbal n.of»px, 

3T3Xadj.NH deceptive, disappointing, 
failing (said of a stream that dries up in 
summer). [Elative formed from ata. cp. 
]rrx, which is also an elative (formed 
fromin^. cp.napx.] 

3T3X to disappoint. [Back formation 
from naiax.] — Pi. apx tr. v. nh he 
disappointed, frustrated. — Pu. apx^ 
NH was disappointed, was frustrated. 
— Hith. apxnn nh (of s.m.). Deriv- 
atives: aipx.niapxnn, apxa. 

najsxf.n. MH disappointment, disillu- 
sionment. [A secondary form of napn. 
For the force of nouns of the form 
nVysx in nh see njnax and cp. words 
there referred to .] Derivative: aiax. 

aOm.n.NH disappointing, causing 
disappointment. [Verbal n. of apx. See 


1T3K adj. cruel, merciless, fierce, terrible. 
[Elative formed from tia.] Derivatives: 

■uax.nnpx, v ipx. 

*IT3X to make cruel, brutalize. [Denom- 
inated from ipx.] — Pi. ipx tr. v. MH 
he made cruel, brutalized. — Hith. 
■uaxnn pbh he behaved cruelly, was 
cruel).] Derivative: nnpxnn. 

nntsx f.n. nh cruelty, heartlessness. 
[Formed from ipx with suff. no. cp. 

ntsx adj. cruel, heartless, fierce, terrible. 
[ Formed fromipx with suff.'-G. ] 

nvntsx f.n. cruelty, heartlessness (a ha- 
pax legomenon in the Bible, occurring 
Pr. 27:4). [Formed from 'ipx with suff. 

O^BSX, OSXm.n. fw agate. [From Gk. 
achates, which is of uncertain origin. 
The name of the river A chates is in Si- 
cily, as well as the name of the faithful 
friend of Aeneas, prob. derived from 
Gk. achates.] 

V^Kadj.NH edible, eatable. [Coined 
from Vax (=to eat), according to the 
pattern V-y^, which is used in NH to 
form adjectives denoting capability or 
fitness.] Derivative: mVpx,. 

n^SK f.n. eating. [Verbal n. ofVjx. Sec 
^dx and first suff. n j. I 

mVox f.n. NH edibility, eatability. 



T?9 adj. nh enforceable. [Coined from 
rpx (-to force, enforce), according to 
the pattern *?"?% which is used in NH to 
form adjectives denoting capability or 
fitness.] Derivative: nwpx,. 

nD'SNf.n. nh enforcement. [Verbal n. of 

T ' "I 

138. Seeisx 1 and first] 
ms'OK f.n. NH enforceability. [Formed 
fromvpx with suff. ma .] 

V3S to eat. [Aram. -Syr. ^3q, Arab. 
'dkala (-he ate), Ugar. 'kl, Akka. 
akdlu ( = to eat).l — -Qal "?38 tr. v. he 
ate, devoured, consumed, destroyed. 

— Niph. ^KJ was eaten, was devoured, 
was consumed. — Pi. ^sx mh he 
digested, consumed, burned. — Pu."?3£ 
was digested, was consumed, was 
burnt. — Hith. ^38nn pbh was digested, 
was consumed. — Hiph. 'T'pxn he 
caused to eat, gave to eat, fed, 
nourished; he caused to devour. 

— Hoph. ^fln NH was fed, was 
nourished. Derivatives: V"3lx, ■??*, n^px, 
fox, n^8, 'nsx, "?i3K, "rsx, n^px,, rf^n, 
m'TSxnn, ^b, ^5{fD- n^?$9, n^bijzj, 

^?'K m.n. food, meal. [From "?3X. cp. 

Aram.-Syr. x^pix, Ugar. 'fc/, Arab. 'aW, 

Ethiop. e&/, Akka. a&a/u ( = food) . ] 
nVsx f.n. eating, food. [Properly inf. of 

Vjx ( = he ate); see bin. cp. rgnx and 

words there referred to . I 

DlVsKm.n. NH populating. [Verbal n. of 

rPDlVpxf.n. NH population. [Formed 
from o , t?^3$ with suff. ma . ] 

irp^SK m.n. pi. l PBH crowd. 2 NH pop- 
ulation. [Formed from Gk. ochlos 
( = crowd, mob, multitude, populace), 
which is of uncertain origin. It is 
perhaps related to ochein ( = to carry), 
and cogn. with L. vehere ( = to carry, 
convey). See 'vehicle' and 'weigh' in my 
CEDEL and cp. 'ochlocracy' ibid.l 
Derivatives: o^3X, mp^pjc. 

f??Km.n. MH eater, glutton. iFormed 
from box with agential suff. ]Q.] Deriv- 
ative: nu'jpx. 

mjVsxf.n.NH gluttony. [Formed from 
ftsx with suff. ma. 1 

oVsk to populate. [Denominated from 
□■•p^pK.l — Pi. d^ox tr. v. NH he pop- 
ulated. — Pu. d"?3x nh was popula- 
ted. — Hith. D^Dsnn NH was popula- 
ted. Derivatives: d^sk, nioboxnn, 

nVgKf.n. NH consumption, tuberculosis 
(disease). [Coined by Eliezer ben 
Yehudah (1858-1922) from^K, ( = ate, 
consumed), according to the pattern 
n ^9 serving to form names of diseases. 
See np-jx and cp. words there referred 

D3K to become black. [Borrowed from 
Aram, nij^x (= black), which is of 
unknown origin.! — Nith. ojxrq PBH 
he became black or brown. Derivatives: 
D3X, n*w?$. 

Dbs adj. NH black, brown. [Coined by 
Eliezer ben Yehudah (1858-1922) 
through back formation from ojxn? 
( = he became black). Seen^ppx^ .] 

n'J^SXf.n. NH blackberry. [Coined from 
A ram. XJJ51K (= black) and suff. nig .1 

|?K adv. i surely, truly, indeed. 2 but. 
[Prob. formed from demonstrative 
pref. a$andj3"(=so).] 

]3K to locate. [Formed from jd^x ( = 
where).] — Pi. ]3X tr. v. NH he located. 

— Pu. 13$< NH was located. Derivatives: 

□ OBSseeappx. 

^"379?? f-n. (pi. nlXTtppx) corridor, 
porch. [Gk. exedra ( = a covered walk 
before the house, furnished with seats; 
seat, bench), from ex ( = out of), and 
edra (=seat), which derives from IE 
base *sed- (=to sit), cp. the second 
element in ynrnp.] 

po?K m.n. NH entertainment of a guest 
(in one's house), hospitality. [Verbal n. 

p3K to receive a guest, hospitalize. 
[Back formation from , xip3X.] —Pi. 
|P3X tr. v. PBH he received a guest. 

— Nith. ]P3xm PBH he was received (as 
a guest). Derivative: po?x. 

T«0?X m.n. PBH l guest. 2 host. [ Formed 
from Gk. xenos (= stranger, guest) with 
prosthetic ax and suff. *□. Gk. xenos is 
of uncertain origin. It is perhaps cogn. 
with L. hostis (= stranger, enemy); see 
'host' and 'landlord' in my CEDEL . ] 

IT393K, rnpsx f.n. 1 hospitality. 2 lodg- 
ing. 3 a gathering of scholars. [Gk. 
xenia { = hospitality), from xenos. See 
■•xipsx and cp. 'xenia' in my CEDEL . ] 

"ID3K to measure approximately. [Back 
formation from rnppx.] — Pi. npsx tr. 
v. nh he measured approximately. 

rnosg adv. pbh in the lump, as a whole, 
approximately. [A loan word from Gk. 
enschero ( = in a row), which is formed 
from en ( = in) and scheros ( = row, line), 
from schein (=to have, hold, possess). 
Seenp-op.] Derivative :"i03X. 

*pK' to press force. [JAram. 131$, Syr. 13X. 
(= he pressed, pressed hard, urged), Ak- 
ka. ukkupu (= to urge).] — Qal 138 tr. 
v. he pressed, urged (in the Bible, a 
hapax legomenon occurring Pr. 1 6: 26). 
Derivatives: 13X, 'yjB, n^px,. cp. ngax- 
cp. also 13X. . 

«px" to saddle. [Denominated from 13$ 
( = saddle).] — Pi. 138 tr. v. he saddled. 

— Pu. i?x NH was saddled. Deriv- 
atives: 113X.1?XO. 

t]3K m.n. pressure, burden (a hapax le- 
gomenon in the Bible, occurring Job 
33:7 in the form ^sx, 'my pressure'). 
[Fronrpx 1 .] 

1$K m.n. pbh (pi. o-'pj^, also mosxj 
saddle. [Together with Aram, and Syr. 
x^jix, of uncertain origin. Possibly a 
derivative of base 13X 1 . Arab, 'ikaf, 
'ukdf( = saddle) is an Aram, loan word. 
Derivatives :']3X l, ,i3i<,jlD3?<,m393x. 

jlD»Km.n.NH a small saddle. [Formed 
from 15X with dimin. sufT. |1a .] 

]D»^m.n.NH saddler. I Formed from 13$ 
with agential suff. ]?.] Derivative: 

mJDBKf.n.NH saddlery. [Formed from 
193$ with suff. ma. | 

H93K intr. v. pbh to pressure, to care, 
concern. [Of uncertain etymology. 
Perles connects it with Syr. «px (= he 
had regard to, was solicitous, took care 
of). Seeisx 1 .] Derivative: "Tigsx. 

'flSSKadj.NH concerned (usually used 
with the negative pref. 'ngshrx 1 ?, 'un- 
concerned, indifferent'). [Formed from 
ngsx with sufT. *a.] Derivative :m»ng3X. 

ni 9 ri93Kf.n.NH concern. [Formed from 
■•ngsx with suff. ma.] 

"IBS m.n. husbandman, peasant, farmer. 
[A loan word from Akka. ikkaru, 
whence also Aram. X33X. Syr. X"J3X (of 
s.m.). Arab, 'akkdr (of s.m.) is prob. an 
Aram, loan word.] Derivatives: ^x, 
jn3X,nn3X. n?x. 

"DX to become a farmer, to make a 
farmer of. [Denominated from H3X. 
— Pi. ^x tr. v. NH he settled somebody 
on the land, made a farmer of. — Hith. 
nsxnn nh he became a farmer.] 
Derivative: nnsxnn. 

'OZpllSK adj. fw achromatic. [Gk. 
achromatos ( = colorless), from 
privative pref. a- and chroma ( = surface 
of the body, skin, color of the skin, 
color), which is related to chroia (of 
s.m.), chrozein ( = to touch the surface 
of a body, to tinge, to color), from IE 
base *ghrou-, *ghro- (=to rub, smear, 
tinge), which is related to base *gher- 
( = to rub). See 'chrism' in my CEDEL. 
For the ending see suff. "»a . ] 

]1i$K m.n. nh a small farmer. [Formed 
from njx with dimin. suff. jla . ] 

yh3$ m.n. pbh name of a plant, possibly 
meaning 'ricinus'. [Of uncertain ori- 

roiJKf.n.NH husbandry, peasantry, 
farming. [Formed from iyv. with suff. 

njjD&f-n.PBH proclamation, declara- 



tion. I A secondary form of njn?n . I 
*"i$Sadj.NH of. or pertaining to. a 
husbandman, peasant or farmer: farm- 
erlikc. I Formed from tax with suff.'^. I 


rntjtoxf.n. NH |A collateral form of 

^$ i orig. a noun meaning 'nothing' (cp. 
Job 24:25 'PjfZ? "?kV Dtjn.'and will make 
my speech nothing worth'). 2 adv. ex- 
pressing prohibition, a negative wish or 
request, and meaning 'not', 'nay'. 
[Related to BAram. "?8, Ugar. V. Akka. 
'ul ( = not). Ethiop. albo ( = is not), and 
'akko, assimilated from 'alko ( = not). 
These words possibly derive from base 
b^K' ( = to be weak), cp. the first 
element in d^X ( = no rising up), nyr^X 
( = don't touch). -?-y*rr'?& ( = touch-me- 
not), ^rpx. -JnjCn-VK ( = forget-me- 

J^K pref. meaning 'not', 'non-', 'un-' (as 
in npn^K, non-metal). [From negative 
particle bx.l 

?«'m.n. I god. 2 God. [Of uncertain 
etymology. Formerly most scholars 
derived the word from the base Vix( = to 
be strong). Noldeke connected it with 
base Vix (=to be in front), which is 
probably identical orig. with bix ( = to be 
strong); seeVix 1 . According to Lagarde 
it is a derivative of rr>x ( = to strive or 
reach after a person), hence lit. means 
'He whom everyone strives to reach". 
Ewald and Konig derive it from base 
n"?x ( = to be strong). None of these 
etymologies, nor any others suggested, 
is convincing. Related to Phoen.'"?x,^x. 
Samaritan "?k. Ugar. V( = the mightest 
god. 'EI'). 'It ( = name of the wife of 'El'). 
Akka. ilu ( = god). Arab, al-ildt 
( -- goddess), cp. "?x !l . nbx". cp. also the 
second element in bxicr . | 

?K"m.n. power. [Prob. derived from V:x 
( = to be strong), and possibly tobx 1 .) 

"?«'" pron.. m. & f. these (occurring eight 
times in Pentateuch, always with the 
article, i.e. in the form bxn. and once, 
Chron. II 20:8. without the article). 
(According to Kuenen and Driver bx 
would merely represent an archaic 
spelling of n'jx. a spelling analogous to 
Phoen. ?K. However, this would not 
account for the fact that this "defective' 
spelling occurs in the Pentateuch only 
when the pron. has the article, whereas 
it is well understood that in such a case 
n'7Kn was sometimes shortened into 

Vk prep, denoting motion toward or to, 
or direction toward, and meaning'to. 
unto, toward, into. at. by'. [Shortened 
from ^x (which is preserved in poetry). 

cp. V?j?, poetical form of ty ( = on), and 
'"ij?, poetical form of t? ( = as far as, 
until). Related to Arab, 'ild ( = to. 
toward, up to). I 

n^s the first element in many 
theophorous names (as in "^V*- ^)i?V?)- 

K^K adv. pbh but, only, except. [Con- 
traction of x*? dx (lit.: 'if not, unless'), 
cp. Aram. x^x. Syr. x^x (contraction of 
a) jx), Arab, 'ilia, contraction of 'inld 
( = unless, if not, except, only, but). See 

31 K$Vs prep. PBH according to, in the 
opinion of. [Aram., formed from pref. 
ox ( - "?¥, on, upon), and emphatic st. of 
ab ( = heart), which is related to Heb. ab. 
For the second pref. see □} .[ 

DtaifKm.n. F\v album. [L. album (=a 
white tablet on which various kinds of 
notices were inscribed); properly neu- 
ter of albus (= white), used as a noun. 
Derivative^Dlabx. cp. r9 13 ^ K - 

'OlsVs adj. fw albumlike. [Formed from 

f OilWt m.n. fw albumin. [Ultimately 
from L. albumen ( = white of an egg), 
from albus (see olabx) . I 

OlltJB^K m.n. fw albatross (name of a 
sea bird). [Fren.. from Portuguese 
alcatraz (- cormorant, pelican), a var. 
of alcatruz ( = the bucket of a water 
wheel), from Arab, al-qddus ( = ma- 
chine for drawing water; jar), from al- 
(= the), and Gk./cados(=jar). which is a 
loan word from Heb. i; (of s.m.). The 
name was orig. applied to the pelican as 
'the water carrier", i.e. the bird that car- 
ries water in its pouch. For sense 
development cp. Arab, saqqd(y) 
( = pelican: lit.: 'water carrier'). The 
alternation of Portuguese alcatraz to 
Fren. albatros, etc. (after L. albus. 
'white'), was prob. suggested by the 
white color of the albatross. Modern 
Portuguese albatroz has been rebor- 
rowed from Fren. albatros .[ 

B^ariit, tt^arVKm.n. I hailstone. 2crys- 
tal. 3 meteorite. [Of uncertain origin. 
Possibly derives from Egypt. 
'rakabisa, shortened forms kabisa, 
bisa ( = rock. crystal). Some scholars 
connect tf'a^x with Akka. algamtshu, 
name of a kind of stone. Others think 
that the first syllable of n^ajVx is 
identical with the Arab. art. al and that 
the root of s^ is #aj, which is related 
to Arab, jdbasa {- congealed, 
shrank). | 

rnBJ.VK f.n. fw algebra. [From Arab, al- 

jabar, 'reunion (of broken parts in 

equations)', short for al-jabr wa'l- 

muqdbala 1 ' ( = reunion and 

comparison), title of a work written by 

Mohammed ibn Musa al-Khowdrizmi, 
great mathematician of the ninth cen- 
tury. The title refers to, and deals with, 
the solution of equations, which was 
the original scope of algebra. A l-jabr is 
formed from al- ( = the) and jabr 
( = reunion), which is related to the verb 
jdbara (= he bound together, united), 
cp. 'algorism' in my CEDEL.I Deriv- 
ative :"na^x. 

'"IM^K adj. algebraic. [From rna^j. For 
the ending see suff. '^ . | 

^Rm.n.FW Algol (name of a star). 
[Lit.: 'the Demon Star', from Arab, al- 
ghul (=the demon), from al- (=the), 
and ghul {- demon), which derives 
from ghdla ( = he took suddenly) . I 

nU^K adj. fw allegorical. [Back forma- 
tion from nnlj^x. For the ending see 
suff. v;. I 

nnttVxf.n. FW allegory. [Gk. allegoria 
( = figurative language), lit.: 'a speaking 
about (seemingly) something else'. 
Compounded of alios (- other) and 
agoreyein (= to speak in the assembly), 
from agora {- assembly).] 

"U^K adj. fw elegiac. [Back formation 
from nrj^x. For the ending see adj. suff. 

v. I 

njlVsfji.FW elegy. [Gk. elegeia, short 
for elegeia ode (= an elegiac song), cp. 
'elegy' and 'elogium' in my CEDEL .] 


'WlVgadj.FW elegant. [Formed with 
adj. suff. '^from Fren. elegant, from L. 
elegdns {- choice, tasteful, elegant), a 
collateral form ofeligens, pres. part, of 
eligere (=to choose, pick out), from e 
( = out of), and legere ( = to gather, 
collect, pick out, choose, read). See 
rl-j>. | Derivative: nvp^x. 

m'ttSlVx f.n. fw elegance. [Formed from 
■t?)^>x with suff. rn^.l 

1"U^K adv. fw allegro (music). [It. 
allegro ( = cheerful, gay), from L. alacer 
( = lively, cheerful, brisk), cp. 1cn*x .] 

1»na^K adv. fw allegretto (music). [It. 
allegretto, dimin. of allegro. Seei"oVx.| 

jn^K m.n. fw Aldebaran (astronomy). 
[Arab. al-Dabaran,\\\..: 'the following 
(star)', from ddbara(= he followed); see 
•m ". So called in reference to its posi- 
tion with regard to Pleiades . I 

aV« to worship as a deity, deify. 
[Denominated from alVft. cp. Arab. 
'allaha (= he deified), which is 
denominated from 'ildh ( = god).| 
— Hiph. n'Vxn MH he adored or 
worshipped as a deity, deified. De- 
rivative: nrj^n. 

?Vk see gVrx,. 

n^K'to curse, swear. [Related to Arab. 



aid ( = hc swore). Of uncertain origin.! 
— Qal rr?x tr. v. i he cursed; 2hc swore, 
took on oath. — Hiph. n^n he caused 
to swear. Derivatives: n^x (n.), rffxln", 

nVK"to wail, lament. (Related to Aram, 
x^fl. Syr. x^x, (=he wailed), cp. Arab. 
alia ( = he sighed). Possibly of imitative 
origin. — Qal n^x tr. v. he wailed, 
lamented (a hapax legomenon in the 
Bible, occurring Joel 1:8). I Derivatives: 
^Vx.n^X. C P- ^-ty*- 

nVxf.n. l curse; cursing. 2 oath, obliga- 
tion by oath. [From nb>x'. cp. Arab. 
'o/MU'H'cr*, 'iluwwa h (=oath).J 

nVK'f.n. terebinth, oak. |A var.of rr?x '.] 

nVs"f.n. PBH club, bat, cudgel. iRelated 
to Aram. xnftx. Arab. 'alla h ( = spear) .| 

nVN'f.n.(pl. D^x. also nV?x) terebinth, 
oak. [Prob. standing for n^x and 
properly denoting a large, strong tree, 
from "?ix (= to be strong), cp. fftx, n^x'. 
For sense development cp. the related 
BAram., Aram, and MH j^x, which 
simply means 'tree'. I 

nVx"f.n. MHgoddess. [f. formedfrom^x' 
( = god). cp. Akka./7/w( = goddess). I 

nVs pron. m. & f. pi. these. IRelated to 
MH ^x, Phoen. "?x, "7xn, Punic ily, 
BAram. n^x, also ^>x, pVx. Aram, yin, 
Arab, 'uld, Ethiop. 'elu, SArab.ibx.'Vx, 
rjx^x. cp. V.^x.] 

nirf^K, DinVht f.n. divinity. [Formed from 
rfrx, with suff. nvj. cp. Aram, xni^x,, 
Syr. xmn^x,, Arab. 'ildha>\ 'uluha h , 
'uluhiyya h (= divinity). | 

rrfVs, 'nlVKadj. mh Godlike, divine. 
[Formed from rftx, with suff. vj.1 cp. 
Syr. xvbx,, Arab. 'Udhiyy{= divine). I 

D'rfrK, D'ntVg m.n. pi. i gods. 2 God (pi. 
of majesty). 3 supernatural beings. 
4judges. [According to some scholars 
D'rbK, is the pi. of fjV?!*, according to 
others it is the pi. of "7X1.1 

I^K conj. if. [Contraction of dx and ib. 
According to Kautzsch, an Aramaism. 
cp. Aram. iVx. Syr. iVk (= iQ, Arab, 'in 
lau. cp. also the first element in -^Vx 
and the second element in iV?^ and in 

•l^Kpron. m.&f. pbh these. [See n^x .[ 

W^Km.n.FW alluvium. [L. alluvio 
( = an overflow, inundation, alluvial 
land; lit.: * a washing upon'), from al- 
luere ( = to wash up or against), from at 
(-to, toward) and luere ( = to wash), 
which is related to lavdre ( = to wash) . 1 

*^??' ^N m.n. i god. 2 God. [According 
to some scholars gV?x is a back for- 
mation from the pi. D'rrftx,, this latter 
being the plural of?x' with the infix n, 
which has an analogy in Heb.n1n^x,pl. 

of dx {- mother), in Aram, nnax, pi. of 
ax ( = father), nnijtf, pi. of x^ ( = name), 
to which may be added Ugar. 'mlu, pi. 
of 'ml (= Hcb. nijx, 'bondwoman'), 
bhtm, pi. of bt ( = Heb. rrg, 'house'), and 
'Hit, pi. of 'It (- goddess), f. of 7 ( = Heb. 
■?x', 'god'). Others see in nV?}* the orig. 
form from which the pi. □ , rriVx i was 
formed. The consideration of the fact 
that Vx has the pi. o^x, shows that the 
second view is surely preferable to the 
first. Fleischer sees in alVft the deriv- 
ative of base n^x, which he connects 
with Arab, aliha ( = he sought refuge in 
anxiety), whence nV?x would have 
meant orig. 'fear', hence 'object of fear 
or reverence', 'the revered one". 
However, Noldeke and others are 
prob. right when they maintain that the 
verb aliha in the above sense is prob. 
denominated from 'ilah ( = god) . I 

niVsadj.MH infected, contaminated. 
[Pass. part. ofrt l ?x.Secrr?x.| 

niVsm.n.NH infection, contamination. 
[Verbal n. of (the otherwise not used) 
rr?x, Pi.ofnVx.Seenbx.l 

'iVk m.n. pbh aloe (plant). [L. aloe, from 
Gk. aloe, prob. borrowed from Heb. 
o'Vnx,, nftnx,. which are perhaps bor- 
rowed from Old I. agaruh, aguruh 
( = aloewood).| 

VlVsm.n. pbh 'Elul', the sixth month of 
the Jewish year. [Akka. uliilu, elulu 
( = harvest, harvest time; lit.: 'the time 
when the produce of the land is brought 
in'). Related to Aram, bty {-he 
brought in), Aram.-Syr. xr)^x § (=that 
which is brought in, produce, harvest), 
Heb. WK = yoke), Akka. allu. ullu ( = 
yoke, chain), Arab, ahalla ( = he put in. 
thrust in), ghall (=iron ring round a 
prisoner's neck at which his hands are 
tied), cp. V?y".[ Derivative: ^Vx,. 

K^K, ^iVn conj. PBH if not. but for, 
were it not for. [Compounded of iVx 
xV( = if not). For the dissimilation ofx^ 
toxVinx^Vx sccx^.l 

"•Vl^Nadj.PBH of, or pertaining to, Elul. 
[ Formed from V^K, with suff. V. I 

D^K m.n.FW alum. [Ultimately from L. 
alumen (=alum; lit.: 'bitter salt'). See 
'ale'inmyCEDEL. cp. oiyi^x, .[ 

D-lVxm.n.NH sheaving, stacking. [Ver- 
bal n. ofDVN(= he sheaved). Sceo^x'. | 

ffl^S^Sm.n.FW aluminum, alumi- 
t • -i 

nium. I Modern L. aluminium, coined 
by the English chemist Sir Humphrey 
Davy (1778-1829) from L. alum 
( = alum). He gave the new clement the 
name aluminum, but changed it later to 
aluminium. Scea^A 
jftxm.n.oak. I Properly 'a large strong 

tree", and like n^x ( = terebinth; oak) 
derived from Vix 1 (= to be strong), cp. 
lti>N m.n. oak. IRelated to Akka alldnu; 
related also tofiVx, to which it stands as 
rr?x' stands to n^x'.l 

rvpjlVN. f.n. pbh bathing sheet; towel. I A 
collateral form ofn'tniV. For the pref. of 
n-ta^x, see prosthetic. :x.| 

■•N^iVn, ■'NjrjVKm.n.NH stretcher-bearer. 
[Formed fromxj^x, with suffix:.:. [ 

nga^K, nja^Kf.n.PBH stretcher. |Of 
uncertain origin; possibly borrowed 
from Pers. balank (= bed, litter), a word 
going back ultimately to Old I. pal- 
yankah, paryankah, which prob. 
means lit. 'that which bends around the 
body', and is compounded of pau 
(= around), and dncati (-bends, 
curves). See 'peri-' and 'angle' ( = cor- 
ner) in my CEDEL.] Derivative ^Xj?}^. 

'pVK' m.n. chief of a tribe. [From i^x 
( = part of a tribe), cp. Ugar. 'lp (of 
sjn.). cp. i^x 1 ", t]Wx lv and ^k" . | 

fpVN" m.n. an intimate friend. [From 

^Vk 1 " m.n. MH master (in rnrnn , 9iVx, 
'Master of the Torah'), a title of honor 
for the great scholars of the gaonic 
period. |FromiiVx'.[ 

*pVx" m.n. NH 'aluph' — a rank in the 
Israel Army corresponding to that of a 
major general. I From iiVx' . | 

I^Vx' m.n. NH champion in a sport or in 
a game. [From l^x 1 .] Derivative: 

"yiVK" m.n. bullock, cow. [Derived from 
I'yx' and orig. meaning 'a tamed ani- 
mal", cp. I^X"-] 

rpVNm.n.MH taming, domesticating. 
I Verbal n. oflVx. See^x 1 . [ 

fl^N adj. MH forced, compelled, coerced. 
I Properly part, of the (otherwise not 
used)Qalof r ''7X(q.v.).| 

Y&K m.n.MH forcing, compulsion, coer- 
cion. I Verbal n. offVx. Pi. of J^x .| 

jiVk m.n. NH atrophy. [Formed from i i^x 
(= not), and ]T (= nourishing), part. ofpT 
{= to nourish).) 

nVx to be infected. I Possibly related to 
Arab, itdlaha il-labnu (-the milk 
turned sour), waliha 1 ' (^ thick milk). I 

— Qal rr?x MH infected, contaminated. 

— Pi. nVx MH he infected, con- 
taminated. — Pu. n^x mh was infected, 
was contaminated. — Niph. n^3 was 
polluted, was infected, was con- 
taminated. Derivatives: n^x. mVx, mVx, 
nrrVx,. nrr?^, mnVxn. n^. 

n"?N m.n.MH infection, contaminauon. 

* tv 

pollution. [Denominated from nVx.l 
Derivative: tj^x. 



Bin^x m.n.NH wireless. [Coined by 
Ithamar Bcn-Avi (.1882-1943) from 
the pref. ; ;"?x (= not), and wn (= thread, 

line). I Derivatives: 'xp*rr>x. 'p^x, 

wn^m.n.NH broadcasting. [Verbal n. 

ofon^x. Seeon^x.l 
mxpinVxf.n. NH wireless operation. 

| Formed from'xpin^x with] 
'KCin^Sm.n.NH telegraphist; radio 

technician. [Formed from wn^x with 

suff. 'K^.l Derivative:mx^n^>x. 
^rrVxadj.NH wireless. [Formed from 

wn^x with suff. ^.J 
jpinVt*; m.n.NH wireless operator, radio 

technician. [Formed from wn^x with 

agential suff. Jvl 
Bfln^X m.n.NH anesthesia [Coined from 

the pref. :^x (= not), and Wn (= sense).! 

Derivative: tfnVx. 
B^n^K m.n.NH anesthesizing. [Verbal n. 


»rr>K to transmit by wireless, radio. [De- 
nominated from wrr>x .] — Pi. Drr>x tr. 
v. nh he transmitted by wireless, 
radioed. — Pu. ordx NH was trans- 
mitted by wireless, was radioed. 
Derivative: D^n^x. 

T?nV« m.n.NH stainless. [Compounded 
of the pref. :^x ( = not) and i^n ( = rust) .] 

tfrhx to anesthetize. [Denominated 
from tfinbx.l —Pi. tfrfrx tr. v. NH he 
anesthetized. — Pu. tfn^x was anes- 
thetized. Derivatives: tfirr>x, tfrt^xp, 

vxp^Nm.n.FW Altari, name of a first 
magnitude star. [Arab, al-tdir, short- 
ened from al-nasr al-tdir ( = the flying 
eagle), from al ( = the), and fair, part, of 
ldra(= it flew). | 

io?K, d'"?x m.n. fw alto (music). [It. alto. 
from L. alius ( = high, lofty, tall; high, 
shrill of voice). Alius is the p. part, of 
alere ( = to nourish), and lit. means 
'nourished, grown up". Alere derives 
from IE base *al- (=to grow), cp. the 
first element impo^x . | 

-lOl^p^Xm.n.FW altimeter. [A hybrid 
coined from L. alius ( = high) and Gk. 
metron(= measure). Seeo^x and nop.) 

Dnxnp^Xm.n.FW altruism. [Fren. al- 
truisme. coined by Auguste Comte in 
1830 from L. alter (--another), on 
analogy of Fren. autrui (-another), 
whose ending is due to the influence of 
lui ( - he). See nnu>x and suff. or*;, and 

DP^xnpVxm.n.FW altruist. [See 
orxnpVx and suff. op's .| 

nypyjpVxf.n.FW alternative. [Ultimate- 
ly from the Med. L. adj. allerndtivus 
(alternative), from L. alierndtus. p. 

part, of alterndre ( = to do first one 
thing, then another, to alternate), from 
alternus ( = onc after the other), from 
alter {= the other of two), which stands 
for aliteros, alitros, altros, and is 
formed with the comparative suff. -ter 
from base *ali, whence also alius 
( = another). See nnttVx . ] 
■•Vx prep. to. toward. [ Poetic form of Vx . ] 
TPVxm.n.FW alibi. [L. alibi (= else- 
where), compounded of alius ( = other) 
and ibi (= there). For the first element 
see nyittVx. The second element derives 
from IE *i-dha, *i-dhe, from the 
pronominal base */-; see 'idem' in my 


llDJ'Vxm.n.FW alligator. [Corruption 
of Sp. el lagarto, which is shortened 
from el lagarto de Indias, name of the 
cayman, lit.: 'the lizard of the (West) 
Indies'. Sp. el (=the), derives from L. 
ille (= that one), lagarto comes from L. 
lacertus ( = lizard). See 'ille' and 'lizard' 
in my CEDEL.] 

Mxm.n.NH the unconscious. [Form- 

-iv i - 

ed from pref. c*?x ( = not), and yjj 
( = knowledge).] 

rrVxm.n. 1 fat tail (of sheep). 2lobe (of 
the ear). [Related to Aram, xrrVx, Syr. 
xn'Vx (= fat tail of sheep), Arab. a'lya h 
(ofs.m.). cp. jV^xivVt*.! 

n^X f.n. pbh lamentation. (Formed from 
nbx" with first suff. n;:.] 

]\"h* m.n. pbh thumb; big toe [ cp. 
Aram. xjVpx (of s.m.) (lit.: 'something 
strong or fat'), and related tonjbjj(q.v.). 
cp. Arab. 'alydn{ = having a fat tail).] 

nrpVKf.n. MH infection, contamination. 
[Verbal n. ofrr?x. Seerftxand first suff. 

n^Kf.n. nh elite. [Fren., from Old 
Fren. eslite, f. of eslit, p. part, esline 
( = to choose), from L. electus, p. part. 
ofeligere{ = to pick out. choose) .] 

"^ntrV* f-n. fw alliteration. [Modern L. 
alliterdtio, from alliterdtus, p. part, of 
alliterdre (=to begin with the same 
letter), from ad ( = to) and littera 
( = letter). For the ending see suff. rr-f a] 

V^X m.n. I idol, false god. 2no value, 
worthlessness. [Prob. related to Syr. 
'allil (= weak, feeble, low), Akka. uldlu 
(=wcak). SeeVjx 1 .] Derivatives: n'^fl, 

my?x,, ^(j. 

n^Vxf.rLMH female idol, goddess. 
[Formed from V"?^ with first 

mV'VKf.n.NH paganism. [Formed from 
V?x, with suff. mj.] 

"•^'Vx, adj. NH idolatrous, pagan, hea- 
thenish. [Formed from "rtyj" with suff. 

O^Xadj. pbh strong, violent [From 
oVx 1 ". cp. o>x.| Derivative :nw>Vx. 

nwVx f.n. NH violence, terror. [ Formed 
from o^x with suff. ma.] Derivative: 


"TUD^Kadj. NH terroristic. [Formed 
from D^x with suff. 'a.] 

*\^?K adj. nh tameable. [Formed from 
^Vx (= to tame) according to the pattern 
V'V?, which is used in NH to form ad- 
jectives denoting capability or fit- 

rUD'Vxf.n.NH championship. [Formed 
from ^Vx" ( = champion), with suff. 


n09>>K, npsVx f.n. nh ellipse. [L. ellipsis 
(= want, defect, omission, ellipse), from 
Gk. elleipsis ( = a falling short, defect), 
from elleipein {- to fall short of, fail, 
omit), from en (=in) and leipein ( = to 
leave, forsake, be behind), which is 
cogn. with L. linquere{ = to leave). See 
'ellipse' in my CEDEL.] Derivatives: 


TXlOB'Vx, TXIobVx. m.n. NH ellipsoid. 

[Formed from L. ellipsis (see hd^Vx) 

and Gk. oeides ( = like), from eidos 

(=form, shape). Seenx***rx.] 
'PS^K. 'OsVk adj. NH elliptic, elliptical. 

[ Formed from npyVx with suff. , 'J. ] 
Tpj7'VK m.n. fw elixir. [Med. L. from 

Arab, al-iksir, which is formed from 

Arab, al- ( = the) and Gk. xerion (= dry 

medicinal substance, cataplasm), from 

xeros{- dry). I 
n^TXf.n. PBH wailing woman. [From 

Aram, xn^x, from x^ ( = he wailed). 

Seen 1 ™".] 

nivVx f.n. PBH faggot. [Of uncertain ori- 
gin. Levy, Kohut and Jastrow connect 
it with Heb. n^x ( = fat tail) . ] 

^InlS^Xm.n.FW alcohol. [Arab, alkohl, 

t - 

vulgar pronunciation of alkuhl, from al 
(=the), and kohl, resp. kuhl (= anti- 
mony used for painting the eyelids), 
which is related to Heb. "?n? ( = he 
painted the eyelids with antimony). Its 
modem sense ('highly rectified spirits') 
is due to the analogy of the fitness of 
this powder, cp. Vnb.] 

'XB'sVxm.n. fw alchemist. [Formed 
from "vp^x with suff.'xa cp. 'xp*? .] 

nvrsVxf.n. FW alchemy. [Ultimately 
from Arab, al-kimiyd, from al ( = the) 
and Gk. chemeia, properly 'the art of 
the Blackland (Egypt)', from Gk. 
chemia (= Blackland, Egypt), from 
Egypt, khem, khame ( = black). The 
derivation from Gk. chymeia ( = 
pouring), from the stem of cheein ( = to 
pour) is folk etymology, cp. 'vp''? .] 

JlO^xm.n. PBH diagonal (line). (Bor- 



rowed from Gk. Lixon, neuter loxos 
( = standing crosswise, oblique). See 
'loxo' in my CEDEL.I Derivatives: 

■»jlD3^X adj. NH diagonal, oblique. 

[Formed from f 10 ?^ w '*h s "fl"- '^-l 
Derivative: rn*?lD?^. 

m'JloaVxf.n.NH diagonality. oblique- 
ness. I Formed from 'Jlo^N, with suff. 
rPJlDsVx adv. NH diagonally, obliquely. 
[Formed from Jlo^K, with adv. suff. 
V?K' to be weak. [Assumed base of "?x 
(=not) and V'Vx ( = idol). For sense 
development cp. Akka. ?//( = not). ullu 
( = nothing, nothingness), uldlu ( = 
weak).Syr.V , &(= weak. feeble, low).] 
VVx"to spy out. I From Aram. ^x( = he 
spied out), which is prob. a secondary 
form of ^ ( = he entered, went to and 
fro), for whose etymology see "7i?. For 
the change of v to x cp. obn "i For sense 
development cp. Heb. bsn ( = he spied), 
which is denominated from byi ( = 
foot). I —Pi. VVx pbh he spied out, 
searched into. — Pu. ^jj NHwas spied 
out, was searched into. 
VVx m.n. PBH flayed-off flesh(?). [ A word 
of uncertain origin and meaning .) 

'VVx interj. woe! alas! [Prob. of imitative 
origin, cp. Akka. allu ( = woe), cp. also 

dVx 1 to bind. [ cp. Arab, wa lam (= saddle 
strap), and lamma ( = he gathered, col- 
lected), cp. also d^x".) —PL dVx he 
bound (into sheaves). — Pu. d^x was 
bound (into sheaves). Derivatives: d^Vk, 

dVn 11 to be dumb, to be silent. [Base of 
oH (adj.). d^k, '•J'aVx. Usually derived 
from abx 'and explained as lit. meaning 
'to be bound in one"s speech'. There is 
hardly any relation between D^x'i 
Arab, 'alima ( = he felt pain), Syr. d'jx, 
( = he kept anger).! — Niph. d^xj he 
became dumb, became silent. — Hith. 
oVxnn pbh. — Nith. DVxn? pbh he 
became dumb. — Hiph. D'Vxrt mh he 
made dumb. Derivatives: d^x, dVx, 
"•jla^g. ma^xn, ma"?xnn, d^xj. 

d!?k "' to be strong. [Base of d'Vx 
(= strong, violent). oVx ( = violent 
person, terrorist). According to my 
opinion this base is a later var. of base 
o^y :: (-to be mature: whence DVy, 
'young man", na 1 ??, 'young woman', 
etc.), orig. 'to be strong", as seen in 
Aram. oby t (=was strong), Arab. 
ghalitna (was strong; was 
marriageable). For the inter- 
changeability of » and x see the 
introductory article to letter x. This 

change is more general in Aram. cp. 
Aram. x$?¥ and x^DX( = gallnut); Heb. 
rtj-jv; and Aram. xj^-wr ( = willow); Heb. 
cr^xx ( - Lizy phus Lotus) and A rab. ddl 
(of s.m.) and Syr. x^xy ( = briars). I 

— Pi. o^x MH he strengthened, fortified. 

— Hiph. D^bKn MH(of s.m.). 

dVn adj. dumb, mute. [From o^x".! 
Derivative: nra'px. 

oVx m.n. dumbness, muteness, silence 
(occurring in the Bible only Ps. 56:1 
and 58:2). [ Derived from q"?x".] 

oVxm.n. pbh violent person, terrorist 
I From Aram. cVx ( = strong, violent). 
SeeDbx" 1 .] 

»»^X, Jia^K (also D56x)m.n.(pl. D'la^x, 
resp. D'lia^x. also o-a^x) la tree 
mentioned in the Bible, prob. the san- 
dalwood, znh coral. [Of uncertain 
origin, cp. Ugar. 'Img ( = name of a 
kind of tree). I 

na^x f.n. (pi. D's^. also nlaVx) sheaf, 
bundle. [Formed from D^x ' with first 
suff. n:.:.| 

Jia^x, jaVx m.n. widowhood (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring Is. 
47:9). [Back formation fromnja^x. cp. 
Ugar. 'lmn.\ 

JiaVx m.n. NH widowing. [Verbal n. of 
jo)k. SeejnVx.] 

JiaVx m.n. nh dumbness, muteness. 
[Formed from d'px (=dumb) with suff. 
11-. I 

'SiaVx adj. someone, uncertain, anony- 
mous, unnamed (in the Bible always 
used in the phrase ^laVx ""JlVs, 'an 
unknown manVa certain man').|Prob. 
derived from d^x" and properly 
meaning 'one whose name is 
unknown". I Derivative invjtoVg. 

nwlaVgf.n. nh namelessness, anonym- 
ity. I Formed from "^a^x with suff. 

n^a^Kf.n.MH dumbness, muteness. 
[Formed from D"?x(^dumb), Pi. ofa^x, 
with suff. n=o. I 

nia'rxm.n. 1 deathlessness, immortality. 
2NH paronychia (plant). 3 immortal. 
[Orig. spelled rno-Vx (a hapax lego- 
menon in the Bible, occurring Pr. 
12:28). Formed from pref. a"?x (=not) 
and nja( = death).! Derivative^nla^x. 

"•nla^X adj. NH deathless, immortal. 
[Formed fromnio^x with suff. ■•^. I 

na'a^X f.n. NH anhydride. [Coined from 
: iVx, ( = not) and no'D ( = hydrate) . I 

la'aVxm.n.MH almemar. [Arab, al- 
minbar (= the pulpit), from al- (=the), 
and minbar, which orig. denoted 'an 
(elevated) seat", and is a loan word 
from Ethiop. minbar ( = seat). This 
latter derives from Ethiop. nabara 

(he was sitting), which is related to 
Arab, nabara (-he raised, elevated). 
For sense development cp. Arab. 
jalasa (-he sat down, was sitting), 
julils ( = sitting, sitting down, accession 
to thethrone).| 
ty)9, xVaVx adv. pbh 1 if (mostly 
before a verb). 2 if not, were it not for 
(mostly before a noun). (According to 
Barth, compounded of 'VijVx. which 
corresponds exactly to Arab, "immdla 
(= would that), having been formed 
from immd-le, in whose first element 
the first m was assimilated to the / of the 
second element -le; this latter element 
itself prob. related to the first element in 
Arab, lay-ia ( = would that) . 1 
]aVx m.n. widower (a hapax legomenon 
in the Bible, occurring Jer. 51:5). [Back 
formation from nja^x. cp. Aram. 
x^d-ix. Syr. xVanx, Arab. armal{ = wid- 
ower).! Derivative: iab>x. 

]'aVx see ria^x. 

]aVx to reduce to widowhood. [De- 
nominated from njo"?x, resp. ja^x.] 

— Pi. ja"?x tr. v. pbh he reduced to 
widowhood; widowed. — Hith. laVxnn. 

— Nith. laVxm pbh he became a 
widower. Derivatives :]U^x. nuaVxnn. 

njaVx m.n. widow. [Related to Phoen. 
na"?x. Ugar. 'Imm, Akka. almatiu, 
Aram.-Syr. xnVonx, Arab, 'armala 1 ' 
(= widow). Of uncertain etymology. 
Barth derives these words from base 
Van, whence also Arab, murmil, armal 
( = needy, helpless). Noldeke and Ru- 
zicka connect them with Arab, 'alima 
(=he felt pain).! Derivatives: ja^x, 

nuaVx f.n. widowhood. [Formed from 
nja^x with suff. ma. Since the word 
derives from nja^x, the correct form is 
rmabx and notnua^x, as Even Shoshan 
and most other lexicographers would 
have it. See mb>a"ix. For the form cp. 
mxV?. cp. alsoruDx^^ae.l 

ts?a^m.n. NH element. [Ultimately 
from L. elementum. Of the many 
etymologies suggested, the most 
probable is that which derives the word 
elementum from elpantum ( = ivory 
letterX an ancient Latin loan word from 
Gk. Elephanta, accusative elephas (= 
elephant; ivory). The change of elepan- 
tum to elementum is prob. due to 
Etruscan influence. See 'elephant' in 
my CEDEL and cp. V 1 ?-! Derivative: 

noaaVxadj.FW elementary. [From 

• * I V V V J 

D}a^x. For the ending see adj. suff. 
'-ary' in my CEDEL.] Derivative: 

rwi^Vx f-n. elementariness. [Formed 



from ~>9?9>x with suff. m^ . | 

TjjjjV^lm.n. mh almanac. [Med. L. al- 
manachus, from Gk. almenkhiaka 
( = calendars), which is prob. of Coptic 
origin; prob. influenced in form by a 
confusion with Arab, al-mandh ( = the 
gift). Sp.-Arab. al-mandh ( = the al- 
manac) is itself a loan word from Med. 
nsng^Kf.n. nh non-metal. [Coined from 

:^$ (=not), and n^ns (= metal).] 

Derivative: v^r^x. 

"•nsngVKadj.NH non-metallic. [Formed 

from nsn? 1 ?!? with suff. '3. 1 
nn?J^Kseen , pjftx. 
t|10?K m.n. NH endlessness; the infinite. 

[Formed from ^k ( = not), and «rlD 

(= end). Derivative:'?^. 
»pl0?K adj. nh endless, infinite. [Formed 

from T^x with suff. '3.1 

'poVxadj.NH elastic. [Modern L. elas- 
ticus. from Gk. elastikos, from elan 
(= to drive, strike), cp. 'elasmo-' in my 
CEDEL and words there referred to. I 
Derivative: ruvtj^x. 

ni»?D?Rf.n. NH elasticity. [Formed from 
tpo^K with suff. ni^.l 

loVKm.n. PBH hazelnut. [From Aram.- 
Syr. xn^x, which is of unknown 

I^K' a base prob. meaning orig. 'to be 
linked together, be connected', [cp. 
Akka. uldpu (=band), elippu ( = ship), 
whence arose the meanings 'to join, be 
familiar with". Related to Arab, alifa, 
wdlafa (=was acquainted with, was 
familiar with, was accustomed to, 
learned). Aram. "ft*. «^, Syr. ty (=he 
learned), Ugar. 'lp {- confederates).] 

— Qal *$* he learned (in the Bible 
occurring only on the imp. ^xn). — Pi. 
1>k i he trained, taught; 2NH he tamed, 
domesticated. — Pu. iVx nh iwas 
trained, was taught; 2 was tamed, was 
domesticated. Derivatives: i^x 1 ", iitot, 
Rto i?KQ. itoj?, prob. also -ftx 1 and 
I^k ". 

•pK" to bring forth thousands. [De- 
nominated from *pK' ( = thousand). I 

— Hiph. •y , ?xn brought forth thousands 
(in the Bible a hapax lcgomenon occur- 
ring Ps. 144:18). 

H^K'm.n. thousand. [Related to Moabite 
I^k, BAram. «^x, x^x, Aram. i^x, 
x^x, Ugar. 'lp, Arab, alf (= one 
thousand), Ethiop. Tigre, Amharic 'elf 
( - ten thousand). All these words prob. 
derive from "px and orig. denoted 
'group, crowd', cp. ■pK", "px", ■pS 1 ". 

^g" m.n. (used only in the pi.) oxen, 
bullocks, cows, cattle, [cp. Phoen.-px, 
Ugar. 'lp, Akka. alpu ( = cattle). These 
words are perhaps derivatives of "px 1 
and orig. meant 'tamed animals', cp. 
1^8"! cp. also-px.] 
H^K '"m.n. part of a tribe. I Prob. a 
derivative of -px ( = a thousand), and 
orig. meaning 'part of a tribe consisting 
of a thousand people'. For sense de- 
velopment cp. Akka. li'mu ( = a 
thousand), which is prob. related to 
Heb. crip( = people).] 

f]Vx f.n. pbh (pi. I'p'ps) 'aleph' — name of 
the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet. 
[Pausal form of"px( = ox; secpx'); so 
called in allusion to the ancient Hebrew 
form of this letter, representing the 
head of an ox. cp. x^xi k^x". cp. 
also the first element in n'a-'px.l 
Derivative: jId^x. 

KD^K ' f.n. pbh name of the letter 'ftx in 
Aram. [ See "px.l 

KS^K " f.n. PBH (pi. f^x) alpha. [Aram., 
from Gk. alpha, from Heb. «px (cp. Syr. 
x^x). The final a was added because a 
Greek word cannot end with a ph. cp. 
'alpha'inmy CEDEL.] 

iva-t^N, ivas^Km.n. pbh, resp. nh al- 
phabet. [Compounded of 'px and n"3.] 
Derivative: Ti'gipx. 

'IVBdVk adj. nh alphabetic, alphabetical. 
[Formed from rra^x with suff. ' £ . ] 

n^Kf.n. l pbh boat. 2 nh launch. [From 
Aram, xg'rx.] 

flD^X m.n. nh a child's primer, an ABC 
book. [ Formed from «px with suff. J1 ::. I 

D'dVk m.n. two thousand. [Dual of «px 
(- a thousand).] 

^sVk adj. FW Alpine. [Formed with 
suff. , P from L. Alpinus, from Alpes 
( = the Alps); lit.: 'the High Moun- 
tains'), from non-Aryan base *alb- 
( = high; mountain), whence also Gaelic 
alp, Welsh ailp (=a high mountain).] 
Derivative: opT? 1 ?*- 

DD'J'S^m.n. FW Alpinist. [Formed 

i ■ ■ i - 


n'? 1 ?*? f.n. NH one thousandth, a thou- 
sandth part. [Formed from -pX' ( = a 
thousand) with dimin. suff. n'~. ] 

]^1J m.n. l PBH teaching, instruction. 
2NH'ulpan' —a school for the inten- 
sive study of Hebrew. [Aram. ]?)$, 
xj^x (= teaching, instruction), from 
<ftx (=he learned), -px (=he trained, 
taught, instructed). See "px'.l Deriv- 
ative: rn^x. 

n'JsVjt f.n. NH a small 'ulpan' (see rV^), 
i.e. a school using shorter courses for 
learning Hebrew. [Formed from j^x 
with dimin. suff.rr;j.] 

D^K mn. PBH pan. [Formed with pros- 
thetic nx from Gk. lopas (- a flat dish, 
plate), which is related to lopos ( = shell, 
husk, bark, peel), lepis ( = scale, husk, 
shell), lepain ( = to strip ofT the rind or 
husks; peel, bark), from IE base *lep- 
(=to peel, scale). For further deriv- 
atives of this base see 'leper' in my 

n^sVx sec n^'Vx. 

■psIdsVk see txId^Vx. 

'OdVk see 'P^'Vx. 

ybx to be narrow, to urge. [Syr. f^x^he 
pressed), J Aram. xj^x( = trouble, dis- 
tress), Mand. xyPx ( = narrow), xsx^n 
( = torment, torture), cp. Akka. shulusu 
(=to close).] — Niph. ]pgj NH was 
compelled, was forced. — Pi. f^x he 
urged, compelled, forced. — Pu. f ^x 
MH was compelled, was forced. Deriv- 
atives : fPx, fftx, rux^xn, y)\iq. ]p$. 

Dip^K m.n. no rising up (a hapax lego- 
menon in the Bible, occurring Pr. 30:3 1 
in the phrase lay mp'fx p$i, which is 
usually rendered by 'and the king 
against whom there is no rising up'). 
[Of uncertain origin; possibly a com- 
pound of -Px ( = not), and Dip {- to rise; 


"rilDj^K m.n.FW electrode (physics). 
[Eng. electrode, coined by the English 
physicist and chemist Michael Faraday 
(1791-1867) from Gk. elektron (see 
jl^p^x), and odos ( = way), for whose 
etymology seenTlng .] 

nj'psnllBij^K f.n. fw electrodynamics. 
[Compounded of Gk. elektron ( = am- 
ber; see '"it?p^N) and dynamis (= might; 

0»OllOj?^K m.n. FW electromagnet. 
[Compounded of Gk. elektron (= am- 
ber; see , "ipp^x), and Magnetis lithos 
( = stone from magnesia; see ojaij.) 

lO^itpjrVK m.n. fw electrometer. 

[Compounded of Gk. elektron ( = am- 
ber; see ■HVP^x), and metron 
(= measure; see ^£).) 

T1">0J?^ m.n. fw electron. [Modem L 
electron, from Gk. elektron ( = amber; 
seenpp^x).] Derivative I'jVKpp^x. 

'Jhtpj?^ adj. fw electronic. [ Formed 
fromjl-i^x with suff.'c] 

n^?1noj?^f.n. fw electronics. [From 

n^'p^Dlltpp;^ f.n. FW electrostatics. 
[Compounded of Gk. elektron (= am- 
ber; see "Hpp^x), and statike techne 
{- the art of weighing; see n^pp). ] 

9lp9lltp|7^»< m.n. fw electroscope. 

[Compounded of Gk. elektron 
(= amber; see '"ipp^x) and -skopion. 



from skopein ( = to look at, examine; see 
nipilnnjnoij^K f.n. fw electrocardio- 
gram. I Compounded of Gk. elekiron 
( = amber; see nippVs), and nijnaVxij? 
( = cardiogram), (q. v.). 1 

i)3Jl«nj?noj^K m.n. fw electrocardio- 
graph. I See n^il'Tipl-Hpp^R and 

rP9}n1"H3j?^N f.n. fw electrotherapy. 
ICompounded of Gk. elektron {- am- 
ber; see ^Vi^x), and rr?nn ( = therapy) . I 

"HDj?Vx adj. FW electric. iBack formation 
from Modern L. electricus, which was 
coined by the English physicist William 
Gilbert in 1600 to denote substances 
which share the quality of amber 
(inasmuch as they attract other sub- 
stances when rubbed), from L. 
electrum (= amber), from Gk. elekiron 
(of s.m.), which is related to elektor 
( = the beaming sun), and possibly cogn. 
with Old I. ulka (= fireband, meteor). 
For the ending of nyj^Vx see suff. ~"0.\ 
Derivative: mnop^x. 

mn»j?VK f.n. FW electricity. [ Formed 
fromntpj^K with suff. m □ . ] 

'^s m.n. fw alkali. [Fren. alcalli (now 
spelled alcali), from Arab, alqilyy, 
from al- (=the), and qiliyy ( = charred 
ashes of the saltwort), from qald(y) 
( = fired, roasted), which is related to 
Heb. n^j?' ( = he roasted, parched) . ] 

JNn^Nm.n.FW the Koran. [Arab, al- 
qur'dn, from al ( = the) and qur'dn (see 

'SH^Sadj.FW allergic. [Back formation 
from n^riVx. For the ending see suff.'Q .] 

rrn^Kf.n. FW allergy. [Modern L. al- 
lergia, coined about 1905 by Clemens 
von Pirquet, an Austrian pediatrist, 
from Gk. alios (= another), and ergon 
(=work). See ^^J^x and riK and cp. 

'J&frsadj.FW second to none. [Coined 
from □"?«(= not), and ^#( = second).] 

■UFiVxm.n.NH improvisation, extem- 
porization. [Verbal n. of "inVx. See 
in 1 ™ .] 

n'n^x f.n. PBH a fish mentioned in the 

• i • 

Mishnah, usually identified with the 
salmon. [Of unknown origin .1 

"inVxO?) adv. pbh on the spot, at once. 
[Aram., contraction of inx/Vx ( = "in$ 
V?), lit.: 'on the place' (see *7i and irj$). 
For sense development cp. Eng. on the 
spot, Fren. sur-le-champ, Ger. aufder 
S telle.] Derivative :inVx. 
*Qrr>s to improvise, extemporize. [Form- 
ed from -ir^B .1 — Pi. in 1 ?*? tr. v. nh he 
improvised, extemporized. — Pu. in 1 ^ 
nh was improvised, was extemporized. 

Derivatives HW^x.ftiftx.-in'px^. 

jnnVK m.n. nh improvisor, improvisator. 
[Formed from in 1 ™ (see Trftx) with 
agential suff. 1^.1 

OK f.n. (pi. max, in pbh mnox) l mother. 
2 matriarch. 3 metropolis, large city. 
4 pbh womb. [Related to Aram. DX, 
XBX, Syr. dx, xax, Arab, imm, umm, 
Ugar. 'um, Ethiop. 'em, Akka. ummu 
(= mother). These words prob. go back 
to emm(a), umm(a), a child's word for 
'mother', cp. xsx, hjjx, mnox, vi^x and 
first element in l»OX. cp. alsoox". Like 
ax. {- father) dx also prob. derives from 
child's word.) 

OK conj. if, whether, when, on condition. 
[Related to Aram, fx, Syr. 'en, BAram. 
'im, Arab, 'in, SArab. on, and prob. to 
Ethiop. 'emma ( = if)- cp. ]5j'". cp. also 

OK' m.n. (pi. D'Sjj) nation, people. [A col- 
lateral form of nijjc. cp. the second 
element in 0X33 andinD'xin.] 

OK" m.n. nh (pi. D'?x) screw nut, nut. 
[The same as dx ( = mother), cp. Eng. 
'female screw-nut' .1 

KSKf.n. pbh mother, mama, mummy. 
[Aram, 'the mother, my mother', em- 
phatic state of dx (- mother). See dx .] 

'Kas adv. pbh why. [Aram., formed 
from uk (=■?¥, on, upon), and 'xd 
( = what). See 1 ?? and ••xo.] 

n^axf.n. fw amoeba. [Gk. amoibe 
( = change), related to ameibein ( = to 
change), from copulative, pref. a- and 
IE base *meig*-, *mig*- ( = to change), 
whence also L. migrdre ( - to wander). 
Copulative pref. a- stands for IE *sm-, a 
weak gradational form of IE base *sem- 
( = one, together). See 'same' and 
'migrate' in myCEDEL.] 

B1B»Km.n.NH giving (somebody) a 
bath. [Verbal n. ofosipx. Seeoaax .1 

DjV«»Km.n.FW ambulance. [Fren. 
from earlier hopital ambulant (lit.: 'a 
walking hospital'), from L. ambuldns, 
pres. part, of ambuldre ( = to go about, 
walk), which prob. stands for *amb-al- 
dre, from amb- (= both), and *al- (=to 
go), whence also Gk. ale ( = ceaseless 
roaming), alasthai, alainein (=to 
wander about), L. alucindri ( = to 
wander in mind). See 'hallucinate' in 

b$»k, "»»$»k m.n. pbh bath, bathtub. 
I Borrowed from Gk. embate (of s.m.), 
from embatein (=to go into), from en 
( = in) and bainein ( = to go).] Deriv- 
atives: oaDK.rrtpazpx. 

U3»K to bathe. [Denominated from 
D3DK .] — Pi. dsdk tr. v. NH he bathed, 
gave (somebody) a bath. — Pu. 030$ 

NH was bathed, was given a bath. 
— Hith. ogqxnn nh he took a bath. 
Derivative: o^DX. 

TPWjax f.n. nh bathroom. [Formed from 
020* with first suff. ng.] 

HWBK f.n. FW ambition. [Fren. ambi- 
tion, from L. ambitio(-a. going round, 
esp. 'a going round of candidates can- 
vassing for office'), whence 'a desire for 
honor', from ambitus, p. part, of 
ambire (=to go round), which is 
compounded of ambi (- about, 
around), and ire(= to go). See-rtoxvyx 

nn^aaxm.n.FW ambassador. [Fren. 
ambassadeur, from It. am.'iasciatore, 
from ambasciata (=emba".), from 
Old Provencal ambaissadi (whence 
also Sp. embajada), from imbaisa 
( = service), which is a Teutonic loan 
word. See 'embassy' in my CEDEL .] 

13»N m.n. pbh granary, storehouse. 
[Aram. xnszpx, Syr. x^sdx, from Pers. 
anbdr, Arab, anbdr is also Pers. loan 

iJPianx m.n. fw embargo. [Sp. embargo 
{- seizure, embargo), from embargar 
( = to restrain, seize, embargo), from 
Vulgar L. imbarricdre ( = to impede), 
formed from im- (= in; see first 'im-' in 
my CEDEL), and VL barra (=bar, 
barrier), a word of Gaulish origin, cp. 
'bar' (= rod of metal) in my CEDEL and 
cp. 'embarrass' ibid.] 

ttfta»N m.n. PBH 1 Magus (Persian priest). 
2 magician. [Aram, xipunx, from Old 
Pers. Magush, whence also Arab, ma- 
jus, Gk. magos ( = Magus, Magian, 
magician). The X in x^udx is pros- 
thetic, cp. tflao.] 

"tttN 1 to estimate, calculate, reckon. 
[Aram, tdx, (=he estimated, appraised, 
assessed). According to E. Y. Kutscher, 
idx is a loan word borrowed during the 
Babylonian captivity from Akka. 
emedu (=to stand, lean against; to 
place, lean something upon or against 
something, load, impose taxes or fines) 
(for the etymology of this word see 
iDy");whence the noun emettu ( = tax, 
fines). Other scholars connect Heb.iox 
with Arab, 'amata ( = he surmised, 
conjectured, guessed), cp. 'xrtDX. cp. 
also Toy".J — Qal 19s tr. v. & intr. v. 
pbh he estimated, made a rough 
estimate, assessed, appraised, valued, 
reckoned, conjectured, guessed. — 
Niph. tax,? MH was estimated, was 
assessed, was appraised, was valued. 
— Hiph. Tjjgg pbh he estimated, 
conjectured, guessed. — Hoph. i9Kv? 
nh was estimated. Derivatives: lex. 
H9*. -no«. Tex, nTa«. rrjoxn. 



nax" to make well-to-do. I Denominated 
from rax. I — Hith. iSX.?:? NH he 
became well-to-do. 

ipK, "7»iN m.n. pbh estimation, estimate, 
assessment, appraisal, valuation, reck- 
oning. I From tax. Cp. n?U- C P- ^so 

j^O^, fj^Sin.n. PBH (pi. D^ax. also 
ntiiax.) estimation, estimate, assess- 
ment. [Formed from tax with suff. j;; 
cp. Aram.xjT^x.f 

nn»^, ^n*?"* '- n - PBH estimation, esti- 
mate, assessment. |Aram. KRaix. See 

il8K f.n. (pi. nlnaxj maidservant, hand- 
maid, female slave. [Related to Phoen. 
nax. Aram.-Syr. xnax. Ugar. <?wtf. 
Arab. "awaA. Ethiop. 'amat, Akka. 
a/wrw ( = handmaid, female slave) .] 

HON 'f.n. (dual o?nax. pi. max) ell. cubit. 
[Related to Aram. xas, xnax. Syr. 
xnax, Ugar. gmt, Ethiop. 'emmat, Ak- 
ka. ammaiu ( = ell, cubit).! Derivatives: 
nax'inax'", nax. cp. nax". 
n»N"f.n. PBH 1 middle finger. 2 penis. 

rtSN" 1 f.n. pbh canal, sewer. I From nax' . J 
n§g"f.n.(in op??:! nlsx ( = a hapax 
legomenon, occurring Is. 6:4 and prob. 
meaning "doorposts"). [Prob. related to 
Akka. ammalW (- foundation, 
doorpost), and orig. identical with Ak- 
ka. ammaiu' (=nax. ell, cubit). For 
sense development cp. Arab. 'iddda h 
(= doorpost), which is related to 'iddad 
(supper arm).] 

HON f.n. nh matrix (printing). [Formed 
from dx {- mother), with first suff. n;:; 
properly loan translation of L. matrix 
(= womb, matrix, source, origin), which 
derives from mater ( = mother) . 1 

nax f.n. clan, tribe, nation, people. [Re- 
lated to BAram. nax, Syr. 'umpd, Ugar. 
umt, Arab. 'ummd\ Akka. ummdiu. 
These words are usually derived from 
ddx. a base of uncertain origin .[ 

ninaxf.n.PBH condition of a maid- 
servant or handmaid. [Formed from;.] 

ntaax f.n. pi. handmaids, slaves. I PI. of 

rrtnax f.n. pi. 1 pbh matriarchs. 2NH 
matrices (printing). I PI. of dx, resp. 


rnn»xf.n. NH motherhood, maternity. 
[ Formed from dx ( = mother; pi. n1n&x), 
with suff. nu..| 

'riKpN adj. NH motherly. maternal. 

[ Formed from dx ( = mother; pi. nlnax), 

with suff.'' ;. I 
tax. m.n. fw emu. [ From Moluccan erne, 

through the medium of Portuguese 

ema, shortened from ema di gei 
( - crane of the ground); so called 
because the emu cannot fly . J 

■no^adj. MH estimated. [Pass. part, of 

Tlttx m.n. NH estimation, estimate. 
[Verbal n.of"»i»x. Pi. of tax 1 . | 

nijnlSKT.n.NH diving. [Formed from 
^xjlax with suff. nvi.] 

'KTls^m.n. NH diver. [Aram., prob. 
meaning lit. 'one who estimates or ap- 
praises the depths', and deriving from 
19X, (- ne estimated, appraised, as- 
sessed). Sec idx 1 and suff. "ku. I 
VlDN adj. weak, unhappy, wretched (a 
hapax legomenon in the Bible, occur- 
ring Ezek. 16:30 in the f. form n^x,). 
[ Pass. part. Qalottax 1 .] 
i?l»$m.n.FW enamelling. [Verbal n. of 

l?ox. Pi. ofW'.i 
n'oi»»xf.n. fw emulsion. [Modern L. 
emulsio, from L. emulsus, p. part, e- 
mulgere ( - to milk out, drain out), from 
e ( = out of), and mulgere ( = to milk; 
which derives from IE base *melg- ( - to 
press out, wipe of milk), whence also 
Gk. amelgein {- to milk), etc. For the 
ending see suff. rr:.:.] 
DISK ran. PBH 1 model. 2 last (of a shoe). 
[Together with Syr. xaiax prob. 
borrowed from Arab, 'imam ( -leader, 
leader in prayer: model), which derives 
from 'amma ( = he was in front, led the 
way. preceded), cp. DD'X . ] 
Jinx 1 m.n. craftsman, artisan. [ Prob. bor- 
rowed from Akka. ummdnu, (of s.m.) 
(whence also Heb. 13$). which itself is a 
Sumerian loan word .] 
J1»x"m.n. 'Amon' — name of the 
ancient Egyptian sun god, orig. the 
local god of Thebes. [Egypt. Amun, 
whence also Akka. Amunu, Gk. Am- 
nion (identified by the Greeks with 
Zeus), cp. ir^ax.l 
Ji»x adj. » faithful. 2 trained, educated. 

[ Pass. part. ofps. See px . | 
pax m.n. mh training. [Verbal n. of px, 
Pi.ofpx.] Derivative rn^ttJX. 

|1»N m.n. (pi. d'hdx) confidence, faith- 
fulness, fidelity, trust. [From px. For 
the form cp. wax.) 

n»»xf.n. ! firmness, steadfastness. 2 
pbh faithfulness, faith, fidelity. 3 PBH 
belief, creed, religion. [ Formed from px 
with first suff. re;:, cp. Arab, 'amdna* 
( = faithfulness, fidelity), 'imdn {- faith, 
belief), OSArab. njax ( = firmness, 

D^ifflXm.n.FW ammonite. [Formed 
from L. cornu Ammonis ( - the horn of 
Ammon; so called from its shape, 
which resembles a ram's horn) (Am- 

mon was represented with ram's 
horns); see flax". For the ending see 
subst. suff. '-ite' in my cedel . | 
i?^1»X m.n. fw ammoniac. [L. ammo- 
niacum, from Gk. ammoniakon ( = a 
resinous gum), prob. from orig. 
Armeniakon (-Armenian), through 
the intermediate form armoniakon, oc- 
curring in the works of ancient authors 
beside ammoniakon; so called because 
first found in Armenia . I 

rvHaxf.n. nh track suit. [Formed from 
pax with suff. n\j.] 

yi»K m.n. I MH strengthening, encour- 
agement. 2NH adoption (of a child). 
[ Verbal n. ofygx. Pi. of y ax 1 .] 

.TJTiax f.n. fw emotion. (Fren. emotion, 
formed from emouvoir (-to move, stir 
up a passion, to affect, touch; orig.: 'to 
set in motion"), after the relation of 
Fren. mouvoir ( = to move). Fren. 
emouvoir derives from esmovoir, from 
VL *exmovere, which corresponds 
to L. emovere ( = to move out, move 
away; to stir up, agitate), from e, resp. 
e.x ( = out of; see -JDj?x), and movere (=10 
move), which is prob. cogn. with Old I. 
mi'vati ( = pushes, moves), kdmamutah 
(-moved by love), etc. For the ending 
ofn^pax see suff. n;:;. cp.-tyfylox.] 

'Vising adj. emotional. I Formed with 
adj. suff. v from Eng. emotional, from 
emotion, from Fren. emotion. See 

j?1»Kadj.FW amok, amuck. [Malay 
amoq( = in a frenzy). I 

"lias adj. PBH said. [Pass. pan. of^$. 
See nax 'J 

KnittKm.n. pbh 'amora' — Talmudic 
interpreter of the Mishnah. [Aram., lit.: 
'speaker', from i?x (-he spoke). See 

nntrtn1»K f.n. amortization. [Eng. 
amortization, from amortize, from 
Fren. amortiss-, pres. part, stem of 
amortir, from V L admortire ( = to 
deaden, extinguish), from ad ( = to. 
toward), and mortus, L. mortuus 
( = dead), from L. mors, gen. mortis 
( - death), which is cogn. with Old I. mr- 
tih ( = death), etc. All these words derive 
from IE base *mer- ( = to die), which is 
orig. identical with base *mer- ( = to 
consume, be consumed). See 'morbid', 
'mordant' in my cedel. For the ending 
of rvyrp?iax, see suff. n;y .;. | 

niax, nax m.n. Amorite (singular used 
collectively) — one of the names of the 
ancient inhabitants of the Land of Ca- 
naan. [Borrowed from Akka. Amurrii, 
gentilic name from Amurru (=West, 
Land of the West), a loan word from 
Sumerian Mar-tu. For the sense de- 



velopment ofnbx, it should be borne in 
mind that the Amorites lived to the 
west of Assyria and Babylonia . I 

on^ttK m.n. pbh portions of sacrifices 
(offered on the altar). [Of uncertain 
'pn1»K adj. fw amorphous. I Formed 
with suff. 'Q from Gk. amorphos 
(-without form, shapeless, deformed) 
from privative pref. a- and morphe 
( = form, shape), which is of uncertain 
nittS m.n. MH verification, authentica- 
tion. [Verbal n. ofnax, Pi. ofnax .[ 
rrJTIJ'ttSf.n.FW emigration. [Late L. 
emigrdlio, from L. emigrants, p. part. 
ofemigrdre ( = to move away, remove, 
emigrate), from e ( = out of) and 
migrdre (= to move from one place to 
another, to wandeO.Seerrxira'x.] 

T»s adj. NH well-to-do, well-off, 
wealthy, affluent. [From Aram, tox,, 
which derives from nax, ( = he estimated, 
appraised), whence properly means 'a 
person appraised and believed to be 
wealthy'. See lax 1 and cp. -ne$.] 
Derivative: nvPDg,. 

riTpK f.n. MH estimation, assessment, 

appraisal. [Verbal n. of "rax. See natf 

and first suff. n v.] 
n*T»N f.n. NH the state or condition of 

being well-to-do. [Formed from T*z?(< 

with suff. nin.] 

VjttK, Vtt'K m.n. fw enamel. [From Fren. 
email, which is a Teutonic loan word, 
cp. Old Ger. smelzen, Old Eng. meltan 
(- to melt), and see 'melt' and 'smelt' in 
myCEDEL.] Derivative i^ax". 

p»Kadj. nh 1 authentic. 2 dependable, 
reliable. [Lit.: 'believable'. Coined from 
px according to the pattern V*^, which 
is used in NH to form adjectives de- 
noting capability or fitness. 1 Deriva- 
tive: nirax,. 

nU'DN f.n. NH 1 authenticity. 2reliability. 
[ Formed from pax with suff. m a .] 

]tor»K m.n. pbh name of a kind of 
asbestos. [Gk. amiantos (lithos), lit: 
'undefiled (stone)', from privative pref. 
a- and miaios (= stained, defiled), 
verbal adj. of mianein ( = to stain, de- 
file), which derives from IE base *mei-, 
*mai- ( = to stain, defile). See 'miasma' 
inmyCEDEL .] 

yvpg adj. strong, bold, courageous. 
[From pax 1 .] Derivative: mr»ax. 

nwipgf.n. MH strength, courage, bold- 
ness. [Formed from ppx with suff. 


Tax m.n. top (of a tree), summit (in the 
Bible this word occurs only Is. 17:6 
and 9). [Prob. from iax".] 

TDK m.n. NH emir. [Arab, 'amir, in 
vulgar pronunciation 'emir {- com- 
mander), from 'amara ( = he 
commanded). See nax 1 and cp. words 
there referred to . ] Derivative: nn-Tpx. 

rnvsK f.n. pbh saying, talk. [Verbal n. of 
tax (= he said). See lax 1 and first suff. 

niVttKf.n. NH emirate. [Formed from 
Tax with suff. ma.) 

rtJVDKf.n.PBH Ammi (botany). [Aram. 
xrrax — whence Gk. ammi, whence L. 
ammi — a secondary form of xrran .] 

VttN 1 to be weak, be miserable. [Base of 
•ndx, b»ax, b»ft>(<, btypx,. Related to^a'". 
Schwally connects it with Arab, malla 
(=was or became weary or tired). 
Jensen compares it with Akka. ummulu 
(=to be grieved).] — Qal 'hjx. MH he 
was miserable. — Niph. b'agj MH he 
became miserable. — Hiph. ^axn MH 
he made miserable. — Hoph. b>a$n MH 
he became weak, tired. 

Vdk" to enamel. [Denominated from 
"?px J — Pi.^x NH enamel(l)ed — Pu. 
■?a$ NH enamel(l)ed.] Derivatives: "7UDX, 


VttK adj. MH unhappy. I From'TOX 1 .] 
n»aV»sf.n. FW amalgam. [Fren. amal- 
game, from Med. L. amalgama, dis- 
similated from Arab, al-malgham, 
which is formed from Arab, al- ( = the), 
and Syr. xa^p, from Gk. malagma( = a 
soft mass), from malassein ( = to 
soften), from malakos ( = soft), from IE 
base *meldq- ( = to soften), which is 
enlarged from base *(s)mel- (=to rub, 
grind), whence Gk. myle, later mylos 
(= mill), L. molere ( = to grind), molina 
(= mill). See 'meal' (edible grain) in my 

bbtox to make miserable, unfortunate, 
unhappy. [Pil. of 'rax 1 , cp. the Pil. 
verbs -nay, fxpy, any, oo-ito.] — Pi. 
^px tr. v. NH he made miserable, 
wretched, unfortunate or unhappy. 
— Pu. ^9$ became weak, miserable, 
wretched or unhappy. — Nith. ^pxrq 
NH (of s.m.) Derivative: mV?pxnn. 

VVpjjt adj. weak, miserable, wretched, un- 
fortunate, unhappy (a hapax legome- 
non in the Bible, occurring Ps. 6:3). 
Derivative: ro^pjj. 

V^jpjt adj. of the same origin and 
meaning of Vft\i (a hapax legomenon in 
the Bible, occurring Neh. 3:34). 

n^ȣ f.n. NH misery, wretchedness, 
unhappiness. [Formed from ^9$ with 
suff. ma.] 

n^n^^j$t f.n. pbh rafter, crossbeam. 
[From Gk. melathron, which is of 
uncertain origin. For the pref. see 

prosthetic )x. ) 
]»K to be firm, be trustworthy. [Arab. 
'amino (=was safe), 'dmana ( = he 
believed), 'amuna ( = was faithful, was 
reliable, was trustworthy), Ethiop. 
'amana (=was firm), OSArab. (n):ax 
(-firmness, steadiness), Syr. ppx 
(- strong, enduring; true, lasting, eter- 
nal), xrmg?n (= trust, trustworthiness, 
confidence, faith), cp. Egypt. mn( = to 
be fixed on a place).] — Qalpx tr. v. he 
nursed, fostered, brought up. — Niph. 
|9X,} 1 was found firm; 2was found 
trustworthy, was found true. — PL px 
pbh he trained, educated. — Pu. p$ 
mh was trained, was educated. — Hith. 
pxnn mh he trained himself. —Hiph. 
ppxn he believed, trusted. — Hoph. 
pxn I MH was believed. 2NH was con- 
firmed, was accredited. Derivatives: 
px. px. np'x, n:px (n.), npx (adv.), 

rnOfct, Qjax, DJQ^J, |1DX, pax, |1DX. HJ1QX, 

pax, plx, nax, n^n, nupxfl. nuaxnn. 
paxa, pxp. pxna. jogj. cp. p^a. 

]»K 1 m.n. faithfulness, truth. 2 adv. 
Amen, so be it, truly, certainly. iFrom 
px. cp. Syr. pax (- strong, enduring; 
true, lasting, eternal). ] 

]»K mji. faith, confidence, trust, fidelity 
(a hapax legomenon in the Bible, occur- 
ring Is. 25:1). [From px.] 

]»K, ]»K m.n. artist, master, workman (a 
hapax legomenon in the Bible, occur- 
ring Cant. 7:2). [Together with Aram. 
p$, x}9$, Syr. xpix ( = workman, 
craftsman, artificer), borrowed from 
Akka ummdnu, earlier ummidnu, 
which itself is of Sumerian origin, cp. 
flax 1 , cp. also 19$.] Derivative:™^. 

]»X, )»Wm.n.PBH 1 craftsman, artisan. 
2 specialist. [Together with fax. bor- 
rowed from Akka. ummdnu. cp. |la$' .] 
Derivative :rfl:!j$. 

]"»K afcbr. NH Intelligence Branch (Is- 
raeli army). [Formed from the initials of 
the words pyrta 1JX, ( = intelligence 

nja'x f.n. pilaster, column, post (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring Kin. 
II 18:16). [Prob. formed frompx with 
first suff. ng.] 

n3»$' f.n. education (a hapax legomenon 
in the Bible, occurring Est. 2:20). 
[ Formed from px with first suff. ng . ] 

n$»$" adv. in truth, truly. [ Frompx .] 

njpx f.n. I covenant, pact 2MH trust, 
credit. [Formed from px with suff. ng.] 

]H»X m.n. NH tilapia (name of a fish). 
[Coined by H.N. Bialik (1873-1934) 
from ox (= mother), and fo ( = fish); so 
called by him because the mother 
h atches the spawn in her mout h . | 

n»m p&N 


lift] JU^S viola tricolor (flower). 
[Coined on the analogy of the Russian 
name 'Ivan-da-Maria'.] 
mxf$, nuojtf.n. nh art. skill. (Formed 
from J98, resp. J9{{. with suff. ma. cp. 
n«9X.] Derivative :'n"9S- 
m3$(C, nuew f.n. pbh craft, craftsman- 
ship. I Formed from 19$. resp. T9 ,K < wth 
suff. ma. cp.m:9&.J 
yi»»X, 'n«?K adj. nh artful, artistic. 
[Formed from nu9X. resp. n«98, with 
suff. '5. Cp. the first element in R79U-1 
Derivative: m*mJ9X. 
m»nw$$, rn»nuax f.n. nh artistry, art- 
fulness. [Formed from 'm^s, resp. 
'n«98 T with suff. run . ] 
DJOX adv. verily, truly, indeed. [Formed 
from jdk with adv. suff. Dp. cp. Arab. 
innamd (=only), which according to 
Barth developed through dissimilation 
of the first m from 'imnamd{ = '\n truth), 
hence corresponds to D)D$ . ] 
DjDjJ adv. verily? truly? indeed? [Of the 
same origin and meaning asD}D$; used 
only in interrogation, as Gen. 18:13 
ojajj ixn; elsewhere always with the 
interrogative an.] 
rnDDsaKf.n.FW amnesty. [L. amnes- 
tic Gk. amnestia ( = forgetfulness), 
from privative pref. a- and mneslis 
(= remembrance), which is related to 
mnaomai ( = I remember), from IE base 
*men- (=to think, remember). See 
privative pref. 'a-' and 'mind' in my 
rPWDKf.n. FW amnesia (psychiatry). 
[Medical L. amnesia, from Gk. am- 
nesia ( = forgetful ness), from privative 
pref. a- and mnesios (= pertaining to 
memory), which is related to mnaomai 
(= I remember). Seerrtpip^x .] 
nsaasf.n. nh interdiction, prevention. 
[Formed from yjD with prosthetic ox 
and suff. na.] 

rrxD'MDK f.n. fw emancipation. [L. 
emancipalio (=the releasing of a son 
from paternal authority), from eman- 
cipate, p. pan. of emancipdre ( = to 
declare a person free and independent, 
to give from one's own authority into 
that of another), from e ( = out of) and 
mancipdre (= to make over as property, 
to transfer property), from manceps 
{- purchaser, contractor, owner), 
which stands for man<ap-s (lit.: 'one 
who takes by hand'), from manus 
( = hand) and capere ( = to catch, seize, 
take, hold). For the ending of rrify^&ij 

rpxywag f. n . fw amputation. [ L. ampu- 
tated, from ampuldtus, p. part, of am- 
putdre ( = to cut off, prune), which is 
compounded of ambi- ( = around), and 

putdre ( = to trim, prune, lop, clean). See 
I0}1p and cp. n;yvw}. For the ending of 
irypw?* sec suff. ;ryj . 1 
rty9a&f.n.FW ampulla. |L. ampulla. 
from ampor-la ( = a globular vessel for 
holding liquids), dimin. of amphora, 
ampora. Seernlopx .] 

rnlDOKf.n. FW amphora. [L. amphora 
{- a vessel with two handles or ears, a 
pitcher), from Gk. amphoreus (of s.m.), 
which is contracted from amphi- 
phoreus (lit.: 'two-handled'), from 
amphi (see 'J'PDS) and phoreus 
(- bearer, carrier), from pherein ( = to 
bear). See rrjlDjx,.] 
'8'DISg adj. fw amphibian, amphibious. 
[Back formation from Gk. amphibios 
(- living a double life; i.e. 'on land and 
in water'), from amphi ( = around, 
round, about), and bios ( = life) . ] 
O^B'sax m.n.FW amphibrach (pros- 
ody). [Gk. amphibrachus (= short at 
both ends), from amphi (secT$i}l&) and 
brachus{- short).! 
'TD»K adj. FW empirical. [Back forma- 
tion from L. empericus, from Gk. 
empeirikos (= experienced), from 
empeiros (= experienced), from en 
(=in) and peira ( = trial, experiment). 
See 'peril' in my CEDEL and cp. 079. 
For the ending of 'T90*J see suff. v. cp. 

]ilOK'n'9»K m.n. FW (pi. n1x'39S- , JT , 92?8), 
amphitheater. [L. amphithedtrum, 
from Gk. amphitheatron (lit. meaning 
'having seats for spectators all round', 
from amphi (see T9DK) and theatron 
(= theater). See intp^n. | 

rm&'V?>?K f-n. fw amplitude (physics). 
[L. amplitudo (=wide extent, width), 
from amplus ( = great, large, wide), 
which stands for amlos and lit. means 
'comprehensive', from IE base *am- 
(=to seize, hold), whence also L. 
ampla, ansa ( = handle) . ] 

"lMllm.ii.FW ampere. [Fren. ampere, 
named after the French physicist 
Andre-Marie Ampere (1775- 1836).] 

y&X 1 to be strong. [Ugar. ams ( = 
strong) . ] — Qal f 9X intr. v. was strong, 
was bold. — Pi. p©x he strengthened, 
encouraged. — Pu. f 9$ NH I was 
performed with difficulty. 2 was 
adopted (said of a child). — Hith. 
FBSnri he strengthened himself; he made 
an effort, endeavored, determined. 
— Hiph. f'Dftn was strong, became 
strong. Derivatives: fox, n$DK. jmox. 
HP8' ^fW- rmzpKnn. f9$9. 79x9. cp. 


y»K" to close the eyes. [A collateral form 
of foy.] —Pi. pas pbh he closed the 
eyes (esp. of a dead person). — Nith. 

fWSr^ pbh was closed —said of the 
eyes (esp. of a dead person) .] 

y»K adj. reddish(?), grey(?), strong (?) ( a 
word occurring twice in the Bible, 
Zech. 6:3 and 6:7). [Of uncertain 
meaning; usually translated by 'red- 
dish, bay (horses)'. After the version of 
Aquilas, some scholars see in it a 
derivative of pox 1 and accordingly 
render it by 'strong'. Lagarde connects 
it with Arab. ma's{- white camel) .] 

y»N m.n. strength, might, courage, 
boldness (a hapax legomenon in the 
Bible, occurring Job 17:9). [From 

fDX 1 .] 

nxjjaxf.n. NH invention. [A secondary 
form of nxyon. For the difference in 
meaning between these two words see 


njf ax f.n. courage (a hapax legomenon in 
the Bible, occurring Zech. 12:5). 
[ Formed fromfDX 1 with first suff. nc.] 

n^a?t, n^awf.n. ipbh raw piece of 
meat. 2NH beefsteak. [From Aram. 
x$dix, Syr. x;r>x, which, together 
with Arab, 'amis, 'amis, is borrowed 
from Persian.] 

»lfOSm.n.PBH middle, mean. [Formed 
from »xd ( = to be in the middle), with 
prosthetic ax.] Derivatives: ras^x, 

nwxaxf.n. pbh means, middle, agency, 
[Formed from »jdx with suff. mc. 
cp. nvyy 2?x. cp. also nurso . 1 

'sxax 1 adj. pbh middle, mean, median. 
[Formed from syzpx ( = middle) with 
suff. rj.] Derivatives: T^DX (n.), 

, yxax"m.n. imh middle man. 2NH 

• T I V 

means, medium. [Fronryytpx (adj.).] 

m»yxax f.n. 1 MH mediation. 2NH medi- 
ocrity. I Formed from --y^xwith suff. 


trsxax m.n. pi. NH I means, measures. 

2 aids. [Pl.of'W 2 ??"-] 
ryyxaxf.n. pbh middle. [Subst. use of 

• T I V 


lax 1 to say. [Moabite and Phoen. nox, 
Aram. no«, Syr. iDg ( = he said, 
spoke), Arab, 'amara ( = he com- 
manded).] — Qal H08 tr. v. lhe said, 
told, uttered; 2 he commanded, or- 
dered; 3 he said in his heart, thought. 
— Niph. 19$ it was said. —Hiph. 
"rnpxn he caused to say, induced tosay; 
he avouched. Derivatives: X7.O8. 
nVDK,. -19/x. nr)Dx, ^9^13, 19V??. "> bK ^ 
rT79 i 9.'' andTDX. 

"lax" to be high. [Prob. base of T98- 
198, possibly also of ^h". cp. Arab. 
'amira ( - was numerous). — Hith. 


-i3(<nri he boasted. See nov] Deriva- 
tive: nnzpxnrt. 

1»X m.n. word, speech, saying, utter- 
ance. iFromiOK'. Sceiptf.] 

"IOX m.n. word (occurring in the phrase 
"i?V '!?*. Gen. 49:21, which is usually 
rendered by 'fine words'). Prob. a 
secondary form of "198 and derives 
from -\ok\ but prob. derives from idn" 
and the phrase 19^ nzpx which means 
'branched antlers'.] 

nx^DX'f.n. NH take-off, flight. [A sec- 
ondary form of ii^zpn' .] 

nx"i»X"f.n.NH revolt. [A secondary 

|n5N ran. NH impresario. [A Hend 
of n«9$ (=art) and jinKp (= organ- 

rn»X' f.n. word, speech, saying, utter- 
ance. [Formed from ion' with first,.] 

rn»x" fji.PBH (pi. nnpx and rrtnsht) 
hem. fringe, selvage. [Together with 
Aram. xnD'K (of s.m.) of uncertain 

m»Kf.n. NH statement. [Coined from 

t t -: 

nDx'.cp. rnps 1 .] 

pnasm.n. NH americanization. [Ver- 
bal n. of pnDN(q.v.).| 

'N^nasadj.NH American. [See 

'3^n»Nadj.& n. NH (also, less exactly, 
■•^■nzjtji) American. [Formed with 
suff. '5 from ngn^u ( = America). The 
: in 'jgnpfl is euphonic, cp. ^# (Num. 
26:20), patronymic formed from rrf#. 
cp. also '^px. The form 'KjnoJ!!, as un- 
Hebraic, should be avoided .] 

^3*i»N m.n. 1 pbh officer of the Tern- 

t : - -i 

pie. 2NH administrator, treasurer. 
[Prob. a Pers. loan word. The word 
^19$ was folk-etymologically ex- 
plained as Vs'i&K ( = he who com- 
mands everything).] Derivative: 
n^-i&s. cp. ^373. 

m^SiDNf.n. NH administration; trea- 

T t - "I 

surefs office. [Formed from ^"lBS, 
with suff. ma.] 

piOK to americanize. [Denominated 
from n^ngx, ( = America).! — Pi. P398 
NH he americanized. — Hith. pnpxnn 
NH was americanized. 

tf»X adv. last night. [Related to Arab. 
amsi ( = last night), Akka. ina amshat 
(-in the evening of yesterday), 
amshala {- yesterday), mushu or 
muslutu {- night), mushamma ( = in the 
night of yesterday), and to Ethiop. 
mesel (= evening, twilight). Accord- 
ing to most scholars, these words 
derive from a base ntfo, whence 
Arab, masa {- evening).! Derivatives: 

tfDN, tfox. 

tttox to become dark, darken. [De- 
rived from tf^K.I — Pi. tfjjx intr. v. 
MH it became dark, darkened. — 
Hiph. tf'Pfcft MH (of s.m.). 

tttoxadj. NH dark. [From #9$.! 

n»X f.n. 1 stability, sureness. 2 faithful- 
ness. 3 certainty. 4 truth. [Prob. from 
nJDN, from ]DN .] Derivatives: nDX, nnpx,, 

n»X to verify. [Denominated from 
np^.l — Pi. n^B tr. v. MH he verified, 
confirmed, authenticated. — Pu. npt< 
MH was verified, was confirmed, was 
authenticated. — Hith. npsnrj MH 
was verified, was confirmed, came 
true, was proved true. — Hiph. nvjsn 
MH he verified, proved, authenti- 
cated. Derivatives: mag, nnpijn, 
mnpxnn, n^i?. 

n»X m.n. NH verifier of weights. [Coin- 
ed from n$s' ( = cubit), after the pattern 
"?¥9, which serves to form nomina 

nnasfji. imh truth, truthfulness. 2 
NH axiom. [Formed from ngx, with 
first suff. ng.l 

ninas f.n. MH truthfulness, veracity. 
[ Formed from nijg with suff. m a . J 

nnnaxf.n. bag, sack. [Formed from 
nno (=to spread out), with prosthetic 
ax and suff. ng.] 

'n»K adj. MH 1 true, real, genuine, au- 
thentic. 2 sincere. [Formed from rujx, 
with suff. 'O.! Derivative: nvnOK,. 

m»n»Xf.n. MH truthfulness, genuine- 
ness. [Formed from ""npt? with suff. 


n^nfcX f.n.PBH plausible reason, ex- 
cuse, pretext. [Aram. x^ngjj, a second- 
ary form of ^np, the equivalent of 
Heb. typ ( = parable). The ax in 
n'jnpx, is prosthetic] Derivative: 

l^npxm.n. NH pretext finder. [Formed 
from r^npx, with suff. ]g. ] 

]X, rug pron. where? whither? [Prob. 
not related to T?8 (= where), as gener- 
ally assumed, but standing for |"8, 
resp. nj-jj, i.e. formed from interrog- 
ative pref. 'a and pron. base -n, -an. 
Accordingly Heb. njx and Arab. 
annay {- where? where... from? why?) 
correspond to each other deriva- 

ajx pref. fw (before a vowel cag) 
ana-, resp. an-. [Gk. ana-, resp. an- 
(= up to, upward, up, toward; exceed- 
ingly; back, backward; against), 
from ana (= up, on, upon; through- 
out; again), which is related to ano 
(= above), from IE base *ano- (=on, 

upon, above), cp. 'on', an 'a' (on) in 

X3X, njx, interj. ah! now! I (or we) 

beseech, I (or we) pray. [Compound 

X3K pron. PBH I (occurring in phrases 

quoted from Talmud or Midrash). 

[Related to Heb. ■•?k(- I).] 
'arriXJXadj. FW inorganic. [Formed 

from privative pref. an- and Gk. 

organon (= instrument), cp. Gk. anor- 

ganos (= without instruments) and see 


n'B^gag adj. fw analphabetic. [Formed 
from privative pref. an- and alphabet, 
from L. alphabelum, compounded 
of Gk. alpha and beta (names of the 
first two letters of the Gk. alphabet).] 
Derivative: m»n , 39 l 78?8. 

nv>rpas'?X3Nf.n.NH illiteracy. [Formed 
from mg^xix with suff. 'a and suff. 

najsf.n. PBH egg of a louse, nit. 

[Aram, X3}x, of uncertain origin.] 
VlSJX m.n. NH anglicization. [Verbal n. 


nrsos f.n. angina (disease). [L. angina 
(- quinsy), prob. a loan word from 
Gk. agchone (=a throttling, stran- 
gling, hanging), which derives from 
agchein (=to squeeze, esp. the throat, 
strangle, throttle, hang), a derivative 
of IE base *angh ( = to narrow, com- 
press). The form angina (instead of 
ancina) is due to the influence of the 
related angere {- press together, 
throttle). See 'anger' in my CEDEL.] 

Va3X to anglicize. [Denominated from 
^fjg.l — Pi. ^8 tr. v. NH he angli- 
cized. — Hith. ^xnn NH was angli- 

^38 adj. NH English. [Back forma- 
tion from n^flg (= England). For the 
ending see adj. suff. 'a.] Derivative: 


njV^X' f.n. NH England. [Med. L. An- 
glia, from L. A nglf ( = the Angles, in 
Late L. 'the English'), which is of Teu- 
tonic origin, properly 'the people com- 
ing from Angul', a hookshaped district 
in Schleswig, from angul ( = fishhook, 
angle), which is related to anga 
(=hook). See 'angle' (fishhook), and 
'angle' (corner) in my CEDEL .] 

njV«3X"f.n. NH English-woman. [Prop- 
erly f. of '^8, used as a noun.1 

n'V«xfn. NH English (language). 
[ Properly f. of^ftX, used as a noun.] 

rrnj^x f.n. pbh forced labor; seizure 
for public works. [L. angaria (- ser- 
vice to a lord), from Gk. aggareia 
( = impressment for the public ser- 



vice), from aggaros ( = mounted, 
courier, messenger), which is ulti- 
mately of Sem. origin, cp. Akka. 
agarru (- hireling, hired laborer), 
from agdru ( = to hire), which is 
related to Aram. tjx,, t*k ( = he hired), 
whence Arab, "ajara' (of s.m.).| 

rupTJ}$( m.n. FW anagram. [Modern L. 
anagramma, from Gk. anagramma- 
tismos (=a transposition of letters), 
from anagrammatizein (-to trans- 
pose the letters of a word), which is 
formed from ana (=back), and 
gramma {- written character, letter). 

D"l9plTJKm.n.FW endosperm. lEng. en- 
dosperm, compounded of endo- 
(- within), and sperm. The first ele- 
ment derives from Gk. endo-, from 
endon (- within; lit.: 'in the house') 
from en (- in) and the base of domos 
(- house); see 'dome' (a building) in my 
CEDEL. The second element derives 
from Gk. sperma ( = seed, germ, 
sperm); see 'sperm' in my CEDEL.] 

'JTDKadj.FW endemic. [From Gk. en- 
demios, endemos (- dwelling in a place, 
native), from en ( = in) and demos 
(= district, country, land, people), 
which stands for *ddmos (lit.: 'a divi- 
sion of the people'), from IE base *dd-, 
*ddi- (=to cut off, separate, divide), 
whence also Gk. daimon (=god, 
goddess; lit.: 'divider, distributor (of 
men's destinies)'. See 'demon' in my 
CEDEL and cp. 'demos' ibid. cp. 
'979$ • I 

rrorWKadj. & adv. fw andante (music). 
[It. andante, pres. part, of andare 
(=to go), which is related to Sp. and 
Portuguese andar ( = to go), from VL 
ambt'tdre (=to go round), from L. 
ambitus, p. part, of ambire (=to go 
round), which is compounded of 
ambi- ( = about, around) and ire (=to 
go). See iloinprx and cp. n^fT32?x .) 

tinjnjK adj. & adv. andantino (music). 
[It. andantino, dimin. of andante.) 

oto">i1VHKm.n.NH hermaphrodite. [Gk. 
androgynos (= man-woman, herma- 
phrodite), from anes, gen. andros 
(=man), and gyne (= woman). See 
'androgynous' and 'gynandrous' in 

irwotfrtviMj, n>9*&V?iTMN f.n. 1 pbh 
pestilence. 2NH confusion, chaos. 
[Gk. androlempsia, for androlepsia 
{- seizure of men in reprisal of the 
murder of a citizen abroad), com- 

' pounded of aner, gen. andros (=man), 
and the stem of lambanein ( = to 
lake). See 'andro' and 'lemma' in my 

rrj^I'l^Kf.n.FW Andromeda (astrono- 
my). [From Gk. Andromeda, daugh- 
ter of Cepheus and Cassiopeia in 
Greek mythology, who was placed as 
a constellation in heaven. Lit. mean- 
ing 'mindful of her husband'; com- 
pounded of aner, gen. andros (=man), 
and medesthai ( = to be mindful of, 
give heed to, think of), which is re- 
lated to medon, medeon (-guardian, 
ruler), properly pres. part, of the an- 
cient verb medein (-to protect, rule 
over). See 'meditate' in my CEDEL .1 

K^3K, n^-TOX PBH, resp. NH f.n. statue, 
image, bust. [Gk. andrias, gen. an- 
driatos (- the image of a man, statue), 
from aner, gen. andros ( = man), which 
is cogn. with Old I. ndram ( = man), 
na'ryah (= virile), cp. -Hfi and the first 
element in x^DfrlT^x, rr^lni^ and 

rOK' to lament, mourn, groan. [Re- 
lated to the bases px, mx, pjx.j — 
Qal rqx intr. v. he lamented, mourned 
(in the Bible it occurs only in the 
perf. form uxi, Is. 3:26 and 19:8). 
Derivatives: 'j'x, n;jx., n^x,r4. cp. njf. 

nJK" prob. base of ■•){$, njjjj (=ship). 
[cp. Ugar. any (-fleet), anyt (=ship), 
Arab, ind, Akka. unutu ( = furniture), 
Aram, X)x$, x)??. Syr. xjx$ ( = vessel, 
utensil, instrument, garment). The 
first meaning of ^x., etc. was 'vessel, 
utensil receptacle', whence developed 
the meaning 'ship', cp. Old Fren. 
vaisse (-vessel), whence Fren. vais- 
seau (= vessel, vase, ship), from Late 
L. vdscellum, dimin. of vdsculum, it- 
self dimin. of vds ( = vessel, dish), and its 
derivative Eng. vessel, which show the 
same sense development. The first 
ships were simple 'vessels' and 'recep- 

rtJK" 1 to bring about, cause. [Related 
to Arab, 'ana ( = the right time), 'ina 
(=has come).] —Pi. rijx he brought 
about, caused (in the Bible occurring 
only Ex. 21:13). — Pu. njK was 
brought about, befell, happened (in 
the Bible occurring only Ps. 91:10 
and Pr. 12:21). — Hith. njxnn he 
found a pretext for a quarrel, sought 
a quarrel with (in the Bible occurring 
only Kin. II 5:7). Derivatives: nuxnn, 
njxn.njxln, prob. also njxn. cp. nx". 

HSR" to deceive, overreach. [Back 
formation of nxj,ix.] —Qal njx tr. v. 
MH he deceived, overreached. —Pi. 
njK pbh (of s.m.). — Nith. njxnj pbh 
was deceived, was overreached. 




"8 pcrs. pron. we (a hapax lego- 
menon in the Bible, occurring Jer. 
42:6 as the Kethib, with the corre- 
sponding Qere unjx). [A secondary 
form of unix.. In the Mishnah, ux is 
the usual form. According to Nol- 
deke, Brockelmann and several other 
scholars, ux was formed on the 
analogy of ^ (-1). On the basis of 
this analogy "ox should be punctu- 
ated ux, in the context and wx in the 
pause, in correspondence to 'jx. (in 
the context), ^x (in pause). For an 
analogous formation cp. Talmudic 
Aram, px, ( = we). See unix, . ] 

"TlJjj m.n. FW anode (electricity). [Eng. 
anode, from Gk. anodos =way up), 
from ana (=up to) and odos (=way), 
for whose etymology see rrring. The 
term anode was introduced into elec- 
tricity by the English physicist and 
chemist Michael Faraday (1791- 
1867).cp. Hnj?,-rri9j$x,"rtri?.J 

ipSKm.n.NH soldering. [Verbal a of 
Tjjx. See-px.] 

■tyyta K adj. anomalous. [Formed with 
adj. suff. ""C from Gk. anomalos (= 
unequal), which is formed from 
privative pref. an and omalos (=even), 
from omos ( = one and the same), which 
derives from IE base *sem- (-one, 
together). See 'same' in my cedel and 
cp. 'anomalous' ibid. cp. '"HfttiS. .] 

rpVljlJKf.n. FW anomaly. [L. anomalia. 
from Gk. anomalia ( = inequality), 
from anomalos (= unequal). See ^^IJ 
and suff. n;a] 

fUKadj.MH mournful, sad, gloomy. 
[Pass. part. ofux. Seepx.] 

njUKf.aPBH ipbh annual produce; 
annual tax. 2 pbh provision, ration. 
3NH annuity. [L. annona. from an- 
nus (=year), which stands for atnos 
and is cogn. with Old I. dtati (=goes, 
moves on, wanders).] 

njl3Kf.n.FW Anona (botany). [Sp. 
gnona ( = custard apple), anon (= 
custard-apple tree), of Caribbean 

"Tp'Slajt adj. fw anonymous. [Formed 
with suff. X) from L. anonymus, 
from Gk. anonymos ( = without a 
name), from privative pref. an and 
onyma, dialectal form of onoma 
(=name). See , '?} , 2?1:.] Derivative: 

nwp'JlJKf.n.FW anonymity. [Formed 

from'S'ilix with suff. ma.] 
OUK adj. i pbh forced, compelled. 2 

MH Marrano. [Pass. part, of oix. Pi. 

of MX.) 

OHKm.aNH i compulsion. 2 violation, 
rape. [Verbal n. ofojx, Pi. ofwx .] 



npuxf.n.PBH a raped woman. If. of 

0^pi3Xm.n. fw Anophelc (a genus of 
mosquiioes). I Modern L., from Gk. an- 
opheles (- useless, hurtful, harmful), 
from privative pref. an and ophelos 
( = use, help, advantage), whence opsel- 
lein (=to increase, enlarge), ophelma 
(= advantage), which derives from IE 
base *phel- ( = to swell).! 

^»ni3Xadj. fw abnormal. [Med. L. 
anortndlis (-irregular, anomalous), a 
blend of L. anomalus and nonndlis 
( = normal). For the etymology of L. 
anomalus see rr^jtix,, for that of L. 
nonndlis see ^"iti . ] 

Ufi3X adj. severe, incurable. mortal. 
[From aflx; formally, pass. part, of 
the (otherwise non-existing) Qal of 


ttftJK m.n. (coll.) people, mankind. [Re- 
lated to Aram. Wf$. Syr. xifltj. Ugar. 
gnsh ( = to be manly), Arab, 'ins 
(- mankind), 'unas, Mas ( = men), Akka. 
nishu (- people, nation), nishe 
(- people), tenisheti, pi. ( - human race, 
mankind). The above words are prob. 
related to u7:x' ( = to be weak).) 
Derivatives: tfJX", martix,, ^sg. cp. 

^JKm.n.NH l personification. 2 anthro- 
pomorphism. [Verbal n. of tfjx. Pi. 
of tax". | 

mufisx f.n. mh humanity, mankind. 
I Formed from B713X, with suff. mc.| 

'BfiJK adj. human; humane. [Formed 
from tftix with suff. v. cp. Arab. 
'insdniyy ( = human) from 'insan 
(= man). I Derivative :nwpl3N,. 

ni'Ufiaxf.n. MH humanity; humane- 
ness. [Formed from , ^13X with suff. 
rw;:. cp. Arab, 'insdniyya^ ( = human- 
ity), from 'insdniyy ( = human). I 
Dnjx m.n. fw enzyme (biochemistry). 
[Ger. Enzym, coined by the German 
physiologist Wilhelm Kiihne in 1878 
from Med. Gk. enzymos ( = leavened), 
from Gk. en ( = in), and zyme ( = leaven, 
ferment), which stands for IE *yus- 
md and is related to Gk. zomos 
( = broth), from IE base *yiis ( = broth). 

See 'juice' in my CEDEL. | 
mx to sigh, moan. [Aram. nix,. Syr. 

njx,, njnx ( = he groaned, sighed, 

lamented), Ugar. 'nh ( = groan), Arab. 

'analia (=he groaned, sighed), Akka. 

andhu (=to gasp. sigh). Related to 

bases n:x', jjx, pix.l — Qal ra.x mh he 

sighed, moaned, groaned. — Niph. 

njx,;> (of s.m.). — Hith. njxnn, Nith. 

njxnj. pbh he sighed. Derivatives: nrijx,, 

mn}$rj. mrqxnn. 
nijjx f.n. sighing, sigh. [Formed from 

n:x with first suff. ny. cp. Aram, 
xnnjx,, Ugar. gnh ( = sighing, sigh).| 
13PI3K pers. pron. we. (Collateral forms: 
unj and «x. Related to Phoen. jrox, 
Aram, xjnjx,, xjnj, Syr. ]3,n, Arab. 
nahna, Akka. ninu, aninu, nini, 
anfni ( = we). The primitive form 
prob. was *nihnii. cp. Aram. ^j$, 
sometimes shortened to "jp (=we), 
which developed from X}ij ( = 1), with 
change of the sing. suff. xa to the pi. 

SUff. J Li.] 

'PjrixpJX adj. fw antarctic. [Properly 
'opposite to the north', from Gk. anti 
(see -'pjx) and arktos (-bear; the 
constellation of the Great Bear). See 

Dr>3il03N m.n. fw antagonism. \Gk. anta- 
gonisma, from antagonizesthai ( = to 
struggle against), from anti (see 
^■•pjx) and agonizesthai ( = to strug- 
gle), from agon (- assembly; contest 
in the games), from agein ( = to lead, 
guide), which is cogn. with L. agere 
( = to set in motion, drive, lead). See 
'agent' (adj.) in my CEDEL. For the 
ending see suff. DP3. 1 

njatoaiWKf.n. fw entomology. [Com- 
pounded of Gk. enioma (-insects), 
and -logia (see rraV?.;). Gk. enioma 
lit. means "(animals) cut in' (so called 
by Aristotle, because their body is 
divided into segments), neuter pi. of 
entomos (=cut in), from entemnein 
( = tocut in).[ 

"•aiwax adj. fw anatomical. [Back for- 
mation from ^dIdjx,. For the ending 
see suff. \ ;.| 

rP»ii53N f.n. anatomy. [Ultimately from 
Gk. anatomia, anatome( = dissection), 
which is related to anatemein ( = to 
cut up), from ana ( = up, on, upon), 
and temein {-\o cut). See d1dx and 
suff. n^:. I 

D^PJX m.n.FW antonym. [Formed 
from Gk. antonymia ( = a word used 
for another, a pronoun), from anti 
( = instead of; see .?p}8), and onyma, 
dialectal form of onoma ( = noun). 

See ,< ?) , ° l3 -I 
lJ'usn (before a vowel ro^x) fw anti-, 
resp. ant-, pref. meaning 'opposite, 
against, instead". [Gk. anti-, ant- 
( - over against, opposite, before, 
instead of) which is related to aula, 
amen ( = opposite), cp. 'ante-' and 
'anti-' in my CEDEL. cp. also 

"•p^anpsx adj. fw antibiotic. [ Back 
formation from Eng. antibiotics, from 
Medical L. antibioticus, which was 
coined from ami- (see n^x). Gk. 
bios (- life), and suff. -icus. See n;jft1 , 9. 
For the ending of 'pV^x see suff. 

■• .| The word antibiotic was first 
used by the physician Selman Abra- 
ham Waksman, the discoverer of 
streptomycin, in 1941.1 

]">0j?to'»p3X m.n.FW antitoxin. IGer. 
Antitoxin, coined by the German 
bacteriologist Emil von Behring in 
1890 from ami- (sec ^ , u}x) and 
7a\7/j(seer , !?j?1u).| 

"O'uaxm.n.PBH a kind of cooking 
instrument mentioned in the Mish- 
nah. [A Gk. loan word of uncertain 
origin; perhaps lit. meaning 'Antio- 
chian (vessel)'.! 

Drp-iafr'uax m.n. fw antilogarithm. 

[ Formed from -'pjx and Qiv-ijft . ] 

nsiV»U3X f.n. fw antelope. [Eng. ante- 
lope, from Med. Gk. antholops, 
name of a fabulous animal which 
prob. means "flower eye', from Gk. 
anthos (- flower), and ops (=eye). 
For the etymology of Gk. ops see 
"•pslx. cp. the first element in n^rtVttux 
and the second in QW3j?3 j? . | 

njVw» f.n. pbh a water-scooping ma- 
chine. [Borrowed from Gk. antia 
( = hold of a ship; reservoir), which 
together with antlion (of s.m.) 
derives from antlos ( = hold of a ship; 
bucket). See^x.l 

rrniroax f.n. fw antinomy. [L. anti- 
nomia, from Gk. antinomia ( = ambi- 
guity in the law), from anti (see 
"•P3X) and nomos ( = law). See TQM 
and suff. nv:.[ 

••USO^X adj. fw antiseptic. [ Formed 
from .^djx and^pso.l 

DViO'pax m.n. fw antiserum. [A hy- 
brid coined from Gk. anti (see -'•pj.x) 
and L. serum ( = whey). See Dnp . I 

TiS'USX m.n. fw antipode. [L. anti- 
podes (pi.), from Gk. antipodes, pi. 
of antipous (= having the feet oppo- 
site), from anti (see ,, p?x) and pous. 
gen. podos(= foot;seen79).l 

'ns'UJX adj. fw antipathetic. [Back 
formation from rrns'P}*- For the 
en ding see adj. suff. v . I 

njnypax f.n. fw antipathy. [L. anti- 
pathia, from Gk. antipatheia, from 
amipathes (= having opposite feel- 
ings), from anti (see J^x) and 
pathos (= feeling, suffering, passion). 
See o1n? and cp. rrnsx . ) 

|inx]jr , p3X m.n. fw antiquity store, 
secondhand bookstore. I From L. 
antfquarius (= pertaining to antiquity), 
from antiquus ( = old), from ante 
(^before), which is related to Gk. 
ant; ( = over against, opposite, before, 
instead of). See -;»p)X. I 

'Dtp'pJX adj. & m.n. NH anti-Semite. 
anti-Semitic. (Formed on the anal- 



ogy of Ger. Antisemit, from li^x 
m'D^'WKf.n.NH anti-Semitism. 

[Formed on the analogy of Ger. 
Anlisemitismus, from 'P^pjx and 
suff. ma The word Anlisemitismus 
was first used by Wilhelm Marr in 
nrn»p3& f.n. FW antithesis. (L. anti- 
thesis, from Gk. antithesis ( = opposi- 
tion; lit. 'a placing against'), from 
antitithenai ( = to set one thing 
against another, oppose), from ami 
(see c^x) and tithenai ( = to place). 
V^Sm.n.PBH vessel. [Gk. antlos 
( = hold of a ship; bucket), prob. 
standing for antlos, from am-thlos-s, 
and related to ame ( = bucket). See 
'amnion' in my CEDEL and cp. 

n$t?3Kf.n. fw antenna. [Modern L. 
antenna (= feeler or horn of an 
insect), from L. antemna, antenna 
( = sail yard), which is of uncertain 
origin. It is perhaps a contraction of 
an(a)lempnd ( = that which is 
stretched or extended), from IE base 
*temp- (=to stretch, extend). See 
"temple' (place of worship) in my 

0193? m.n. FW Antares (astronomy). 
[Gk. Antares, lit.: 'opposite (the 
planet) Mars', from ami ( = opposite); 
(see 3'pjs), and Ares ( = Mars), which 
derives from are (=bane, ruin). This 
word is related to arein (=a cursing, 

trinWKm.n. fw anthracite, a kind of 
hard coal. [L. anthracites ( = a kind of 
bloodstone), from Gk. anthrakites 
( = a gem), properly subst. use of an 
adj. meaning 'resembling coal', from 
anthrax, gen. anlhrakos ( = coal), 
which is of uncertain origin. For the 
ending see subst. suff. '-ite' in my 
CEDEL. Coal is first mentioned about 
370 B.C.E. by Theophrastus in his 
treatise "On Stones', under the name 
lithos anlhrakos (=coal stone), cp. 
'anthra* and 'anthracite' in my 


'»i?75?« adj. FW Antarctic, pertain- 
ing to the South Pole or regions near 
the South Pole. [Properly 'opposite 
to the north', from Gk. ami ( = oppo- 
site), and arktos (=bear; the constel- 
lation of the Great Bear). See cpjx 

'3$ pers. pron. I. [Related to BAram. 
njfl, Aram., Mand. xjx, Syr. xjx,, 
Ugar. an, Arab, 'and, SArab. ]X, 
Ethiop. 'ana. The Aram forms, 

Arab, 'and and Ethiop. 'ana derive 

from the primitive form ana, which 

is prob. compounded of deictic 'an 

and 'a (=1). cp. 'a-, first person pref. 

of the Sem. imperfect, and the Akka. 

suff. -a, -am ( = to me). Heb. 'jx was 

prob. formed from the primitive 

form 'and through assimilation of 

the suff. »jd and *a. cp. 'jix, xjx, and 

first element in nnx and in words 

there referred to.] Derivative: ni*}{$. 

'JSm.n.MH mourning. [Coined by 

Rashi (1040-1105) from rex 1 ; see his 

commentary to Is. 19:8.] 

'3K m. & f.n. (coll.) ships, fleet. [From 
njx". cp. TA a-na-yi, as a Canaanite 
gloss to ellipu (= ship), and Ugar. gny 
( = fleet).] Derivative: n;jx. 

n»3K f.n. ship, boat, vessel. [Nomen 
unitatis formed from ^{c ( = ships, 
fleet). For the ending see second suff. 
na cp. Ugar. gnyt ( = ship).] 

n;3K f.n. moaning, wailing, lamenta- 
tion, mourning (occurring in the 
Bible twice, Is. 29:2, Lam. 2:5, both 
times in the phrase n^$] n;?xrt, 
'mourning and moaning'). See nix 1 
and first suff. ng and cp.n;}xn. ] 

m»3Kf.n. NH ithe ego. 2egoism. 
[Formed from tx ( = 1), with suff. 

fV'PK.m.n.FW anilin(e) (chemistry). 
[Coined by C.J. Fritzsche in 1841 
from Portuguese anil (- indigo), 
from Arab, an-nil, assimilated from 
al-m'l, from al- ( = the), and nil (= in- 
digo), from Pers. nila, ultimately 
from Old I. nfli (- indigo), from nilah 
( = dark blue), cp. 'lilac' in my CEDEL. 
cp. nijtpox and the first element in 
TOtoJK. and in -109103$. ] 

Drain m.n. FW animism. [Ger. Ani- 

: • ■ -1 

mismus, coined by the German physi- 
cist and chemist Georg Ernst Stahl 
(1660-1734) from L. animus ( = soul, 
spirit, mind, courage, wish, desire), 
reintroduced by E.B. Tylor and 
in 1871. For the ending see suff. 
f?Kadj. pbh delicate, sensitive. [From 
px.] Derivative:nir}x. 

nu*3K f.n. pbh mourning, sorrow, 
grief. [Formed from px with suff. 

no^SK f.n. NH 1 compulsion. 2 violation, 
rape. [Verbal n. ofojx.] See o:x and 
first suff. ng. | 

|"3Km.n. pbh bundle. [Of unknown 
origin, cp.]"^.] 



T|3N, t]3.1k m.n. PBH onyx. [Gk. onyx. 

gen. onyxos ( = fingernail, claw; 
onyx), cogn. with Old I. angrih, 
amhrih (=foot), L. anguis (= nail, 
claw), cp. 'nail' (n.) in my CEDEL. ] 
TJJK m.n. plummet, plumb-line (occur- 
ring in the Bible, Amos 7:7 and 8). 
iRelated to Syr. x^x, Mand. xd:x, 
Arab, 'dnuk, Ethiop. nd'k, Akka. 
andku (Head, tin). These words 
prob. derive ultimately from Sumerian 
anag.] Derivatives: -px, '?}$, ni'?^, 

"\iX to straighten. [Denominated from 
1}$.] —Pi. T|j.x ipbh he covered 
with lead. 2NH he straightened, 
made straight (orig.: made the wall 
straight by means of a plummet). 3 
nh he drew a perpendicular line. — 
Pu. "^jx nh lwas straightened; was 
made straight. 2was made perpen- 
dicular. 3 was covered with lead. 4 
was soldered. Derivatives: ^jx, t^xo. 

*?3K pers. pron. I. [Related to Phoen. 
■px and ■oix, Moabite -px, Punic 
anec, OAram. -px, 'djx, Ugar. gnk, 
Akka. andku, and cogn. with Egypt. 
ynk, Coptic anok, nok. It has no cor- 
respondences in Aram., Arab, and 
Ethiop. (in this latter, ku appears as 
the suff. of the first pers. in the con- 
jugation of the verb, as in waladku, 
Heb. Til 1 ?;, 'I bore'). The endings 
'?□, resp. -ku, etc. in ^ix, andku, 
etc., are prob. related to Heb. r6, 
Aram. -Syr. x? ( = here).] Derivatives: 
ni'?ix, «5ix. 

'33K adj. nh 1 vertical. 2 perpendicu- 
lar. [Formed from ijx with adj. suff. 
iva] Derivative :rn*?jx. 

m»?3K f.n. NH 1 vertically. 2 perpen- 
dicularity. [Formed from ^jx, with 
suff. rue] 

m'?3Kf.n. NH selfishness, egoism, 
egotism. [Formed from 'jix with 
suff. ma] 

*?3Kadj.NH selfish, egoist, egotist, 
egoistic, egotistic. [Formed from 
'pixwith suff. 'a] Derivative: m»?3$. 

DPSilSJX m.n. FW anachronism. [Ul- 
timately from Gk. anachronismos 
(- anachronism), from anachronizein 
( = to refer to a wrong time), from ana 
( = up to, against), and chronos 
( = time). See , ?1-i?andDr , c.] 

rriftjxf.n. fw analogy. [Fren. anal- 
ogic from L. analogia, from Gk. 
analogia (- proportion, analogy), 
from analogos ( = according to a due 
proportion, proportionate), from ana 
( = up to) and logos ( = word, speech, 
reckoning, proportion). See jl'ft and 
suff. rro.J 

nrV&f.n.FW analysis. [Gk. analysis 



( = a loosing, releasing), from ana- 
Ivein ( - to unloose, release, set free), 
from ana (=up to, on, throughout), 
and lyein (=to unfasten, loosen, 
slacken), which is cogn. with Old I. 
lundti, lunoli ( = cuts, cuts off). L. 
luere ( = to loose, release; to atone for, 
expiate). See 'lose' in my CEDEL and 
cp. 'lysis' ibid. cp. alsoVTW-l 

'D'VjXadj. fw analytic, analytical. 
[Modern L. analylicus, from Gk. an- 
alyticos (= analytic), from analysis. See 
nrtytjt and suff." 1 a) 

rjTJtoSK m.n. fw anemograph. [Com- 
pounded of Gk. anemos ( = wind) — 
which is cogn. with L. anima ( = breath 
of air, air, breath, soul, life), animus 
( = soul, spirit, mind, courage, wish, 
desire) — and graphos, from gra- 
phein (=to write). See Drp'jx, and 

"itjataJN m.n. fw anemometer. [Com- 
pounded of Gk. anemos ( = wind). 
and meiron ( = measure). See I^JlDJK, 
and id?. I 

VMKadj. fw anemic, anaemia [Back 
formation from rvDix, . | 

rP»3N f.n. fw anemia, anaemia (dis- 
ease). [Gk. anaimia (-want of blood, 
bloodlessness), from privative pref. 
an- and airna ( = blood), cp. the first 
element in pulton . ] 

]3X to complain, murmur, lament, 
bewail, mourn. [Aram. ]Ji$. Syr. ]X, 
Arab, 'anna, hanna (=he groaned, 
lamented). Related to the bases n:x', 
rox, pix.] — Qal ]jx pbh he lamented, 
mourned. — Hith. Jj.lxnn he mur- 
mured, complained. Derivatives: 
]i:x, px, nwilxnn, p.lxnp, pj$n. 
|3N ; pron. pbh we. [Occurring in phrases 
quoted from Talmud or Midrash, as 
in irnj jjx, (=we are witnesses; i.e. 'we 
testify to the truth of this'). Seeunjx, .] 
033K m.n. FW ananas. [Sp. anana's, 

from Peruvian nanas ( = pineapple). ] 
03N to force, compel, rape. [Related to 
Aram. ou<, Syr. oj$.l —Qal ojx tr. v. 
l he forced, compelled (a hapax lego- 
menon in the Bible, occurring Est. 
1 :8). 2 PBH he violated, raped. — Niph. 
ojx.j pbh l he was forced. 2:193x3, (f.) she 
was violated, was raped. — Pi. ojx pbh 
the forced, compelled. 2 he violated, 
raped. Derivatives: 0)/x, ojx, oux, o«x, 

D3X m.n. pbh l compulsion, force. 2vio- 
lation, rape. |Fromo:x.] 

0}K m.n. pbh i violator, rapist. 2 terror- 
ist. [Nomen opificum formed from 
ojx. | 

VanjjKm.n. fw ensemble. [Fren. en- 
semble (-together), from L. insimul 

( = at the same time, together), from 
in (=in), and simul ( = at the same 
time, together). Sec 'in' (prep.), and 
'simultaneous' in my cedel.I 

nvjnw.K f.n. fw anesthesis. [Gk. an- 
aislhesia (=lack of sensation), from 
anaisthetein ( = to be without sense of 
something, lack sensation), from priv- 
ative pref. an- and aisthetos{ = sensible, 
perceptible). Secpnox and suff.rra.] 

«]3N to be angry. [Prob. denominated 
from IX (=nose, anger), cp. Moabite 
13X {- to be angry), and Arab, 'anifa 
( = he disdained, scorned, rejected), 
which are also denominative verbs.] — 
Qal 1JN intr. v. was angry. — 
Hith. ijixnri (of s.m.). — Hiph. «nxn nh 
he made angry. Derivatives: ijx, 
rr2}§, id:k, and possibly n^tt. cp. ps^x. 

«]3K moi.M Hanger, wrath. [Fronrpx.] 

HD3K f.n. heron, egret. [Related to Syr. 

x^jx. Akka. anpaiu. These words prob. 

derive from «]ix and lit. mean 'the 

quarrelsome bird'. I 
rp93Km.n. NH speaking through the 

nose. I Verbal n. of *19?k, Pi. of id:x . 1 

rntosxf.n. FW anaphora — repetition 
of the same word in successive clauses 
(rhetorics). |Gk. anaphora (=a 
carrying back), from anapherein ( = to 
carry back), from ana ( = up to; back, 
backward), and pherein ( = to bear, 
carry), which together with phor 
( = thief) derives from IE base *bher- 
( = to bear, carry). See niitt>x. cp. 
"?ip3ruD, xn«, the first element in 
njroVi-;, and the second element in 
rnlD^p, "ilDfjp, -iIddId. nnirns. po.oipcg, 
■ntolfrn. cp. also ^x^n?^ and jln?.] 

nni93Kf.n. pbh trading place, trade, 
merchandise. [Gk. emporion ( = a trad- 
ing place, market), properly neuter of 
emporios ( = pertaining to trade), used 
as a n.. from emporos ( = traveler; 
trader, merchant), from en ( = in) and 
poros (= passage, way, road), which 
stands in gradational relationship to 
peirein (= to go through, pierce, cross, 
traverse) which is related to peran{- to 
pass through). These words derive 
from IE base *per-{ = to pass over), cp. 

n^93Kf.n. pbh (pi. mx^x) felt shoe, 
felt slipper. [Gk. empilion (=felt 
shoe), formed from en ( = in) and 
pilos ( = felt), which is prob. cogn. 
with L. pilleus ( = felt cap), pilus 
(=hair). cp. 'pile' ( = soft hair) in my 


fWKm.n. pi. PBH face. [Aram. See "px.l 
n'DJKf.n. NH heron, egret. (Formed 

from n$3,x, with dimin. suff. n-o.] m.n. fw anapaest — a metrical 

foot consisting of two short syllables 
followed by a long one, a reversed 
dactyl (prosody). [L. anapaestus, 
from Gk. anapaistos ( = struck back, 
rebounding), verbal adj. of anapaiein 
( = to strike back), from ana ( = up to; 
back), and paiein ( = to strike) which 
is cogn. with L. pavire ( = to beat, 
ram, tread down). See 'pave' in my 

*)D3K to nasalize. iCoined by H.N. Bialik 
(1873-1934) from ix ( = nose). from 
base 13X.] —Pi. ip^x tr. v. nh he 
spoke through the nose, nasalized. 
Derivatives: ii9^x,199:x,19:xd. 

|M3Km.n. nh one who speaks through 
the nose. [Formed from id:x with 
agential suff. jg.j 

nsi^prHi? adj. fw encyclopedic. [Back 
formation from rrigftp-^x. For the 
ending see suff. '•3. ] 

nns^xpK f.n. fw encyclopedia. [Late 
L. encyclopaedia, from inexact Gk. 
enkyklopaideia, for enkyklios paideia 
( = circular education, general educa- 
tion), lit.: 'training in a circle' '.Enkyklios 
is formed from en ( = in) and kyklos 
{- circle). Paideia derives from the 
stem paideyein ( = to rear or bring up a 
child, to educate), from pais, gen. 
paidos ( = a child), from IE base *peu- 
( = small, little, few, young). See 'cycle' 
and 'few' in my CEDEL and cp. the first 
element in 11019. For the ending see suff. 

|?3X to sigh, groan. (Aram, pix,, Syr. 
pjx (=he sighed, groaned). Base of 
njjx/. Related to base mx and to the 
bases there referred to; related also 
to px3 (metathesis).] — Qal pjx intr. v. 
he sighed, groaned (in the Bible oc- 
curring only Jer 51:52 and Ezek. 
26:15). —Niph. pjg3 of s.m. (in the 
Bible occurring only Ezek. 9:4 and 
24:17). Derivative: nipixn. 

nj?3K ' f.n. groaning, groan, cry. [Formed 
from pax with first suff. ng.] 

n;$X" f.n. gecko (a hapax legomenon 
occurring Lev. 11:30). [Of uncertain 

Vip3K m.n.NH hook. [A collateral form 
ofVjftix.l Derivative:^?. 

tyjMX adj. NH unciform, uncinate. [A 
collateral form of 'V^ix .] 

-l1p3K m.n. PBH bunting (bird). [Per- 
haps formed from ^3 .] 

VUXadj.FW energetic. [Back forma- 
tion from rrjnjx. For the ending see 
suff. 'a] 

rr»J"i3K f.n. fw energy. (Late L. ener- 

gfa, from Gk. energeia { = energy, 

efficiency), which was formed by 

Aristotle from energes, late form of 



energos ( at work, active), from en 
( in) and ergon (-work). Sec J?x and 
suff.n; .1 

'pnjx adj. K\v anarchic. I Back forma- 
tion from n^7J{«. For the ending see 

rrsnjxf.n.FW anarchy. [Fren. anar- 
c/»c. from Gk. anarchia (=lack of a 
leader, state of being without any 
leader), from anarchos (- without 
chief), from privative pref. an and 
arc/ios (- leader, chief, ruler). See 

orsiJX m.n. fw anarchism. [See 'rijx, 
and suff. en::. I 

OO'piJX m.n. fw anarchist. I See *v?7JX 

KftX' to be weak, to be sick. [Akka. 
eneshu (=to be weak), cp. Syr. tfj 
( = became weak). Arab, 'anuiha (-be- 
came womanly), is prob. denomin- 
ated from 'unthd (- feminine, fe- 
male), cp. tfttx.l — Qal (see flux). — 
Niph. tfjw he grew sick (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring 
Sam II 12:15 in the form tfJ$3,' and he 
became very sick"). 

tfJX" to humanize. I Denominated from 
tfljx ( = man. mankind). I — Pi. cftx 
tr. v. nh he humanized. — Pu. tfj$ 
NH was humanized. — Hiph. uf'Jxn 
NH lhe humanized. 2 he anthropo- 
morphized. 3 he personified. — Hoph. 
tfjxn nh I was humanized. 2he was 
anthropomorphized. 3 he was per- 
sonified. Denominated from ttflix. 
cp.n^jttn. Derivatives: ttfHg.n^jjjrj. 

#"3X abbr. nh our friends, members 
of our group. I Formed from the ini- 
tials of the words upV^'Cftx (of s.m.).l 

'tfJX, *&?* people. I Aram., pL of tfjx 
( = man). See cftix and cp. the second 
element in tfn?. I 

D^« m.n. pi. men, serving as the pi. 
of tf'K ( = man). I Related to crtix .) 

r>?« m. & f. pron. pbh thou. you. I Aram. 

SeennK. ni<.| 

n;jlVln?Kf.n. fw anthology. [Gk. an- 
tlwlogia ( = a flower gathering), from 
anthologos (gathering flowers), 
which is formed from amhos ( = flower), 
and legein ( - to gather). See n^V-pig. 
jIm"? and suff. rr :.| 

J^slinax m.n. fw anthropologist. 

[Back formation from rrjfttennjg . | 

\rfyte1iriJX. adj. fw anthropological. 
[Back formation from rvjrt^Dl-iniK. 
For the ending see suff. ' :.| 

nnV^D^pKf.n. fw anthropology. [The 
word lit. means 'the science of man'. 
It is compounded of Gk. anthropos 
(man), and logia (see rvjV? j. Gk. 

anthropos is perhaps a dialectal variant 
ofandropos, a compound of aner, gen. 
andros ( = man), and ops ( - eye, face), 
and lit. means "he who has the face of a 
man'. For the etymology of aner sec 
xpvijx. Ops derives from IL base *oq w - 
( = cye). cp. the second element in 
sl-in:rp and in 9l"in:*T"? . I 

rnpx f.n. PBH raft. I Of uncertain origin. 
The derivation of this word from L. 
esseda (= two-wheeled war chariot) 
must be rejected for semantic rea- 
sons. There is more probability in 
the assumption that rnpx comes 
from Gk. schedia ( = raft). Gk. sche- 
dia is of uncertain origin. It means 
perhaps lit. 'that which is held 
together", and derives from schein 
( = to hold). See n'Tlspx.l Derivative: 

n^psf.n.NH a small barge. [Formed 
from rnox with dimin. sufi". rr.j. I 

"jpox m.n.oil can (a hapax legomenon 
in the Bible, occurring Kin. II 4:2). 
[Prob. formed from "po (-to anoint), 
with prosthetic :x.| 

D10X adj. MH rich in corn: abundant. 
[From ddx; formally, pass. part, of 
the otherwise not used Qal. I 

DlOXm.n. NH storage. [Verbal n. of 

DDK. Pi. of DDK. | 

Jlox m.n. disaster, calamity, catastro- 
phe, accident. [Prob. from base nox, 
whence also Arab, 'asiya ( = was sad. 
was grieved, was distressed). Gesenius 
connects these words with Arab, 'asd, 
Aram. -Syr. , dk (-he cured, healed) as 
verbs having privative meaning, how- 
ever, these verbs are prob. denom- 
inated from x;px. See x;px . I 

^OKadj. mh gathered, collected. [Pass, 
part, of ipx. See ^ox and cp. 'piox . 1 

IWKm.n.NH collection, assemblage, 
compilation. I Verbal n. of lox. Pi. of 


'DlOKm.n.PBH foundling. [Lit.: 'taken 
in", from "^ox. pass. part, of IPX. See 


rryx'^'iox f.n. association. [Med. L. as- 
socidtio, from L. associdtus, p. part, of 
associdre(- to join to. unite with), from 
ad ( = to. toward) and socidrc ( - to join 
together, associate), from socius 
(-companion). For the ending of 
rrxx-stoK sec suff. rp*.; . I 

1WK adj. l bound. 2 imprisoned. 3 pbh 
forbidden. I Pass. part, of "ipx. See 


"HOK m.n. pbh prohibition. [From nox. 


■UOX m.n. band, bond. [From nox. cp. 
Aram, -uox, Syr. iniox, . I 

xniOKf.n.PBH i medicine. 2 God bless 
you! I Aram, iox, emphatic st. xmox 
(=curc, medicine, remedy), from 'px 
( = he cured), which is a back forma- 
tion from x^px ( = physician). | 

naalUOK f.n. pbh stomach. [Gk. sto- 
maclios (^throat, gullet esophagus, 
stomach) from stoma ( = mouth), cp. 
"stoma" and "stomach" in my CEDEL. 
The x in n^alcpx is prosthetic. I 

rvPOST'OpK m.n. fw astigmatism. 

I Formed with suff. ni : from Eng. 
astigmatic, which is a back forma- 
tion from astigmatism, a word coined 
by the English mathematician and phi- 
losopher William Whcwell in 1819 
from Gk. privative pref. a-, and stigma 
( = puncture, mark. spot), which derives 
from the stem of stizein ( = to prick, 
point, mark), from IE base *steig- (-to 
prick, stick, pierce). See "slick" (v.) in 
my cedel andcp.oprpprx.l 

nV»px, "tyspxf.n. fw (pi. nV7ppx, resp. 
rri'Vpox) inh gravestone. 2 pbh stele. 
iFormed with prosthetic :x from Gk. 
stele (=an upright stone, monument, 
gravestone), which is related to slellein 
( = to set in order, arrange, equip), stole 
{ = adjustment, equipment, clothing). 
See rnpx x. I 

n»»px see none x. 

D^ppxadj. pbh sensitive, fastidious, 
squeamish. [Gk. asthenes ( = weak), 
lit.: "without strength", from privative 
pref. a-, and sthenos ( = strength), 
which is of uncertain origin. 1 Deriva- 
tive: nicjppx 

niOVOOX f.n. MH sensitiveness, fastidi- 
ousness. [A hybrid coined from cjdox 
with Heb. suff.m :.| 

TXintJOX m.n.FW asteroid. I From Gk. 
asteroides (-starlike), which is com- 
pounded of aster ( = star) and -oeides 
C= -like), from eidos ( = form. shape). 
Gk. aster prob. goes back to an IE 
primary form *astero, which is of 
uncertain Sem. origin. It possibly 
derives from the name of the evening 
star called after the Sem. goddess 
Astarte. i.e. Ishtar, Heb. rnhtfy. See 
rtv'-rt-ipx. and cp. ltoiops. Dixjnppx. 
aMnpqx. For the etymology of "oeides" 

siVhopxm.n. fw astrologer. |Gk. as- 
trologos ( = 'astronomer*, later "astro- 
loger"), compounded of as iron ( - star), 
and logos. See rrjlVnpox . I 

rmiVnopx f.n. fw astrology. [Ulti- 
mately from Gk. astrologia ( "as- 
tronomy", later "astrology"), from as- 
trologos. See jV?lnpcx. For the end 
ing see suff. n; ..| 

wxjlioox m.n. fw astronaut. [Com- 



pounded of Gk. astron ( = star) and 
naittes (= sailor, seaman). See "rxlippx 

DWipDKm.n. fw astronomer. [Gk. as- 
tronomos (- astronomer; lit.: 'star- 
arranger'), from astron ( = star), and 
nomos ( = stranger), which is related to 
nemein ( = to deal out, distribute). See 
-rxlnops and ip1] and cp. the second 
element in n;p1]1-ippx . I 

'pW'ipOK adj. fw astronomic(al). [Back 
formation from rrpunppx. For the 
ending see suff. 'a.] 

TDUnoDK f.n. fw astronomy. [Ulti- 
mately from Gk. astronomia {- as- 
tronomy), from astronomos. See 
dWiud x and suff. rr □ . ] 

JtnpDKm.n. PBH strategist. [Formed 
with prosthetic uk from Gk. strate- 
gos (- leader of an army), which is 
compounded of stratos ( = army), and 
agein ( = to lead, guide, drive). See 
DV773 and cp. 'strategy' in my 
CEDEL. For the etymology of Gk. 

KJDipDK m.n. PBH army; royal suite; 
retinue. [Formed with prosthetic uk 
from Gk. stratia ( = army; company, 
band), from stratos (=army). See 
DV779 and cp. the first element in 

K'DK m.n. PBH physician (occurring in 
phrases quoted from Talmud and Mid- 
rash). [Aram. -Syr., a loan word from 
Akka. asu, itself borrowed from 
Sumeric a-zu {- physician), which lit. 
means 'he that knows water', from a 
( = water), zu (=to know), cp. KmDK. 
cp. alsojIoK.] 

rPOKf.n. fw Asia. [Gk. Asia, from 
Akka. asu {- to go out; to rise — said 
of the sun), which is related to Heb. 
K^( = he went out; it rose — said of 
the sun). Accordingly Asia orig. de- 
noted 'the Region of the Rising Sun' in 
contradistinction to Europe which orig. 
meant 'the Region of the Setting Sun' 
(see rt^Tx). cp. the second element in 
rPDTx. cp. also Asia and 'wudu' in my 
CEDEL.) Derivative: ttpx. 

fltt'DK m.n. 1 PBH uncoined metal; 
worn coin. 2NH metal token (to be 
used in subways, telephone booths, 
etc.). [Gk. asemon (-uncoined metal, 
bullion), properly subst. use of the 
neuter of the adj. asemos ( = without 
token), which is formed from priva- 
tive pref. a-, and sema (-sign, token). 
See Rp9 . 1 

nDp^OK adj. fw asymmetric(al). [Back 
formation from nntp^px,. For the 
ending see suff.' ,].[ 

njnpp'pK f.n. fw asymmetry. [Gk. 

asymmetria ( - incommensurability), 
from asymmetros ( = incommensurate; 
disproportionate), from privative pref. 
a-, and symmetros ( = commensurable). 


"riD^tt'DK m.n. fw 1 assimilationist. 2 as- 
similator. [From L. assitnildtus, p. 
part, of assimildre ( = to make like, 
liken), from ad (-to, toward), and 
simildre ( = to make similar to), from 
similis ( = like, resembling, similar). See 
'similar' and agential suff. 'or' in my 

n^^DK f.n. fw assimilation. [L. as- 
simildtio, from assimilldlus, p. part of 
assimildre. See "ilD^'p^x and cp. 
n^^p , 9 , T For the ending see suff. n j □ .] 

DiDD'OK m.n. fw assistant. [Fren. as- 
sistant (adj. & n.), properly pres. part, 
of assister (=to stand by, help, assist), 
from L. assistere ( = to stand by), from 
ad ( = to, toward), and sistere ( = to 
cause to stand, put, place; to stand stilL, 
stand), from the reduplicated base of 
stare (-to stand), cp. Old I. tisthati, 
Avestic hishtaiti (- stands), and Gk. 
istemi (=1 cause to stand, place; 1 
stand). See 'state' in my CEDEL.l 

rppK m.n. ingathering, harvest. [From 


nsrpx f.n. PBH gathering, collection. 
[ Verbal n. of 1QK. See ion and suff. 

TDK m.n. prisoner, captive. [From 
ipK (see -iok). cp. Aram. K79N., Syr. 
xvpx, Arab. 'asir. cp. also ashiru and 
asiru in the TA letters. Seevpx.l 

VOK m.n. prisoner, captive. [A second- 
ary formofT'PK.] 

rn'OKf.n.PBH imprisonment. [Verbal 
n. of ipK. See ipk and first suff. n?.] 

"•rPDKadj.NH Asian. Asiatic. [Formed 
from rrpK, with suff. rr^.l Deriva- 
tive: miVQK. 

niTPpKf.n. NH Asianism. [Formed 
from TPpx with suff. m u .) 

nVtoDK NH, ^Iso'Sf-n. pbh ischool. 
2system. [Gk. schole, resp. L. schola 
( = leisure, spare time; leisure devoted 
to learning; place of learning, school), 
which is formed from sche-. stem of 
echein (=to have, hold, possess), 
from IE base *segh- ( = to hold in 
one's power, to have), whence also 
schema (=form, shape). See np'jp 
and cp. rripx in this dictionary, cp. 

DlSDKm.n. NH integration (mathemat- 
ics). [Verbaln. ofospK, Pi. ofasoK.I 

'SlVlDSOKadj. fw eschatological. [Back 
formation from rvaftlD^pN. For the 
ending see suff. 'a) 

rrjfttospKf.n. fw eschatology. 1 Lit.: 
'the study of the last things', from 
Gk. eschatos (= furthest, remotest, 
last), and -logia. Gk. eschatos is a 
derivative of ex, which is related to 
L. ex, e (=out of, from). For the ety- 
mology of Gk. -logia, see hjjIVl:.! 
Derivative: 7MD39K. 

n^SDK'f.n. PBH 1 ladder. 2 gangway. 
I Aram, K^px, from L. scdlae ( = lad- 
der, scaling ladder), from scand-sld, 
a derivative of scandere ( = to climb), 
from IE base *scand- ( = to spring, 
leap). The gk in n^px is prosthetic 
(see uk).] 

n^pOK"f.n.PBH grill, grid. [Gk. eschala 
( = hearth, fireplace), which is of un- 
certain origin.] 

D3DK to integrate (mathematics). [From 
□3D.] —Pi. Q?px NH he integrated. 
Derivatives: dispk, npsox. 

n^SDN f.n. NH (pi. rrio^px, nlxnp?ps) 
integral (mathematics). [Formed from 
asox with suff. nn.] 

nnjpxf.n. PBH diphtheria (disease). lOf 
uncertain origin.] 

^pKm.n. PBH pole, yoke. [ Hepatization 
of Gk. asilla (- yoke), which is of un- 
known origin.] 

DK^DK m.n. NH Islam. [Arab, 'islam 
( = submitting oneself to God, sur- 
render, obedience), inf. of aslama 
( = he surrendered, submitted; he sub- 
mitted himself to God). See n^w and cp. 
'Islam' in my CEDEL and words there 
referredto.] Derivative: d^ok. 

rftpK, nVog f.n. pbh (pi. nftpij, resp. 
rrftpx) closet stool, lavatory seat. [L. 
sella (=seat, chair, stool), for sed-ld, 
from sedere (=to sit). See 'sedentary' 
in my CEDEL and cp. the second el- 
ement in "nxjfttt and in pTnap. The 
ax in n^px is prosthetic (see 3X).] 

D^DK to convert to Islam. [Denomi- 
nated from dk'jpk.) —Pi. D^pK tr. v. 
NH he converted to Islam; he islam- 
ized. — Hith. D^pxnri nh he became 
a Moslem. Derivative: mo^pxnri. 

DDK m.n. storehouse, granary (in the 
Bible occurring only Deut. 28:8 and 
Pr. 3:10 in the form T998)- (Related 
to Syr. IPX (= he stored up. piled up), 
]PK (of s.m.). Aram, xjpx ( = stock of 
coin), Syr. Kjps ( = store, victuals). 
Akka. ishittu ( = granary). For the 
interchangeability of m and n cp. the 
verbs Dp'y and tf?V ( = ne hated), cp. 
also ion".] Derivative: dp>. 

DDK to store up, pile up. [Denomi- 
nated from Dps. cp. the related Syr. 
JPK (-he stored up, piled up), which 
is denominated from iq^x ( = store. 



victuals).! — Pi. ddx tr. v. he stored. — 
Pu. ogx nh was stored. — Hi ph. 
□■"pxri mh he stored. Derivative :dtox. 

DDK m.n. mh abundance, plenty, rich 
harvest. I From ddx . I 

nnpijOKf.n. pbh (pi. nln?99N and 
nlx$39px) Scriptural text used as a 
support for a Rabbinical enactment. 
[Aram. xr439px (lit.: 'support, reli- 
ance'), from 190 (-he supported), 
which is related to 199 (of s.m.); see 

t]DK to gather, collect, reap, harvest 
[Phoen. ion ( = to gather). Aram. 19X 
( = he gathered in. reaped, harvested). 
Ugar. 'sp (=to gather), Akka. esepu 
( = to reap, harvest). Related to base 
lovl — Qal 15K tr. v. l he gathered, 
collected. 2 he took away, removed, 
withdrew. — Niph. 19K? I was gath- 
ered, was collected, was assembled. 
2 was taken away (by death). — Pi. ipx 
he gathered, collected; he took in (a 
guest). — Pu. 19K was gathered, was 
collected. — Hith. loxnri met, as- 
sembled, was gathered together. 
Derivatives: ipx, nppg, r^px, ^oppx,, 
l^ox, iidk. 'piox, nj'px, ippx, mDpxn, 
ruDOKTin, ^pxp, 1989- 

IPS m.n. a gathering, collecting, col- 
lection (in the Bible occurring only 
Is.32:10andMicah 7:1). |From«px.| 

nDDNtf.n. gathering, assembly, meet- 
ing (a hapax legomenon in the Bible, 
occurring Is. 24:22). (Verbal n. of IPX. 
See 1DK and first suff. na. ] 

riBOK collection, assembly (a hapax le- 
gomenon in the Bible, occurring Ec- 
cles. 12:11 in the phrase mspx ^jp. 
which prob. means 'assemblies of 
learned men". [Formed from 'px with 
first suff. na.] 

^tsok m.n.FW aspirin. [Ger. Aspirin, 
coined by H. Dreser in 1899, from 
privative pref. a-, the plant Spiraea, 
and chemical suff. -in. See 'Aspirin' 

njTsps f.n. fw Sphyraena (a genus 
of pikelike fishes). [ Modern L. . from L. 
sphyraena (=a kind of seafish), from 
Gk. sphyraina {- hammer fish), from 
sphyra (- hammer), which is related to 
sphyron (- ankle), spairein ( = to move 
convulsively), from IE base *(s)p(h)er- 
( = to move convulsively). See ' spurn' in 
myCEDEL and cp. 'Sphyraena' ibid. I 

oVspKm.n.FW asphalt. [Ultimately 
from Gk. asphaltos, which is of un- 
certain, possibly Sem., origin.) 

rn^ppxf.n. pbh plaster, compress. [A 
hybrid formed with the Heb. suff. n'a 
from Gk. splenion ( = compress of linen 
laid on a wound; orig.: 'compress laid 

on the spleen'), from splen (=milt, 
spleen), which stands for splegch and is 
related to splagcha ( = the inward 
parts). The ox in n^ppx is prosthetic 

K^D§pK Hispany. (From L. Hispdnia 
{- Spain; lit.: 'the country of the 
Spaniards'), from Hispdnus ( = Span- 
iard), which is prob. of Iberian ori- 
gin. The i in (H)i-spdnia is prob. the 
Iberian article. cp.n'Vl^gpx .1 

|DpSm.n.NH collector. [Formed from 
1?x. Pi. of lox, with agential suff. 
JJ.I Derivative: n'jppx. 

nUfDKf.n.NH (the hobby of) collect- 
ing. [Formed from jpox with suff. 

n^SSpKf.n.NH Ladino, the Spanish 
dialect spoken by Sephardic Jews in 
Turkey and some other countries. 
[ Formed from Sp. espanol ( = Spanish), 
from Espana { = Spain), from L. 
Hispdnia (see rrpgpx), with suff. rvn. ] 

^loppx m.n. rabble, mob, riffraff (a 
hapax legomenon in the Bible, occur- 
ring Num. 11:4). [Formed from idk 
through reduplication of the second 
and third radical letters and lit. 
meaning people gathered together, 
cp. Arab, safsaf ( = something poor, 
something inferior).] Derivative: 

"•DIDDOK adj.NH mobbish, [Formed 

from iioppx, with suff. *c . 1 
nosoKf.n.NH lucerne. [Aram.-Syr. 

v rv i - 

xnospx. from Pers. ispist, isfist, 
whence also Arab, isfast.} 

njspxf.n.NH provision. [A secondary 
form of nj?9pn. For the force of 
nouns of the form of n^px in NH see 
njrqx and cp. words there referred 

»;?9pKm.n.FW aspect. [L. aspectus 
( = glance, sight, appearance, counte- 
nance), from aspectus. p. part, of 
aspicere (= to look at), from ad- and 
specere ( = to look at). 1 

nnV|??pK f.n. pbh i windowpanes of the 
ancients made of lapis specularis. 2 mir- 
ror. [L. speculdria ( = windowpanes), 
from specularis ( = pertaining to a 
mirror, of the nature of a mirror), 
from speculum ( = looking glass, mir- 
ror), which derives from specere ( = to 
see, look at, behold). See 'speculum' 
and 'specular' in my CEDEL. The ax in 
^■ftpspx is prosthetic] 

DUn^pK m.n. pbh asparagus. [Gk. as- 
paragos, prob. meaning lit. 'a sprout' 
and related to sparagan ( = to swell, 
be ripe), from IE base *sper(eg); 
*spher(e)g- ( = 'to sprout, swell, burst'), 

whence also L. spargere ( = to scatter). 
See 'sparse' in my CEDEL and cp. 
'asparagus' ibid.] 

VngOKm.n.PBH quince. [Syr. x'jrigpx, 
Pers. and Arab. safarjal{ = quince).] 

tonpp^m.n.FW Esperanto. [From Es- 
peranto, pseudonym of Dr. Lazarus 
Ludwig Zamenhof (1859-1917), 
inventor of this language, from Sp. 
esperanza (= hope), from esperar( = to 
hope), from L. sperdre, from spes 
(=hope), which derives from IE base 
*spe(i)-. *spe- (=to draw, stretch, 
spread, extend, swell; to be successful). 
See 'prosperous' in my CEDEL and cp. 
'despair' ibid.] 

T i " 1 7?P*?» f1l7?0K m.n. FW squadron. 
[Fren. escardon, from It. squadrone, 
formed from squadra ( = square), 
with the augment suff. -one. It. 
squadra is borrowed from Sp. 
escuadra (= squad; properly 'square'), 
from Late L. exquadrdre ( = to form 
into a square). See 'square' in my 
CEDEL and cp. 'squadron' and 'escad- 
rille', ibid.] 

rrluipOKf.n.PBH plate (of glass), 
tray. [L. scuiella ( = salver, waiter), 
dimin. of scutula (=a small tray or 
dish), which itself is a dimin. of scu- 
tra (=a flat tray. dish). The orig. 
meaning prob. was 'a leather vessel', 
from scutum (= shield; orig.: 'a leather 
shield'). See 'scutum' in my CEDEL 
and cp. 'scuttle' (a metal receptacle) 
ibid. The ax in rt^pippx is prosthetic 
(see ax).] 

ia^pK m.n. fw (pi. D , xia , |?ox) Eskimo. 
[North American Indian eskimantsik 
( - eaters of raw flesh), a name given by 
the Algonquians to the North 
American Indian tribes living in the 
Arctic and Greenland.] 

nsppxf.n.PBH threshold, doorstep, 
doormat. [JAram. xn^px, xn^px, 
Syr. xnpppx. Mand. xnDipos? — 
whence also Arab, 'iskujfa' — bor- 
rowed from Akka. askuppu, askup- 
patu ( = threshold), cp. n^gp. cp. also 

nnppKf.n.PBH sailyard. [Contraction 
of Gk. istokeraia ( = sailyard), which 
is compounded of istos ( = ship's 
mast; loom; warp, web), and keraria 
( = horn). The first element lit. stands 
for sistos and lit. means 'that which 
causes to stand', from istemi (= I 
make to stand; I stand), from IE base 
*std- ( = to stand), stamen ( = the warp 
in the loom); see 'state' in my cedel 
and cp. 'histo-', 'anhistous', 'Actinis- 
tia' ibid. The second element derives 
from keras (= horn), which is cogn. 

4 5 


with L. comu (horn), from ll ; base 
*ker (the uppermost part of the 
body, head, horn, top, summit). See 
'horn' in my CEDEL and cp. 'ccrato-' 
ibid. I 
nOK to bind, tic, imprison. iMoabitc 
-iok. Aram. icx,, Syr. -15(5, Arab. 
'asara, Ethiop. asdra ( = he bound), 
Ugar. 'sr, Akka. eseru (=to bind), cp. 
n-)bo.| — Qal "ipx tr. v. I he tied, 
bound, fettered, harnessed. 2 he ar- 
rested, imprisoned. 3 PBH he for- 
bade, prohibited. — Niph. 15$. 1 was 
tied, was bound. 2 was arrested, was 
imprisoned. 3 PBH was forbidden, 
was prohibited. — Pu. nQ(< I was 
tied, was bound. 2 was imprisoned. 
Derivatives: "uox. -iiox, -ik>x, vpx, 
vcpx, nvpfct, -19K 1 , rnij$, nntpxn. -19^9. 
nolo 1 , 19=10". 

IDS'. IOK m.n. binding obligation. 
I From M}K (see idx). cp. BAram. 19s,, 
emphatic state X39X, Syr. X39X, .1 

IOK" m.n. pbh (pi. □"hijk and rri^x) a 
small Roman copper coin. [Gk. 
assarion, from L. as, gen. ass/s, prob. 
lit. meaning 'square piece of metal' 
(such as the original form of the 
coin) and orig. identical with assis, 
axis {- plank, disc), which is related 
to asser (= pole, stake, post). See 'ash- 
lar' in my CEDEL and cp. second 'as* 
ibid. I 

rnoKf.n. pbh harnessing (of a horse). 
|Lit.: 'binding', from "i?K. Sec idx and 
first suff.n.;.| 

arrnOK MH the day following Pass- 
over, Shavuoth or Sukkoth (Jewish 
liturgy). I So called after the first two 
words in the verse Ps. 118, which 
prob. means 'arrange the festival...'. 
For hqk meaning also 'he prepared, 
arranged', cp. norr>D 19X ( = he pre- 
pared or waged war); sec "iox . 1 

"•ono^adj.FW esthetic. [Gk. aislheti- 
kos (= perceptive), from aisihelos 
(-sensible, perceptible), verbal adj. 
of aisthaesihai (=to perceive), re- 
lated to aio (= I hear; lit- "I perceive by 
the ear'), from IE base *awei- ( = to 
perceive). See "HJDVnlx and cp. n^nojx, . 1 

JvnVnoKf.n.PBH gang, band. I Of 
unknown origin. | 

nttnpxf.n.FW asthma. IGk. asthma 
(= hard-drawn breath), which prob. 
stands for ansthma and derives 
from IE base *an- (=to blow, 
breathe), whence also anemos ( = wind), 
L. animus (-breath of air, air, 
breath). For other derivative of 
base *an- sec Dro'jx, . I 


inpK m.n.FW Aster, a genus of plants 

of the thistle family. |Modern L., from 
L. aster (star), from Gk. aster; so 
called from the radiate heads of the 
flowers. SecVKl-it?9K.| 

NinOR m.n. PBH slater, the Roman 
standard coin (of gold or of silver). 
[Aram., Syr. xynpx, from Gk. staler, 
which is related to istemi ( = I cause to 
stand; meaning also 'I weigh'), from 
IE base *sld- (= to stand), whence also 
L. stare ( = to stand). See ""P^ and cp. 
'sterling' in my CEDEL.] 

*]K 'm.n. (dual Q?9X) 1 nose. 2 anger, 
wrath. [From 13K. cp. BAram. vitejs 
( = his face), Aram. p?3K (pi.), Syr. 
x$x (pi.) (- face), Ugar. qp, Arab, and 
Ethiop. 'anf, Akka. appu, OSArab. 
13K (= front), cp. o?9K. cp. also the 
second element in i^n, io=nn, ijnj?.) 
Derivative: , 9X.cp. r |)X. 

f|K" conj. also, too. [Related to Phoen. 
IK, Aram. -Syr. ix, Ugar. qp (- also, 
too), and to Arab. conj. fa ( = then, 
and then, and so, therefore), cp. the 
first element in i^9tc . | 

1DK to gird on. [Base of tIdk.I — Qal 
T9K tr. v. he girded on the 'ephod'. 

— Niph. 19x3 MH was girded with. 

— Pi. 15K MH 1 he girded. 2 he praised. 

— Pu. t§x MH was girded. Deriva- 
tives :'HDX,nTDN i ,i§}o. 

rnDXf.n. 1 'ephod'. 2 covering. 3NH 
waistcoat. [Formed from "iox with 
first suff.n.i.l 

]"tSK m.n. 1 palace. 2NH pavilion. [To- 
gether with Aram.-Syr. xjigx (of 
s.m.), borrowed from Babylonian 
appaddnu, which is a ban word 
from Old Pers. apaddna ( = palace). 
Arab, fadan (= palace, high tower), is 
an Aram, loan word. Other Persian 
words which entered into Biblical 
Hebrew — all at a later period — are 
°T?9 (=park, orchard), ojn? {- edict, 
decree), rn ( = decree, law, usage). I 

HSK 1 to bake. [Related to Aram. X9$, 
Syr. xgx (=he baked), Ugar. qpy, 
Akka. epu ( = to bake), Arab, mi/an, 
Ethiop. mofet ( = oven). Egypt, 'apa 
( = something baked, pastry), is a 
Heb. loan word.] — Qal ngx tr. v. he 
baked. — Niph. nggj. was baked. — 
Hith. nsxnn PBH was baked. Deriva- 
tives: "*idx, 'idx, n'px,. rrp'sx,, np^g, 

riDK" to characterize. [Back formation 
from 'p'K.l — Pi. n§x tr. v. NH 
he characterized. — Pu. n§({ NH was 

DlDK fw pref. in words of Greek 
origin meaning 'from, away from, 
asunder, separate'. [Gk. apo ( = from, 
away from), cogn. with Old I. apa 

( away from). L. ab ( away from, 
from). See 'of in my CEDEL and cp. 
; ax. cp. alsoUDte.l 

NtoX, IDX, 1D">N adv. then, now, so. 
[Of uncertain origin. Possibly com- 
pounded of ""K (= where) and ns 
(^here), hence derivatively identical 
with n'D'K (- where). According to 
Barth it is related to Ethiop. 'efo 
( = how).| 

TlDNm.n. 'ephod'. [cp. Syr. urns 
( = ephod). cp. also rr^. According 
to Miiller, Coptic ephul ( = mantle) is 
perhaps a loan word from "rtsx. t\dx 
stands for tIdx. See owx and cp. 
words there referred to.] 

"H9K adj. MH girded; encircled, en- 
compassed. I Pass. part, of isx. See 


,! JDK adj. PBH baked. [Pass. part, of ngx. 
SeenDX 1 .] 

MSK'm.n.PBH baking. [From nsx; 
formally, verbal n. of the (otherwise 
not used) Pi. ofn^x. See nsx' .] 

,! lSK"m.n.NH characterization. [Ver- 
bal n.ofngx.SeenDX".] 

"yiSKm.n.NH 1 darkening. 2black- 
board. iVerbal n. oOsx, Pi. of ^x 
( = was dark). See "7DX.] 

i'riBKm.n.FW Apollo (Greek mythol- 
ogy). [L. Apollo, from Gk. Apollon, 
which, according to Usener is related 
to an obsolete Greek verb meaning 
'to drive away (scil. evil)', and cogn. 
with L. pellere ( = to beat, strike; to 
drive). See 'pulse' ( = throb) in my 
CEDEL and cp. 'Apollo' ibid.] 

rrjiViDK f.n.FW apology. [L. apolo- 
gia, from Gk. apologia ( = a speech in 
defense), from apologos (= story, 
tale, fable, apologue, account; lit.: 
'that which comes from a speech'), 
from apo (=from) and logos ( = word, 
speech, discourse, account). See 
:.;1sx andrr$1"?u.] 

]lDKm.n.PBH a collateral form of 

]iDNm.n.NH a small nose. [Formed 
from IX (=nose), with dimin. suff. 

^DKm.n.MH torturing on the wheel. 
[Verbal n.ofjsx. See jdx. ] 

msiSK, mSDNf.n.PBH money belt. 
[Formed with prosthetic njj from L. 

funda (= sling; casting net; purse), 
which is perhaps cogn. with, or 
derives from, Gk. sphendone (- sling). 
L. funda was influenced in form by 
L. fundere (=to pour, shed). See 
'sphendone' in my cedel. | 

nHDgf.n.PBH (pi. D'Jios) pea. [Of 
uncertain origin. cp.jiDX.J 



Di9$ m.n.FW epos. IGk. epos ( = \vord, 
speech, tale, song; in pi. 'epic po- 
etry'). Related to Gk. ops ( = voice). 
ossa ( = voice tale), and cogn. with L 
vox ( = voice), cp. '9$, rtjj'px and the 
first element in rrglD^.l 

WSKm.n.NH I annihilation, nullifica- 
tion. 2 zeroing. [Verbal n. ofosx, Pi. 

^DKadj.NH wrapped round, sur- 
rounded, encircled. [Pass. part, of 
1?x. Secpx.l 

TDteKf.n. epopee. [Fren. epopee, 
from Gk. epopoia ( = an epic poem, 
epic poetry), from epopoios ( = an 
epic poet), which is compounded of 
epos (see otex) and poiein ( = to make, 
produce, create). See w? .1 

^DKadj.PBH closed tightly; crowded. 
[Pass. part. off5$. SeefDX .] 

|?«K m.n. NH restraint, abstinence, 
self control. [Verbal n. of p?x. Pi. of 


'B9^j?teNadj.FW apocalyptical). [Gk. 
apokalyplikos, from apokalyptein. 
Seenog-^tex and adj. suff. '£.] 

nD9^i?l9K f.n. fw apocalypse. [L. apo- 
calypsis, from Gk. apokalypsis (= reve- 
lation), from apokalyptein ( = to 
uncover, disclose, reveal), from apo 
( = from; see -tex), and kalyptein ( = to 
cover), which is related to kalypso 
( = Calypso, a sea nymph), kalybe 
( = cabin). SeeDiOB'^'K.I 

*Dn|?l9K adj. fw apocryphal. See 
D^nptex and suff. >o.] 

D'snj?1SK m.n. pi. fw Apocrypha, 
books excluded from the number of 
the sacred books of the Bible. [L. 
Apocrypha, neuter pi. of apocry- 
phus, from Gk. apokrypsos (= hid- 
den away, kept secret), from apok- 
ryptein (= to hide away), from apo 
( = from; see j19X), and kryptein ( = to 
hide) which derives from IE base 
*qru-bh-, enlargement of base *qru 
{ = to hide). I 


"USKm.n.NH (theatrical) make-up. 
[Verbal n. ofnsx. SeenDX .] 

DrnteK m.n.FW aphorism. [Fren. apho- 
risme, from Med. L. aphorismus, 
from Gk. aphorismos ( = definition), 
from aphorizein ( = to define), from 
apo (-from; see ntex), and orizein 
( = to bound, limit), from oros 
( = boundary, limit, border), from IE 
base *weru- (=to draw), cp. 'horizon' 

nrtxnlDKf.n.FW apotheosis. [L. apo- 
theosis, from Gk. apotheosis ( = deifi- 
cation), from apo (-from; see -19X), 

and theos ( = god). See ol98 and 

rentes f.n. fw storehouse. |Gk. apo- 
theke ( = granary. storehouse; lit.: 'a 
place wherein to lay up something'), 
from the stem of apotithenai ( = to 
put away), from apo ( = away from, 
from; see ol9x) and tithenai ( = to 
put, place). See p'n and cp. np/nteK 
and'pnn. cp. alsoppDn.] 

njpnteK, ^nteK f.n. pbh pledge, mort- 
gage. |Gk. hypotheke (- deposit, 
pledge, mortgage), from the stem of 
hypotithenai (= to put under, lay down, 
pledge), from hypo ( = under) and 
tithenai (= to put, place). See rip'ritex 

m»9Nf.n. ipbh farewell-address. 2NH 

T T I - 

epilogue. 3NH dessert. [Aram., corres- 
ponding to Heb. nn^Dn .| 

'gKadj.NH nasal. iFormed from is 
( = nose), with suff. '.J. I 

'SJXadj.Fw epic. IFormed with suff. 
r ..j from Gk. epos (see Dtex).] 

□'9N FW pref. meaning 'on. beside, 
among, above, anterior'. [Gk. epi-, 
ep-, aph-, from epi ( = on. upon; up 
to. over, after; at; beyond, besides, in 
addition to). Cogn. with Old I. api 
( = also. besides). Avestic aipi (=a!so; 
to, toward), cp. "ob-'in myCEDEL.I 

'DK, '91N m.n. character, nature. [Re- 
lated to Aram. xrrplx {- nature, dis- 
position). In spite of the attempts of 
the lexicographers to find the origin 
of these words, their etymology is 
still unknown. I Derivatives: nox", 
■•?;?x, fDK. 

jiJ'9K m.n.FW epigone. [L. Epigoni 
( = the sons of the Seven who went 
against Thebes), from Gk. epigonoi 
(lit.: 'born after'), pi. of epigonos, 
from epigigneslhai ( = to be born 
after), from epi — see rj-^x ( = on, 
upon; after), and gignesthai (=to be 
born), which derives from IE base 
"gen-, *gene-, *geno-, *gn- ( = to 
beget, bear, bring forth, produce), 
whence also L. genus ( = birth, de- 
scent, origin, race, sort, kind, class, 
sex, gender). See 'genus' in my 


BWKm.n.FW epigram. [Fren. epi- 
granune, from L. epigramma, from 
Gk. epigramma (- inscription; epi- 
gram), from epigraphein ( = to write 
upon), from epi ( = on, upon), and 
graphein (=lo write). See n'px and 

TJJ'SK m.n.FW epigraph. [Gk. epi- 
graphe (= inscription), from epigra- 
phein. SeeDiU'DK.I 
rn'pKf.n.MH girding on the 'ephod'. 

[Verbal n. of ngij. See hdx and first 
suff. nr.i . I 

'ttTSKadj.FW epidemic (adj.) [Back 
formation from n;oTpx. For the end- 
ing see suff.'U. I 

rP»T9Sf.n. FW epidemic (n.). [Fren. 
epidemic from Med. L. epidemia, 
from Gk. epidemia, for epidemia 
vosos (= disease prevalent among the 
people), f. of epidemios ( = among the 
people), from epidemos ( = at home, 
current, prevalent), from epi ( = 
among), and demos ( = people). See 
.i'DX and'pi}K.| 

JiVl'»T9K m.n. FWcpidemiologist.[Back 
formation from n;jV?l , !j79g .| 

"•aM'OTgK adj. epidemiological. [Back 
formation from rriftVjpTgx. For the 
ending see suff. v.3.1 

rPito'lSTSK f.n. Fwepidemiology. I Com- 
pounded of Gk. epidemios (- prev- 
alent among the people), and logia. 
See rr zpT'DK andrpjV?n . | 

D'OnTps m.n.FW epidermis, the outer 
skin (anatomy). [Eng. epidermis, 
from Late L., from Gk. epidermis 
( = the outer skin: lit.: "that which is 
on the skin'), from epi ( = on. upon), 
and derma (=skin). See ' , dx. Derma 
was first used by the English philos- 
opher Francis Bacon (1561-1626).] 

.T9Kf.n.PBH baking. [Verbal n. of 
npx. Seenox 1 and first sul'f.n r .| 

JVDKm.n.NH characterization. I Ver- 
bal n. ofj'DK.SeersN.I 

HTiT'9K f.n. fw episode. [Gk. epeiso- 
dion (= addition, episode), properly 
neuter of the adj. epeisodios ( = com- 
ing in. besides, adventitious), from epi- 
( = at. on. in addition to), eis, es 
( = into). and odos ( = way). See 'SX. 
See also 'en' and 'odograph' in my 

>Tln9Nadj. fw episodic(al). [See ■ , 9X 
niltandadj. suff.'.j.l 

OtellO'PK m.n. PBH (pi. D'99n9'9g or 
fpsl-ii^sx) guardian, procurator, ad- 
ministrator. IGk. epitropos ( = guard- 
ian, trustee, governor; properly 'one to 
whom a charge is entrusted"), from 
epitrepein (-to turn to or toward, to 
entrust to one's charge), from epi( - on. 
upon; see : ^px), and trepein ( = to turn), 
which derives from IE base *irep- (-to 
turn), cp. "9\iy and the first element in 
nTsptel-iD . | Derivative: mopViip'sg. 

niogliu^s f.n. pbh guardianship, ad- 
ministration. I A hybrid coined from 
Dteliygx and suff.nv ). I 

V^K adj. ripening late (a hapax lego- 
menon in the Bible, occurring Ex. 
9:32 in the form m>pxj. I Related to 



Akka. apalu ( = to be late). I 
llV'DB m.n. fw epilogue. [Ultimately 
from Gk. epilogos (= peroration; 
concluding part of a play, lit.: 'a say- 
ing in addition'), from epilegein ( = to 
say in addition), from epi ( = on, 
upon; see Tax), and legem ( = to say, 
speak), which is related to L. legere 
( = to read, recite). See jVj^ and cp. 

rrosV'SK f.n. fw epilepsy. I Ultimately 
from Gk. epilepsia {- liability to 
seizure, epilepsy), which is related to 
epilambanein ( = to lay hold of, seize, 
attack), from epi ( = on, upon), and 
the future stem of lambanein ( = to 
take, grasp, seize). See a^sx and 
n^Vn. For the ending see suff. rr a .] 

D?9N m.n. pi. i nostrils. 2 anger, wrath. 
3 region of the nose; face, coun- 
tenance. iDual of ik( = nose), cp. , 9^?.] 

fDK to characterize. [Back formation 
from '^dx.I —Pi. £dx tr. v. NH he 
characterized. — Pu. j:p£ nh was 
characterized. Derivatives: T^dx, 

^DXm.n.NH characteristic. [From^pij 
T (q'v.).l 

'rpXadj.NH characteristic; typical. 
[Formed from 'S'x with suff. 'o. The 
: in "^px is euphonic, cp. , 3^ (Num. 
26:20), formed from n^tf; cp. also 
'JjrnDx,.] Dcrivatives:pDX,^pK. 

rwrpNf.n. NH characteristics; typical - 
ness. [Formed from "^px with suff. 

ntf'DK, niO'DKf.n.MH cessation; ab- 
sence. In^gx, is verbal n. of opx; seeoox 
and first suff. rig. roo'px, is formed from 
ddx with suff. nc] 

nV'ttD'DKf.n.FW architrave, epistyle. 
[Gk. epistylion, from epi ( = on, upon; 
see J'px), and stylos { = pillar, col- 
umn), which is related to styein ( = to 
make stiff, erect; to place, set). These 
words derive from IE base *st(h)du-, 
m st(h)ii- (= stiff, upright, post, pil- 

'?'??, adj. nh zero-th (mathematics). 
[Formed from opx ( = zero). with suff. 

ns'DKf.n. MH wrapping round, sur- 
rounding, encircling. [Verbal n. of 
1?K. See idx and first suff. ng. 1 

"rl'P'SKm.n.MH Pope. [Of uncertain 
origin. According to Kraus the word 
derives from Aram, xn^p'px (prob. 
meaning 'dignitary'), which he re- 
gards as a corruption of Gk. papias 
( = keeper or janitor of the palace). 1 
Derivatives : nnVp^x, nVp'px. 
nvrt'!p'98 f.n. nh papacy. [Formed 

from iVp'p X with suff . m o . ] 
nl'D'DK adj. nh papal. [Formed from 
il'P'PX withsuff.'y.] 

n'D'DKf.n.NH waffle. [Formed from 
npx (=he baked; see nsx), through 
reduplication of the third radical. 
For the ending see first suff. n-'g. 1 

p'DN m.n. riverbed, channel. [From 
psx. cp. Syr. xgpx, Ugar. qpq 
{- stream), qpq ihmtm ( = the stream 
of the two deeps), cp. also p'gx (n.). ] 

n^DK f.n. fw epic. [From Gk. epikos 
( = epic, adj.), which derives from 
epos ( = word, song; in pi., 'epic, po- 
etry'). See otex.l 

JDlp^DK m.n.PBH 'afikoman', a piece 
of 'matzah' broken off from the cen- 
tral of the three 'matzoth', used at the 
end of the meal at the Seder service 
(Jewish religion). [Gk. epikomion ( = 
festal procession after the meal), 
properly subst. use of the neuter of the 
adj. epikomios ( = of, or at, a festal 
procession), from epi (=on, upon; at; 
see it'sx), and komos { = banquet, 
merrymaking, revel). Seerrrolp.] 

DVtfi?'?? m.n. PBH (pi. D- , pVnp , 9X. 
D , p , i1p , 9K) l Epicurean. 2 atheist, her- 
etic. [An appellative noun formed 
from the proper name Epicurus 
(341-270 B.C.E.), a Gk. philos- 

niO^jTS^f.n. PBH 1 Epicureanism. 2 
atheism, heresy. [Formed from 
ol-iVpx with suff. ma.] Derivative: 

'pnlp'DK adj. NH l Epicurean. 2 atheis- 
tic, heretic. [Formed from o1i1p"'9? with 
adj. suff. "•g.) 


Vdk to be dark. [Related to Arab. 
afala (= it set — said of the sun, the 
moon, and the stars), and to Akka. 
apdlu (=to be late).] — Qal "?9X 
intr. v. mh was dark. — Niph. ^px^ 
MH became dark. — Pi. "79X darkened, 
blacked out. — Pu. Vp{< MH was dark- 
ened, was blacked out. — Hiph. 
V'PX.rj pbh he darkened (tr.), ob- 
scured, darkened (intr.). — Hoph. 
■?9Xn mh was made dark, was 
darkened. — Pil. (see Wax). Deriv- 
atives: 'nsx, Vftpx, Wax, n^px.^, 
*?«0. "?5«<0. ^WQ- ^?«5. n$9?D. 

Vpx adj. dark, obscure, gloomy (a 
hapax legomenon in the Bible, occur- 
ring Amos 5:20). [From^DX.] Deriva- 
tive ^Vpx. 

VsVjt m.n. l darkness. 2 misfortune. [ From 

n^DK f.n. darkness, gloom. [Formed 
from ^dx with first suff. ng.[ Deriva- 

tive: n^iVpx. 

^VpK, ^V»DX conj. PBH even; even if, 
even though. [Compounded of ^x 
( = also), andV?x( = if).] 

V^DK m.n. NH scrotine (a small Euro- 
pean bat). iFormed from Vox through 
reduplication of the third radical.] 

V^DK m.n. nh darkening. [Verbal n. of 


'V^Vdk adj. NH somewhat dim, dusky. 
[Coined by H.N. Bialik from ^px 
( = dark, dim), through reduplication, 
on the analogy of adjectives like 
-W$ (= whitish), from ^ ( = white).] 
Derivatives: nv^px.n^px. 

ni'VlVDK f.n. NH dusk, dimne ,s. IFormed 
from , '?^S8 (= dusky), wi»' suff. m^, 
hence lit. meaning 'duskii -s'.] 

JvVlVsx f.n. NH dimness, [u min. of 
the noun n^px,; coined by H.N. Bialik. 

'StoVsx adj. MH Platonic. [Formed on 
the analogy of Arab. Ajldtuniyy, from 
jlD^sx (= Plato) with prosthetic nx. 
For the ending see suff. ""Q.] 

rnVpxf.n. NH discrimination. [A col- 
lateral form of rr'jpn (q.v.).] 

VVdk to dim. [Pil. Vox.] —Pi. 
V?px tr. v. NH he dimmed. — Pu. 
"?>p$ NH was dimmed. — Hith. 
V7pxnn nh was dimmed. Derivatives: 
^px. m^Dxnn.^p^p. 

]DX m.n. manner, way (a hapax lego- 
menon in the Bible, occurring Pr. 
25:11 in the phrase t*} 5 ??"" 7 ? ">33 " , 31» 
which is usually rendered 'a word 
fitly spoken'). [Of uncertain etymol- 
ogy. Barth derives vjpx from ms, the 
stem of W)3 (=face), so that vjpjj-^? 
would be identical meaning with the 
Arab, "ala wajhihi ( = in his own way, 
in the right manner, properly). Others 
explain rjpx as the dual of jplx 
( = wheel), and accordingly translate 
rjpx" 1 ??, 'on both wheels', which — 
in allusion to the parallelism preva- 
lent in the poetry of the Bible — 
would refer here to the two halves of 
the verse. They compare Arab, misrd, 
which unites the meanings 'leaf of a 
door', and 'half of a verse'. Some 
scholars connect jp'x with Arab. 
farm, pi. 'ajhfin ( = kind, variety).J 
Derivative: rqpx. 

px to ride a bicycle; — to torture on 
the wheel. [Denominated from jplx 
( = wheel).] —Qal jsx intr. v. nh he 
rode a bicycle, cycled. — Niph. jgx,} MH 
he was tortured on the wheel. — PL |9X 
mh he tortured on the wheel. 
Derivative: p9X. 

"•Kj^Jm.n.NH fashion designer. [Form- 



ed from njpx with suff.'X 0. 1 

njSSm.n. fw "effendi". [Turkish efendi 
( master), from Med. Gk. aphente, 
from Gk. aui/tenies (=an absolute 
master or ruler: murderer), which is 
short for auio-emes from auios (- 
self), which is of uncertain origin, and 
entes ( - one who does a thing him self). I 
onreWK m.n. fw appendicitis (dis- 
ease). IMedicaJ L. appendicitis, a 
hybrid coined from L. appendix 
( = something hung on. something 
appended), and Gk. suff. -ids. L. 
appendix derives from appendere {- 
to hang something on), from ad ( = to. 
toward), and pendere ( = to cause to 
hang). See "ad-", and 'pendant', and 

njssf.n. nh fashion, mode. [Coined 
byEliezer ben Yehudah (1858-1922) 
from jpx (= manner, way), and first 
suff.n^.|Derivaiives: , xjpK,- , n}px. 

jWDNm.n. NH modulating. [Verbal n. 
ofpox. Pi. ofpox.] 

njjDKf.n. nh reference. [From n;jpn.] 

|3DK to modify, modulate. [Formed 
from jdk through reduplication of 
the third radical.] — Pi. jjpK tr. v. MH 
he modulated, he modified. Deriva- 
tive: JUDK. 

'naps adj. nh fashionable. [Formed 
from njpK with adj. suff. , ^. I 

DDK to come to end. cease. [A base 
occurring only in Heb. Prob. base of 
DDK 1 . | — Qal opx intr. v. came to an 
end, ceased, was exhausted. — Pi. 
DDK nh the reduced to nothing, 
annihilated, nullified. 2 he zeroed 
(an instrument). — Pu. opx nh l 
was reduced to nothing, was annihi- 
lated, was nullified. 2was zeroed 
(said of an instrument). — Hith. 
ODKnn nh (of s.m.). Derivatives: wdx, 
no^px, mo'px, mopKnn, opxa. 

DDK' m.n. i end. 2 nought. 3NH zero. 

IProb. from odk. cp. ypK.| Deriva- 

tives: opx 1 . mopx, 'opx, jppx. 
Dp$" adv. however, but. [ From opx 1 . | 

DDK m.n. (dual D?ppx) ankle (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring 
Ezek. 47:3 in the phrase D?ppx *% 
( = ankle-deep water). [Prob. a collat- 
eral form of op, pi. D'op .| 

r^DDKf.n.NH nothingness, nullity, in- 
significance, futility. [Formed from 
odk 1 with suff. mJ .) 

'DDK adj. MH null, insignificant, futile. 
[Formed from opx' with suff. «..:,] 

m»pssf.n.NH of s.m. asruopx. I Formed 
from'PDX with suff.m^.l 

D^pDN m.n. pi. edges, ends (of the 
earth). |Akka. apsu, Ugar. aps 
(-edge, end). | 

1958 m.n. nh nihilist. I Formed from 
opx (= nothing), with agential suff. 
f.;.| Derivative:niJ9px. 

nisjODX f.n. NH quartermastership. 

[ Formed from rr:5px with suff. ma. I 

'WDDN, 'jODSm.n. nh purveyor, ca- 
terer. I Back formation from n;j5px . | 

nu^DNf.n. NH nihilism. IFormed from 
jppx with suff. m:J. I 

n^opsf.n. pbh supply for an army, 
provision, catering. IGk. opsonia 
(= purchase of fish or other victuals), 
from opsones (-one who buys fish 
or other victuals, caterer, purveyor), 
which is compounded of opson 
(=meat. fish), which is of uncertain 
origin, and oneisthai ( = to buy food), 
for whose etymology see fix". I 
Derivatives: 'xjopx. rnxjODX. 

I'nsosg m.n. PBH Artemisia absinthium 
(botany). [Gk. apsiniheon ( = worm- 
wood), for Old Pers. origin.) 

lOSKm.n. PBH halter; tether. [A loan 
word from Pers. afsdr, fisdr, whence 
also (with change of r to /). Gk. psa- 
lion (= curb-chain of a bridle).] 

TODK to tether. [Denominated from 
i?px .] — Pi. ippx tr. v. nh he tethered. 
— Pu. "ippx nh was tethered. 

y?N m.n. nothing, nothingness (a ha- 
pax legomenon occurring Is. 41:24). 
I Avar, ofopx.1 

nypx viper. [Prob. lit. "the hissing 
animal* and derived from ns?D ( = to 
groan, cry), cp. Aram, xypx ( = viper), 
from xyp ( = it bleated). Arab, af'am 
(^ viper). Ethiop. 'afol, cp. also Cop- 
tic efot (=a kind of a crocodile). 
According to Aharoni ns?pK is identi- 
cal with Echis colorata. Gk. opsis 
(^ snake) is perhaps a loan word 
from Heb. ns?px or Aram. k??k . | 

t]DN to surround, encircle. |Akka. 
apdpu (=to bind, enclose).| — Qal 
IPX tr. v. he surrounded, encircled, 
encompassed. Derivatives:'pK. 

ysa to close tightly, tighten, fasten. 
[Prob. related to Arab, 'a/asa ( = he 
pressed, squeezed). For the inter- 
changeability of K and s? see the intro- 
ductory article to letter k and cp. 
fpK. cp. also ptf.l —Qal fPK tr. v. 
PBH he closed tightly, tightened, fas- 
tened. Derivatives :|"idk, nypx,, y pxp. 

^px m.n. pbh gallnut. [Related to 
Aram.-Syr. K^px, Arab, 'aj's {= gall- 
nut), cp.fpy. 1 

[?DX to make strong, be strong, 
strengthen oneself, restrain oneself. 

[ Related to Sabean pDK ( - to be strong, 
make strong), and prob. also to Akka. 
epeku ( = to be strong), cp. Arab. 
'afaqa. 'a/iqa (^hc distinguished 
himsclO-l — Hith. ppxnn he restrained 
himself, refrained. — Pi. ppx nh he 
restrained. — Pu. ppx nh was re 
strained. Derivatives: p'px, P^qk, 
mppxnn, pgxD. 

[?p'Nm.n.MH horizon. [A loan word 
from Arab, ufq, ufuq (^horizon, 
range of vision). | Derivative ^ppx. 

UffpNm.n. fw effect. [L. effect us ( = ac- 
complishment, performance), from 
effectus, p. part, of efficere ( - to exe- 
cute, accomplish, produce), from ex, 
e ( = out of), and facere ( = to make, 
do). See .opx and opp and cp. 

'a'Uffpx adj. fw effective. [L. effectf- 
vus (-productive, effective), from 
effect us, p. part, of efficere. See uppx 
and adj. sulT.r ..| 

"•pps adj. horizontal. [Formed from 
ppK with sulTr .1 Derivativcim'ppx. 

m s j?pK f.n. NH horizontality. [ Formed 
from'ppK wiihsuff.rn .| 

ips m.n. ashes. [Prob. related to Arab. 
ghunbur (-dust). According to Zim- 
mern, ipx is possibly a loan word from 
Akka epiru ( = earth, dust), hence 
properly identical with ipy. (-^ dust). I 
Derivatives: idk, 'ipx, nnpK, nnnpx. 
ipipx. -nox. rnpxip. 

iSKadj. NH ash-colored, gray. [Coined 
by Eliezcr ben Yehudah (1858-1922). 
from ipx ( ashes), on the analogy of 
words like Dix ( = red), cp. Arab. 
ramadiyy ( = ash-colored, gray), from 
ramad (- ashes), cp. iby.l Derivative: 

IDS to make up (the face). [Denomi- 
nated from nog. I —Pi. idk tr. v. nh 
he made up (the face). — Pu. "ipx sh 
was made up (said of the face). — 
Hith. nsxnn nh he made up (intr. v.). 
Derivatives: ipx 1 , hdk, nnsxnri, igxa. 

ids, msx m.n. resp. f.n. NH cosmeti- 
cian. INomen opilicis formed fronnDK. 
Pi.of idk.I 

IDS m.n. PBH pasture, saturated with 
water. I Borrowed from Akka. appdru 
( marsh, swamp), which itself is a 
Sumeric loan word. I 

ipx m.n. bandage, mask (occurs in the 
Bible Kin. I 20:38 and 4 1 ). | Perhaps a 
loan word from Akka. aparu ( head- 
gear), cp. "iks "J Derivative: hdx. 

nu*Tiip«f.n. fw ( , p , TnDK in PBH) 
Aphrodite (Greek mythology). IGk. 
Aphrodite, prob. a popular altera 
tion of Ap/it/wtlte, Atioret/ie (a 
change due to the influence of Gk. 



aphros, 'foam", from Phocn. mnuw. 
Hob. rnntfy ( ihc goddess of love), 
which is related 10 Akka. Ashiaric, 
Isluar. See rnhtfv. The explanation of 
the name Aphrodite by Hesiod as 
"(the goddess) born of the foam (of 
the sea)' is folk etymology. For the 
change of sh to p/i cp. Heb. uW. 
Arab, ihum, VArab. film (garlic): 
Heb. #*■?$, Arab, jadalh, VArab. 
jadaf (mound, tumulus); and the 
Russian proper name Feodor, which 
derives from Gk. Theodoros (- Theo- 
dore). cp.TxViopx. I 
nnpx, rnpNm.n. young bird, chicken, 
fledgling. I Related to Syr. xnrn? 
(=bird), Arab. J'arh ( = young of a 
bird). Ethiop. 'a/re hi {- brood, hatch, 
young birds). These words possibly 
derive from ms" ( = 10 fly), and lit. 
mean 'that which flies". It is more 
probable, however, that they are 
derivatives of ms 1 ( = 10 sprout). For 
sense development cp. Ger. Sprofi 
( = sprout, shoot; offspring), and Eng. 
scion (- sprout; offspring, descend- 
ant). The . ,x of rnpx is prosthetic. I 

"inpKm.n.NH incineration. I Verbal 
n. of rips. Pi. ofnDK.I 

'"inps adj. NH ash-colored, grayish. 
I Formed from "IPX ( = ashes). For the 
ending see suff. *:.;. cp. nnnpg. For 
the form see "^pg.l Derivative: 

nvnnpxf.n.NH grayishness. 1 Formed 

from "•"I'lpg with suff. nv ..:. | 
nnnpKf.n. NH glinus (name of a 

plant). I Lit.: 'the grayish (plant)'. 

1 Formed from "ipx ( = ashes). For the 

ending see suff. rr .:. cp. nnDN . | 

■nps adj. mh ashen. iFormed from 

i?k (= ashes) with adj. suff. v .| 
jvnpxm.n. canopy (a hapax lego- 
menon in the Bible, occurring Cant. 
3:9). |Of uncertain etymology. Usu- 
ally regarded as a loan word from 
Gk. phoreion (^litter), from which it 
was formed with prosthetic :x. Gk. 
phoreion is related to plwra ( = a car- 
rying, bringing), from the stem of 
pherein (=to bear, carry), which is 
cogn. with L. fare (of s.m.). In spite 
of the fact that the Septuagint ren 
ders ]V-}9K by phoreion, there arc both 
linguistic and semantic reasons which 
make the derivation of jVnsx from Gk. 
phoreion very improbable. Before all, 
Greek words began to appear as 
Hebrew loan words only since the 
period of Hellenism, hence are of much 
later date than the Song of Songs; 
moreover, the prosthetic. KinjInsK is 
inorganic and therefore difficult to ex 
plain. On the other hand, Gk. phoreion 

is never used in the sense of "canopy". 
The rendering of tVnpx by phoreion in 
the Septuagint is merely due to its 
habit of translating Heb. words by such 
Gk. words as resemble the Heb. in 
sound, even though they are only 
remotely related to them in meaning. I 
]inpN, IHDN m.n. PUH congralula 
lions! praises are due to... (occurring 
in phrases quoted from the Talmud). 
[Aram. k^91<. from Pers. afarin 
(intcrj. expressing praise). I 

"nvnpx adv. kw a priori. |L. a priori' 
( - from what comes first), from a 
( from) and priori, oblative of prior 
(= first). I 

'^"iSSm.n.FW April, name of the 
fourth civil month. |L. (mensis) 
Apri'lis (lit.: 'the month of Aphro- 
dite"), from Gk. Apro, a short form 
of Aphrodiie. cp. L. (mensis) Mains 
(Mhe month of May; properly "the 
month of J upiter Maius'h sec ""Xi? . | 

■ , N;rnpxsec:;7 , "isN. 

"•S^npsadj.NM African. IL. Africd- 
nus, from Africa. The form ■"NjTnsN 
for 'African' should be avoided as 
un- Hebraic; sec -J^'HqK. | 

rrsnss f.n. pbh eparchy. province, 
district. [Gk. eparchia (office of an 
eparch, prefecture), from eparchos (- 
eparch, governor of a country, pre- 
fect), from epi (■- on, upon), and archos 
( = leader, chief, ruler). See ^sx and 
rron. .| 

nosiDN f.n. pbh hopper, funnel: auri- 
cle. IThis word prob. meant orig. "a 
vessel for pouring out' and was 
formed with prosthetic x from Gk. 
prochoos (a vessel for pouring out. 
jug. pitcher) from prochein ( = to 
pour out), which is formed from pro 
(^before, toward), and chein ( = to 
pour). See lis". See also "chyle" in 
my cedkl.I 

paDTDK m.n. balsam tree; balm. [Ac- 
cording to Low a blend of Gk. bal 
santon (see D73) and Aram, kjj^d^, 
Syr. KDcniDfcc (= balsam tree, balm), 
which is a loan word from Armenian 
aprsam. I Derivative: ••JiDp'ipx,. 

"•sinonsNadj.NH balsamic. [Formed 
from Tto???^ with adj. suff. v. I 

pcnsxm.n. pbh peach. |A loan word 
from Gk. Persikon ( = peach), short 
for Persikon melon (=lit.: "Persian 
apple'). The ifl in p>P")5X, is pros- 
thetic, cp. var.ppng.l 

"ipTDNadj.NH grayish. IFormed on 
the analogy of ?~ftV t (^greenish), 
from Yog ( - ash-gray). I 

ft|n9N adv. pbh lying on one's back, 
supine. [Aram., see Hi?^?- 1 

msN to incinerate. [Denominated from 
-i?n .| — Pi. -npx NH he incinerated. — 
Pu. T]p(< NH was incinerated. Dcriva- 

VnpXadj. I Ephraimite. 2MH aristo- 
crat, nobleman. [Formed with suff. 
■v from nnpx, secondary form of 

U7?N m.n. PBH wish, desire. [Together 
with Syr. tfpx of uncertain origin. Ac- 
cording tc Fleischer both these words 
are borrowed from Gk. ephesis (-a 
throwing at; appeal — a law term; per- 
mission; desire). This latter word 
derives from ephienai ( = to send to, 
send against, hurl at, impose upon), 
from epi (= on, upon; at; see -"•9K), and 
ienai (=to send, throw, hurl), which 
stands for yi-ye-nai, and is cogn. with 
L.jacere ( = to throw). | 

"Ntfpxm.n.NH making possible. [Ver- 
bal n. of-idsx. See-itfox .] 

"Ktfpx adv. pbh possibly, maybe, per- 
haps. [Of uncertain origin. The usual 
connection with ~\$9 ( = it melted, dis- 
solved), must be rejected for seman- 
tic reasons.) Derivatives: "Vtfsx, muppx, 

"HP'DN to make possible. I Back forma- 
tion from "i^PS-I — P'- " l ^ ! ? N tr - v - ne 
made possible. — Pu. -u?p*< NH was 
made possible. — Nith. itfpxn} NH 
(of s.m.). Derivative:-ntfpK. 

nrw'psf.n.MH possibility. IFormed 
fromi^px with suff.nv. . I 

■nutosadj. mh possible. [Formed from 
-itfpxwith sulT." .1 

"•nss adj. FW apathetic. I Back forma- 
tion from rrngx .| 

njnss f.n. fw apathy. [Ultimately from 
Gk. apatheia ( = freedom from 
suffering, impassibility), from apathes 
( = without suffering. impassibleX from 
privative pref. a- and pathos (- feeling, 
suffering, passion). See Ding and cp. 

nsnpKf.n. NH surprise. [A secondary- 
form of nynpn. For the difference of 
meaning between these two words 

fN adj. hurrying, hastening. [Pan. of 
pix(=to make haste). See fix. | 

SNBSXm.n. NH digitation. [Verbal n. of 

* 1 1 ■ 

y?SXf.n.(pl. rviy^x) 'finger, toe. 2 
PBH index finger. 3NH inch. [Re- 
lated to JAram. »3>'K. xy??x, Ugar. 
ttfb. Syr. xy?$, Egypt.-Aram. snx, 
OS Arab. yaxx, Ethiop. 'asbd't. Akka. 
isbittu, Mand. xnxax ( = finger), cp. 
Egypt, sb ( = finger). The x in yg^X is 
prosthetic. I Derivatives: sraxx. py^x. 



'jtts^x, n^lyayx, 'va? x, S3Jt "■ 
yam to finger. [Denominated from 
yayx . I — Pi. sayx tr. v. NH he fingered. 
— Pu. see sayx?. Derivatives: yiayx, 

jlyjXKm.n. nh thimble. [Formed from 
ya?x(= finger), with subst. suff. rlo.l 

Viya^jtadj. N" dwarfish, midget. 
(Formed from ya?x ( = finger) with 

n'flys X$ f.n. NH Digitalis (a genus of 
plants); foxglove. [Formed with suff. 
rra from »a:fx ( = finger) as loan 
translation of Modern L. Digitalis. 
which was coined by the German 
botanist Leonard Fuchs in 1542 from 
L. digitalis (-pertaining to the fin- 
gers). Modern L. Digitalis itself is a 
loan translation of Ger. Fingerhut 
(^thimble: foxglove); so called in allu- 
sion to the fingershaped corollas.] 

'yasK adj. very small, tiny, dwarfish. 
[Formed from yayx ( = finger), with 

njfgf.n. PBH alga, seaweed. [Perhaps 
from Gk. oisun, oisuon ( = a kind of a 
willow), which are related to ilea, eitea 
(= willow).] 

nWK f.n. pbh batch of loaves baked to- 
gether. [From Aram.-Syr. xn«x 
(- dough; batch), which is of uncertain 

bwx m.n. NH ennoblement. [Verbal n. 

iWKadj.PBH hidden, latent [Pass, 
part, of 1*$. Seeixx.l 

naosKf.n.PBH (pi. ma^x, also 
rriX3&2fx) i colonnade. 2 portico. 3 
balcony. 4 shelf. 5 bench (fixed to 
the wall). [Gk. stoa ( = colonnade, 
porch, corridor), from IE base 
*sthou-, *sthdu-, *sthu- ( = upright; a 
post, pillar). See 'steer' (to direct) in 
myCEDEL and cp.'stauro-' ibid.] 

f3i9XKm.n. PBH astrologer. [Of uncer- 
tain origin. All the attempts made to 
find the origin of this word lack 
probability.] Derivative: rm^^x. 

nwsivxK f.n. pbh astrology; horo- 
scope. [A hybrid formed from ITJOyx 
with the Heb. suff. mn.] 

]1nt?^xm.n. pbh arena. [Formed with 
prosthetic nx from Gk. stadion 
( = racecourse, stadium), which is a 
blend of stadion ( = racecourse), and 
stadion. neuter of stadios (=fix, 
firm). Sec 'stadium' in my CEDEL. 
Stadion is a derivative of stan (=to 
draw, tear), from IE base *spe(i}-, 
*sp* ( = to draw, span, stretch, ex- 
tend); see 'space' in my cedel. Sta- 
dios comes from IE base *std- ( = to 

stand); see'p^o.] 
n saltan see nj^iopx. 

flO^ m.n. fw acetone (chemistry). [A 
hybrid coined from L. acetum 
(- vinegar), which derives from acere 
(=to be sour) and Gk. suff. -one. See 
'acrid* and suff. '-one' in my cedel. 

HJUftK f.n. mh cylinder. [From Pers. 
ustiin (- column, pillar), whence also 
Arab. ustuwdna h (of s.m.).] Deriva- 

TJJtpXKadj. nh cylindrical. [Formed 
from n^9?x with suff. 'a. ] 

CJtpSN m.n. FW acetate (chemistry). 
[Modern L acetdtum, from L. acetum 
{- vinegar). See |1oj{j. For the ending '- 
alum' see chemical suff. '-ate' in my 

1"? , 5?2S' m.n. fw acetylene (chemistry). 
[Fren. acetylene, coined by the 
French chemist Marcelin -Pierre- 
Eugene Berthelot (1823-1907) from 
acetyl, from Gk. Acetyl, a hybrid 
coined by the German chemist Jus- 
tus von Liebig in 1839 from L. ace- 
tum (see Ttosu) and suff. '-yl\ I 

kVbxk, nVoSK f.n. PBH robe, gar- 

Til' T 1 I ' ' C7 

ment. [Formed with prosthetic ok 
from stole ( = equipment, garment), 
which stands in gradational relation- 
ship to stellein ( = to set in order, 
arrange, equip; to send), stele (=a 
block of stone, gravestone). These 
words derive from IE base *st(hel)-, 
an enlargement of base *st(h)d- ( = to 
stand). See 'tflft and cp. n^px .] 

VantpSKm.n. PBH lpine, cone. 2cone 
(geometry). [Formed with prosthetic 
ax from Gk. strobilos ( = anything 
that spins round like a top, anything 
twisted; pine cone), from strobos ( = a 
spinning round), which derives from 
IE base *streb- (=to turn, twist). Cp. 
'strobile' and 'strophe' in my CEDEL.] 
Derivative I'^t^x. 

^TpSHadj.NH pineal. [Formed from 
"ra-up^x with adj. suff. 'J.I 

a^lBJfXm.n.MH astrolabe. [Med. L. 
astrolabium, from Gk. astrolabon 
(organon), lit. 'startaking (instru- 
ment)', from astron (-star) and the 
stem oflambanein(- to take).] 

^■fK' m.n. side, part (a hapax lego- 
menon in the Bible, occurring Is. 
4 1:9). [From "rex".] 

V>X$"m.n. nobleman, aristocrat (a 
hapax legomenon in the Bible, occur- 
ring Ex. 24:11). [Prob. derived from 
"7XX 1 and lit. meaning 'firmly rooted', 
cp. Arab, 'asil ( = of noble origin), 
which derives from 'asl ( = root), 

hence shows the same sense devel- 
opment.] Derivatives: Vxx", ntex, 

"T^K. m.n. (also n^jfx, f.n.) joint of the 
hand. [From "7XX".] 

n^X**' f-n- noble woman. [See'ryx" .| 
n^JHJt" f.n. MH emanation. [Verbal n. of 
"7XX 1 . For the ending see first suff. ng. | 

rnV»JfN f.n. MH i aristocracy, nobility. 
2 emanation. [Formed from V^x 
with suff. mo.] 

'VntK adj.MH aristocratic, noble. [Form- 
ed from *^2fx" with adj. suff.'g . ] 

nvjj'Sf.n.NH accumulating, collect- 
ing. [Verbal n. of ijjx. See ixx and 
first suff. ng.l 

VjW to lay aside, set apart, reserve, 
emanate. [Base of Arab, 'asl (=root, 
origin, source), 'asula ( = was, or 
became, firmly rooted), Nabatean 
x"7xx (- landed property), and prob. 
also of n^jfx,".] — Qal Vjx tr. v. lhe 
laid aside, set apart, reserved, with- 
held, withdrew. 2MH he emanated, 
he influenced. — Niph. ^x^ twas 
laid aside, was withdrawn. 2MH was 
emanated; was influenced. — Hiph. 
b"?xn mh lhe withdrew; 2MH he 
emanated. — Hoph. "ry^n MH was 
influenced. — Hith. tyxnn MH was 
laid aside. Derivatives: n^jj, rr^rj, 
m^xnn, tyxj. 

tow" [Base of V^x (= joint of the hand) 
and of ^x ( = be the side of); prob. 
denominated from tyx. Prob. related 
to Syr. x^ (= joint, elbow), Phoen. 
nVr (= joint), cp. Arab, wasala (=he 
joined, connected, united), Akka. 
eselu(= to bind).] 

Vsk" 1 to ennoble. [Denominated from 
V^x".] —Niph. "rstfj nh was enno- 
bled. — Pi. "rsx nh he ennobled, 
raised to peerage. — Hiph. V^xn 
nh he ennobled, raised to peerage. 
— Hoph. ^xri nh was ennobled, 
was raised to peerage. Derivatives: 
■?wx, n^x i n",m l ?¥xnn,tyK i j". 

VjfN prep, i by the side of, beside, 
near. 2NH care of (postal address). 
I Properly a noun meaning 'side', 
derived from ^x". 'tyx, etc., in the 
sense 'of my opinion', etc., is a loan 
translation of Arab. 'indi(y), etc.] 

nV^Kf.n. NH nobility. [Formed from 
■vjfx ( = nobleman), with first suff. 

rrj^JW f.n. bracelet. [Prob. meaning 
orig. 'step chain*, and formed with 
prosthetic ux from tvx (^to step). 

"IXK to store up. [Related to Aram. -tfR 



(-he stored up), and prob. also to 
Arab, asara (he shut up, confined). I 
— Qal isij tr. v. he stored up, 
accumulated, collected. — Niph. Tjfflj 
was stored up. was collected. — Pi. "itfS 
pbh he stored up, accumulated, col- 
lected. Derivatives: -i$1k, rq'jftj, prob. 

rripN' m.n. carbuncle (a hapax lego- 
menon in the Bible, occurring Is. 
54:12). [ Lit. prob. meaning 'flashing 
or sparkling stone' and derived from 
mp (=to kindle), cp. Arab. qadddha h 
( = fire steel, fire iron), cp. rnp x". I 

rnpN". n^Sm.n.NH revolver, pistol. 
[Lit.: 'firearm'. Coined by Eliezer ben 
Ychudah (1858-1922) from mp ( = to 
kindle), cp. rnpx'.l Derivatives :]nvipx, 

jlrnps m.n. nh a small revolver. I Form- 
ed from rnpx" with dimin. suff. flu . I 

|rn[?K, jnvnps m.n. nh pistoleer. [Form- 
ed from rnpx", resp. rrrtpN with agential 

np^ps f.n. mh [ A var. of npipn . | 
ma^j?8f.n.MH i beginning. 2 name of 
the Aram, liturgic poem composed 
by Rabbi Meir ben Isaac Nehorai (ca. 
1060) and recited on the first day of 
Shavuoth before the reading of the 
Law. [Aram., 'beginning', from DTpx 
(=he preceded, anticipated), from Dip 
(=he preceded), which is related to 

"•pips adj. fw academic(al). [Back for- 
mation from n^npi< .| 

rPp*t|?Kf.n. fw academy. [L. acade- 
mia, from Gk. Akademeia, from ear- 
lier Ekademeia ( = thc Academy), a 
gymnasium near Athens where Plato 
taught. Akademeia orig. meant 'the 
olive grove of Academus'.l 

V? m.n. (pi. Dilp$) (a hapax lego- 
menon in the Bible, occurring Deut. 
14:5 and prob. meaning 'wild goat' or 
'ibex'. [Of uncertain origin.) 

upiTipKm.n.FW aqueduct. [L. aquae 
ductus (-a conduit; lit.: 'a convey- 
ance of water'), from aquae ( = water), 
and ductus ( = a leading), from ductus, 
p. part, of ducere (= to lead), cp. rVnipx 

"itoipN. m.n. fw equator. [Late L. 
aequator (=one who, or that which, 
equalizes), used in the sense of (circu- 
lus) aequator diet el noclis ( = equal- 
izer of day and night), from L. aequd- 
tus, p. part, of aequdre ( = to make 
level or equal), from aequus ( = level, 
equal, like), which is of uncertain 
origin. I Derivative: ■ntojpx. 

nloi^ adj. FW equatorial. [Formed 
from-Huipx with suff. , !.!.| 

rr^lpxf.n.FW ecology. [Ger. Okol- 
ogie, coined by the German biologist 
Ernst Hcinrich Hacckel (1834-1919) 
from oikos ( - house) and -logia. See 
rrptilpxandrril l ?i'!.| 

■riw'jiDipxm.n.Fw accumulator (now 
replaced by 13x9). [L. accumulator 
( = one who, or that which, accumu- 
lates), from accumuldtus, p. part, of 
accwnuldre ( - to heap up), from ad 
( = to. toward), and cumulus (=heap), 
which prob. stands for *£u-me-los 
( = a swelling) and derives from IE 
base *k~ew(e)-, *k~u- ( = to swell), 
whence also Gk. kuein ( = to become 
or be pregnant), L. cdvus ( = hollow). 
See "cave", verbal suff. 'ate' and 
agential suff. '-or' in my cedel. | 

■•jpip^ adj. fw ecumenic, ecumenical. 
I Late L. oeciimenicus, from Gk. 
oikomenikos (= open to the whole 
world), from oikumene ( = the inhabited 
world), from oikein ( = to inhabit), 
from oikos (= house, abode, dwell- 

■•pisipSadj. fw economical. I Back for- 
mation from rrp1j1ps. For the ending 
see suff. \ : . I 

rppiJipsf.n.FW economy. [L. oecono- 
mia, from Gk. oikonomia (of s.m.), 
from oikonomos ( = the manager of a 
household, steward), which is com- 
pounded of oikos (- house, dwelling, 
place to live in), and nomos 
(= managing), cp. the first element in 
rril'rtpx. For the ending of rrDttlpx see 

'OMpxadj.FW acoustic. [Gk. akous- 
tos. See npz-tjcapfct and suff. M I 

np^ppipN f.n. fw [Fren. acoustique, 
from Gk. akoustikos { = pertaining to 
hearing), from akoustos ( = heard, 
audible), verbal adj. of akouein ( = to 
hear) which is prob. formed from copul. 
pref. a- and IE base *(s)qeu-, *(s)qeu- 
(~to look at, observe, perceive), 
whence also koein ( = to mark, per- 
ceive, hear). See 'hear' in my cedel 
and cp. 'acoustic' ibid. I 

"nips m.n. FW accord. I Fren. accord, 
back formation from accorder ( = to 
agree), from WLaccorddre( = to agree), 
from L. ad ( = to, toward), and cor 
( = heart). See olp^Tilp and cp. T^T^pN • I 

|i r rrtpxm.n.FW accordion. [Ger. Ak- 
kordion, from Akkord, from Fren. ac- 
cord (in the sense of 'harmony'), with 
suff. ion, on the analogy of clarion. See 
'ion' in my cedel. | 
Dinipx, |1n^Sm.n. fw aquarium. [L. 
aquarium, subst. use of the neuter of 

the adj. aqudrius (pertaining to 
water), from aqua (-water), For the 
ending see 'arium' in my CEDEL. cp. 


^nipNm.n. fw aquarelle. [Fren. aqua- 
relle, from It. acquarelle (= water 
color), dimin. of acqua (- water), 
from L. aqua. See Dpvnpx and cp. 
dvii^k .| 

'Vxiwpxadj.FW actual. [Ultimately 
from Late L. dctudlis. from L. actus, 
p. parL of agere ( = to drive, set in 
motion; to do, act), from IE base *ag- 
(=to drive, lead, act. do). See "agent" 
(adj.) in my CEDEL and adj. suff. "al' 
ibid. For the ending of ""Vxiopx see 
suff. \,:. cp. T-ppx, rrxpx. the first 
element in njrrtolx, and the second 
element in iP"?t?DK, y\r\B and in Jtayj. 
cp. also npVopx and |$1k . I 

a^N m.n. fw assets. [Ultimately from 
L. act fvus ( = active). See ^""ppx . I 

"•yt?^ K adj. fw active. [Formed with 
suff. "v.: from L. dclfvus. from actus. 
p. part, of agere ( = to do. act). See 
'bwopx.l Derivative: n^a-ppx. 

ni'S'WpNf.n. FW activity. [Formed from 

DT , ? , t?i?K m.n. fw activism. ISee TOpS 
and op. . I 

UD'S-'opN m.n. FW activist. [See Tppx 
and suff. oo- :.| 

DiVpKm.n. NH acclimatization. [Ver- 
bal n. of Q^px. See D^ps . | 

D'Vps m.n. MH climate. [A loan word 
from Arab, 'iqlim. which itself is bor- 
rowed from Gk. klima ( = inclination, 
slope, region), a derivative of klinein 
( = to cause to slope. bend).] 
Derivatives : , X9 ,, ?px,' , D , ' , 7px,D , ?px. 

n ! iS»''VpNf.n. NH climatology. [Formed 
fronrxij-^px with suff.m::.| 

^KD'VpN m.n. NH climatologist. I Formed 
from Q'VpS with agential suff. "rca 1 
Derivative: mx!j ,! ?px. 

"•D^pX adj. NH climatic. I Formed from 
D ,! ?px with adj. sufi".- :.| 

ahpx to acclimatize. [Denominated 
from cVpx.l —Pi. o"7pK tr. v. NH he 
acclimatized. — Pu. o^p$ NH was 
acclimatized. — Hith. D^pxnn nh (of 
s.m.). Derivatives: D^px. mo^pxnn, 

'up^p Nadj. FW eclectic. [Gk. eklek- 
tikos ( = picking out. selecting), from 
eklektos. verbal adj. of eklegein (^to 
pick out. select), from ek ( ^ out of), 
and legein ( - to pick out. choose; to 
tell, say, speak). See Jopx and f1'£. 
For the ending of 'PpVpx see sulT. 

iiops fw ex-. [L. ex-, from the prep. 



ex (=out of, from). Before f. ex- 
becomes ef-, before all voiced con- 
sonants (as b, d, g. etc.) ex- becomes 
e. L. ex is cogn. with Gk. ex, ek 
n»99i?Kf.n. fw ecstasy. IFren. extase, 
from Late L. ecstasis, from Gk. 
ekstasis ( = removal from the proper 
place, displacement; lit. : "a standing 
outside oneself), from the stem of 
existanai ( = to put out of place, 
derange; to stand aside from), from 
ev (=out of; see ^px), and is tana i 
( = to place; to stand), which is cogn. 
with L. stare (=to stand). See ' 999 
'999J?X adj. fw ecstatic. [Back forma- 
tion from Gk. ekstatikos ( = unsta- 
ble), from ekstasis. See njV9j?K and 
stiff. \:.] 
'ypatJOjJK adj. fw extensive. [From L. 
extensus, a collateral form ofextentus, 
p. part of extendere ( = to stretch out), 
from ev- (see jppx) and tendere ( = to 
stretch), cp. 713399. 1 
nnppi7K adv. & adj. FW extra. [L. extra 
(adv.), 'on the outside, without, ex- 
cept', for exterd, short for exterd parte 
( = on the outside). See -ppx and cp. 

^Kni»nBOj?X adj. FW exterritorial. 
[Formed from L. ex ( = out of), and 
territoridlis {- territorial), from ter- 
ritorium (= domain, territory). See 


j"iopi?Kadj. FW extern, external. [Fren. 
externa, from L. externus {- out- 
ward, external), from extents. See 

nal'Dj^K f.n. FW axiom. [Gk. axioma 
( = that which is thought worthy), 
from axioun ( = to think worthy), 
from axos (= worthy; properly 
'weighty'), from the base of age in 
(=to lead), used in the sense of 'to 
weigh', which is cogn. with L. agere 
(=to set in motion, drive, lead). See 

DnVKjsaoO'p;?^ m.n. FW existentialism. 
[Fren. existentialisme, orig. used to 
translate Ger. Existenzphilosophie ( = 
philosophy of existence). See 'ex- 
istence' in my CEDEL. For the ending 
see suiT. dpu The term 'existence' is 
used here in the special sense given to it 
by the Danish philosopher Soren 
Aabye Kierkegaard (18 13-55), who is 
the originator of existentialism, cp. 


D9'?K$30p , »9i7K m.n. FW existentialist. 

[SeeDr"?K;$}99'9j7K and sufT.D9 , :;.| 
•fyjopjjKm.n.FW copy. [L. exemplar 

( = pattern, model, copy), from ex- 

emplum (- example; lit.: 'something 

taken out of a larger quantity'), from 

ex ( = out of; see uppg), and emere 

(=to take, buy), from IE base *em 

(=to take), cp. 'example' in my 

CEDEL.cp. alson^jnst.] 

rP2rHg9J?$f-n.FW expedition. [Fren. 

expedition, from L. expeditionem ( = 

an enterprise against the enemy), from 

expeditus, p. part, of expedfre, which 

lit. means 'to free the feet from fetters', 

hence 'to extricate, disengage, set free; 

to make ready', from ex ( = out of; see 

;j9j?x), and pedis ( = fetter), properly 

'chain for the feet', which is related to 

pedica {= shackle, fetter), compes 

( = fetter), and cogn. with Gk. pede 

(= fetter), from IE *ped-, *pod- ( = foot). 

See 179.] 

.T:P!i99i?Xf.n.FW exposition. [L. expo- 

sitio ( = a setting or showing forth), 

from expositus, p. part, of expand ( = 1 

set out, expose, exhibit, explain), from 

ex (= out of), and pond ( = I put, place). 

See nopx and rrrrte.] 

tniSOfKm.n.FW export. [From L. ex- 
portdre ( = to carry out), from ex ( = out 
of; see ^9i?x), and portdre ( = to bear, 
carry, convey). See ontep'x . I 

tn?Oj?Nm.n.FW expert. [L. expertus 
( = tried, proved, tested), p. pan. of 
expenrf. Seeojgngppx . | 

M»n?0j7K m.n. FW experiment. [Ulti- 
mately from L. experimentum (= trial, 
proof, test), from experiri ( = to try, 
prove, test), from ev ( = out of; see 
^9i?x), and the base of peril us (-ex- 
perienced), which is related to peric- 
ulum (= trial, experiment, risk, danger), 
and cogn. with Gk. peira (= trial, 
attempt, experience), empeiros ( = ex- 
perienced). See T?dx and cp. 
^9^99? x.| 

, V93»r>??i?? ad J- experimental. [Ulti- 
mately from Med. L. experimentdlis, 
from L. experimentum. Seeq9 r 399i?9- 
For L. suff. -dlis see adj. suff. 'al' in my 
CEDEL; for the ending of ^VWW*' 
see suff. 'U-l 

on99i?K m.n. fw express (train, etc.). 
[Fren. expres, from L. expressus, 
p. part, of exprimere ( = to press or 
squeeze out, imitate, copy, describe, 
express), from ex ( = out of; see 
nppx), and premere ( = to press, 
clasp), which is related to prelum 
for prem-lom (= press, wine press), 
cp. DD^95?9px. □nl , ???9i? K - C P- 
aIsoD9 , }1'93?9'»K.l 

Dr3l»onD9i7K m.n. fw expressionism. 
[Formed' with suff. opu from Fren. 
expression, from L. expressionem, 
accusative of expressio (-a pressing 

or squeezing out), from expressus, 
p. pari, of exprimere. Seeo^px .) 

09'?1'9l99i?K m.n. fw expressionist. 
[SeeD] , }V , 9^9j7K. and09'U.) 

'■19^9,79 adj. fw eccentric. [Back for- 
mation from Med. L. excentricus( = oui 
of the center), from Gk. ekkentros 
( = out of the center), from ek ( = out of; 
see : ^px), and kentron ( = point, prickle, 
spike, oxgoad). See or^pflf and suff 

na'O'ipo^ f.n. fw executive. [From L. 
exsecutio, executio (-a carrying out, 
performance), from exsecutus, ex- 
ecutes, p. part, of exsequi, exequf(-to 
follow to the end, pursue, carry out, 
perform, execute), from ev ( = out of- 
see 39i?x), and sequi ( = to follow). See 
'sequel' in my CEDEL. 1 

rPSi7Kf.n. fw share (now replaced by 
rr}D). [Fren. action ( = action; share), 
from L. actio ( - action), from actus, p. 
part of agere ( = to do, act). See^xiopK 

irt'SjTK m.n. Fw shareholder. [Fren. 
actionnaire ,from action. Seerpypx .] 

ij?K m.n. FW acre. [Eng. acre, from aker, 
from aecer ( = field, acre), which is coga 
with L. ager ( = field, land), cp. --itjk and 
the first element in Dl3lnax,^-i'9i-uj<. 

»iaj?Km.n. pbh chance, incident, occa- 
sion. [Aram., from xnp( = it happened), 
which is related to Heb. x^p", rnp . ] 

nnj?Kf.n. pbh fortress, citadel. [A loan 
word from Gk. akra ( - end, point ; esp. : 
the highest point, top of a hill, peak; 
citadel), properly subst. use of the f. of 
the adj. akros (-- at the end, at the top, 
outermost), from ake ( = edge), which is 
cogn. with L. deer ( = sharp). See 'acrid' 
in my CEDEL. cp. ujnpx. np^npx. cp. 

t33i*lj7K m.n. FW acrobat. [Fren. acro- 
bate, from Gk. akrobatos ( = walking 
on tiptoe), from akros ( = at the end, 
outermost, highest), and bat (agoing), 
from the stem of bainein ( - to go. 
walk). See 0*93 and cp. the second 
element in np't^lvx. I 

jlr99nj8m.r1.FW acrostic. \Gk.akros- 
tichis. compounded of akros ( = at the 
end, outermost; see rnpx). and stichos 
(-tow, line, rank, verse), which is 
related to steichein ( = to go; to march in 
order). These words derive from IE base 
•siigh- (=to stride, step, walk, climb), 
cp. the second element im^-r^. | 

]n;?Km.n. nh screen. [A blend of ppn 
( = he showed a picture on the screen), 
and Fren. ecran ( = screen), which is 
prob. borrowed from Ger. schranc 
( = iron bar; enclosure fence), whence 
Ger. Schrank( = wardrobe, cupboard). I 



*I8 m.n.FW are (a square unit). iFren. 
are. formed in 1 795 by a decree of the 
French national convention from L. 
drea{- vacant piece ofground;orig.: a 
place burnt down, a dry bare place), 
which is related to arere{ = to become 
dry). For the sense development of L. 
area cp. Ger. Esse ( = chimney), which 
also derives from IE base *ds- ( = to 
burn), cp. the second element im^pn .] 

Vktk m.n. hero, angel (a meaning based 
on Is. 33 :7 : ofry 'ax^? n$n ipyx d^tn jn 
p'33? iQ, where D^xnx stands in 
parallelism to D<by ""itfiQ, 'messengers 
or angels of above peace'). [Of uncer- 
tain etymology. According to Gesenius 
and several other scholars D^X"ix = 
d^xtx. pi. of "jxnx ( = hero), in which 
they see a var. of^xn^, "7X"nx, ( = the lion 
of God), i.e. 'hero' (see "^nx,), a 
meaning parallel to that of ff'jK 1 ?? .) 

'VxnNadj. NH angelic; heroic. [Formed 
from^nx with suff. rj . ] 

3*lX' to lie in wait. [Related to Arab. 
'aruba, 'ariba ( = was crafty, was 
skillful, was proficient), 'arib ( = crafty, 
skillful, proficient), 'irba h ( = skill).] 
— Qal 3nx intr. v. he lay in wait, lurked, 
waylaid. — Pi. 3ix (of s.m.). Deriv- 
atives: 3"iix, iiK, aYx, 37$!?, 37x9, prob. 

anx"to devastate. [Prob. base of na^ix 

(= locust).] 
anx, anx m.n. I lying-in-wait, ambush. 

2 lurking place, lair. [From 3nx'. | 
nansf.n.PBH boat, barge; flat-bottomed 

boat. [A collateral form of nany, 

( = trough, tub; small boat). I 

nan« m.n. locust. [Related to Ugar. jrby, 
Akka. dribu, eribu, erbu ( = locust). 
Usually derived from nan ( = to 
multiply), and explained as 'the 
multitudinous", but more prob. a 
derivative of base nan" ( = to devastate), 
and formed with the collective suff. m. 
For the suff. seenji ( = sheep). I 

na'ixf.n. A hapax legomenon in the 
Bible, occurring Is. 25:1 1 in the phrase 
vt n1a7X, which prob. means 'the 
cunning of his hands'. [Prob. formed 
fromanx 1 with first 

n$nxf.n. I lattice, latticed window. 
2 chimney. 3 opening of a dove cote. 
4 (fig.) orbit of the eye. [ Related to Ugar. 
urbt (^window). Of uncertain ety- 
mology. | 

»57« f., !W:pK m. adj. four. [From yaT, 
whence also Aram., BAram. and Syr. 
»3"?x (f.), nyanx (m.), Ugar. rb\ Arab. 
'arba' (f.), 'arba'a 1 ' (m.), Ethiop. 'arbd' 
(f.), 'arbd'tu (m.), Akka. arba'u (f.), 
irbitli (m.).| Derivatives: cryanx, py37X. 

□y5"1N combining form meaning 'four-', 
•quadri-', 'tetra-' (as in ,, V^"y37X, 'four- 
legged', ■'S-iy-ysnx. 'quadrivalent'). 

nyanx see»3nx. 

t t t - • 

pyanx m.n. NH tetrahedron (geometry). 

[ Formed from nysnx ( = four), with suff. 

p'~\] Derivative r'jlya/ix. 
'Jtoanx adj. nh tetrahedral. [Formed 

frompy^x with suff. ■■a.] 

D'yanxadj. forty. I Properly pi. ofny^nx 
( = four). cp. Aram. -Syr. pyang, Arab. 
'arba'una{- forty).] 

D7n»?-lK adv. fourfold. [Properly adv. 
use of the dual of nyanx- The dual suff. 
added to certain numbers (as also in 
D?ny3^. etc.) has the meaning 'fold'.] 

anxto weave. [Related to Phoen. nx 
( = weaver).] — Qal J^x he wove. 
— Niph.anx: was woven. — Pi.;nxPBH 
he wove. — Hith. nxnn pbh was 
woven. Derivatives: n1x, nx, mx, alnx, 

V V T T 

vnx, nanx,. a7X,9, ni^n. 

nx m.n. 1 weaver's shuttle. 2 hand-loom. 
3 nh web, texture. [ Fromnx . | 

nx m.n.FW erg (physics). [From Gk. 
ergon (= work), which is related to ergo 
( = I do, sacrifice), organon ( = an in- 
strument), orgia ( = secret rites), from 
IE base *werg- ( = work, to work). See 
'work' (n.) in my CEDEL and cp. prix, 
rrVrix, 'janix . and the second element in 
n-n'?x, rraijx, rraiioa-n, n , a-in , '7, 

* I I V * * I P V \ L » r 1 V f t til* V 


ia^X m.n. FW argot. [Fren., of uncertain 
origin. I 

Ojawnx m.n.FW argument. [Fren. argu- 
ment, from L. argumentum, from 
arguere ( = to make clear, prove), which 
is related to argentum ( = silver); 
arguere orig. meant 'to make as white 
as silver'. L. argentum is cogn. with Gk. 
orgyros (= silver), properly 'the white 
(metal)', from argos { = shining, bright, 
white), from IE base *arg- ( = to shine).] 

rPSU3tt»"lX f.n. argumentation. (L. argu- 
mentdtlo ( - an adducing of proof). See 
DJijunx. and suff. rry ;; . 1 

panXm.n.NH 1 organizing. 2 organiza- 
tion. [Verbal n. of jjnx 1 . See pix.] 

pans m.n.FW argon (chemistry). 
[Modern L. argon, from Gk. argon, 
neuter of argos ( - idle, inert), contrac- 
tion ofaergos (lit.: 'not active'), from a- 
and ergon ( - work). See anx . I 

Jianx m.n. purple (a hapax legomenon in 
the Bible, occurring Chron. II 2:6). (cp. 
Aram, xjjnx and see J9J78.1 Derivative: 

■^NIK adj. nh organizational. [Formed 

from pn x with suff. v:. ] 
n'Jjrix f.n. nh purple mantle. [Formed 

fromprix with suff. nrj.] 
unx m.n. box, chest. (Related to Aram. 

t*?X. Syr. xnijTK. xfiij/i ( = wallet). Arab. 

hjdza h {- counterweight). Prob. 

derived from base m, and possibly 

meaning 'that which sways'.) 

p^anxm.n.NH a small case. [Formed 
from Tfix with dimin. suff. p c. ] 

ny'anx m.n. moment (used only in the 
phrase ny^nx iy, instantly'). [Together 
with y?T ( = moment), prob. derived from 
yjT 1 .] 

rPVanx. f.n. pbh tools, instruments. IGk. 
ergalia, pi. of ergaleion ( = tool, in- 
strument), from ergon ( = work). Seenx 
and cp. words there referred to.] 

]»anx m.n. purple, red purple. (Prob. a 
loan word from Akka. argamannu, 
whence also Aram.-Syr. x^nx, whence 
Arab, 'urjuwdn. For the change of m to 
w in words of Akka. origin cp. pizJrruD, 
"i^oa. Gk. argemone ( = a kind of poppy), 
is prob. a loan word from Heb. p?J/?x; 
see 'Argemone' in my CEDEL. cp. panx .) 
Derivatives^Jjrix, rv^anx. 

"•anaix adj.MH purple. [Formed from 

n':nanxf.n. nh Thais haemastoma (a 

■ t : : - N 

kind of sea snail). [Formed from |9^x 
with suff. n\;.] 

pnxto organize. [Denominated from 
Gk. organon (- instrument). ] — Pi.finx 
tr. v. NH he organized; he arranged. 
— Pu. ]J.7$ NH was organized; was 
arranged. — Hith. ]nxnn (of s.m.). 

nyanx f.n. nh 1 quieting, calming. 
2 (signal of) 'all clear'. [A secondary 
form ofnyrin. For the force of nouns of 
the form n'?yDX in NH see njrax and cp. 
words there referred to.] 

Tix m.n. NH bronze. [Coined by Eliezer 
ben Yehudah(1858-1922)from Akka 
urdu (= bronze), which derives from 
Sumerian urud.\ Derivative: rig. 

•hx adj. NH bronze. [From -nx.] 

yiTiXm.n.NH croaking (of frogs). 
1 From Aram. xy7^x ( = frog). ] 

Va^Tix m.n. pbh architect. I Together 
with Aram.-Syr. x'jD'Tix, Syr. xVarix. 
x^3 , "37X, prob. derived from Akka. 
aradekal. cp. ^-"ViX. Derivatives: 

rH , 73 ,, TlX, ,, ?3 , '?7X. 

niVj'Tixf.n.NH architecture. [Formed 

"•Va^nxadj.NH architectural. [Fomied 

fromVa-'-rix with suff.- :; . ] 

mx'to gather, pluck. (Prob. related to 
Akka. arii (= storehouse, granary), 
Ethiop. 'ardya. 'ardra, Tigre 'ard (-he 



gathered, reaped, harvested).! — Qal 
mx ir. v. he plucked, picked, gathered 
fruit (in the Bible occurring only Cant. 
5:1 and Ps. SO: 1 3). Derivatives: mix, 
TIN" to burn: to kindle. I Arab, ward(y) 
( = he kindled), 'ara(y) ( = it caught fire), 
whence 'irya h ( = hearth, fireplace). 
'arrd(y) ( = he struck fire). See Vxnx," . \ 
n^ng f.n. pbh breadboard. (Of un- 
certain origin. I 
jnsadj. mh woven. I Pass. part, ofnx. 

>nsm.n.NH webbing. |From;nx( = io 

weave). I 
"»3lnK adj. fw arrogant. I Frcn.. from L, 
arrogatuem. accusative of arogans. 
pres. part, of arrogdre ( = to claim as 
one's own. to arrogate to oneself), from 
L. ad- prcf. expressing direction to- 
wards or addition to) and rogdre ( = to 
rrxmiK f.n. F\v erudition. [L. erudilio 

T I ■ 

(-instruction, education), from eru- 
ditus. p. part, of erudire (=lo polish, 
instruct), from e- (-out of. from) and 
rudis{ = rough). I 

nm f.n. I crib, manger. 2 stall, stable. 
[Together with Aram, xnix, Syr. xnlx 
( = crib. stall, manger), whence Arab. 
'iry. 'driyya h (- stall, stable), prob. 
borrowed from Akka. uru ( - enclosure, 
fence), which itself is a Sumerian loan 
word. cp. the secondary formations 
Akka. ure (- horses), urati ( = mares).! 
Derivatives:!}^. ]nn(j. 

rmxadj. I firm, solid, tight (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring Is. 
27:24 in the form trnxj. 2NH packed 
(properly 'held firmly together'). I Pass, 
part. ofnx. See nx.l 

mnKm.n.NH i accomodation. 2hospi- 
tality. I Verbal n. of nix. Pi. ofrnx. See 


nm-is, nnns f.n. meal, food. dish. I Prob. 
formed from mx with first suff. n;: and 
orig. meaning 'food for the journey". It 
is also possible, however, to connect it 
with Akka. ardhu ( = to consume). I 

'oris adj. fw erotic. IGk. erotikos 
{= caused by love; referring to love), 
from eros(- love, sexual desire), which 
is related to eran, erathai( = to love). Of 
uncertain etymology. For the ending 
see suff.'. ..| 

'mKadj.MH plucked. I Pass. part, of mx. 

n^nx f.n. I healing, cure, recovery. 
2 restoration. I Properly, 'new flesh 
growing at the wounded spot', from px . 
cp. the related Arab. 'arika h (of s.m.), 
which derives from 'arika ( = it began to 

heal — said of a wound), and shows the 
same sense development as mnx, .I 
nipllK f.n. FW aroma. IGk. aroma ( = fra- 
grance, odor, spice), of uncertain 
origin. I Derivativc: , ni?VH![. 

'n)j1"l$ adj. fw aromatic. IGk. aroma- 
tikos. from aroma. See n^nx, with suff. 

]1lKm.n. (pi. nWix,) i chest, box. 2 Ark. 
3 coffin. [Related to Phocn. px. Aram, 
xnx. xjnx,, Arab. 'iran. Akka. aranu 
( = chest). The form fhx in Heb., given 
by Even Shoshan in his tzttrt jlVz?, is 
wrong. Such a form does not exist. The 
form both for the undetermined abs. st. 
and the c. st. is ]nx, and for the 
determined abs. st. jnxn (see Kin. II 
12:10 and Chron. II 24:8, the only 
passages in the Bible where the undeter- 
mined abs. st. occurs.! Derivative: 

jnsm.n.NH stableboy, ostler. [Formed 
fromnnx^ with agential suff. jv- 1 

rniiSf.n.NH small bedside cupboard 
I Formed from fhx, with dimin. suff. 

Dmxm.n.PBH betrothed, fiance, bride- 


groom. [Fromcnx; formally, pass. part, 
of the (otherwise not used) Qal. I 
nonxf.n.PBH betrothed, fiancee, bride. 

T "t 

lf.ofonx.1 betrothal, engage- 
ment. I Properly pi. of the verbal n. of 
oix( = he betrothed). Seeonx.] 

sn8m.n.MH happening, incident, event 
iProperly verbal n. of snx. Pi. of jtix. 
The word ynx was coined by Rashi 

tnsadj. cursed, damned, damnable. 
I Pass. part, ofmx 1 . Seemx . | 

D'tynsm.n. pl.NH betrothal, engage- 
ment. [A var. ofppnx.l 

|nns m.n. nh stableboy. stableman. 
I Formed from rm{< with suff. |n;. A 
collateral form ofjn(< . I 

HK to be firm. I Arab. 'araza{~ was firm). 
'ariz ( = firmly rooted). Base of mx, 
possibly also of nx.l — Qalnx NH he 
packed (in the Bible occurring only in 
the pass. part. D'jnx,, meaning 'firm, 
solid, tight').! — Niph. nx,} NH was 
packed. Derivatives: njnx,, t^N. See 

ins m.n. cedar. [Related to Aram. -Syr. 
x n>K. Ugar. grz ( - cedar). Arab. 'arzaK 
and Ethiop. 'arz are prob. Aram, loan 
words. Perhaps from base nx.l De- 
rivative: nnx. 

n's, T^iK m.n. pbh rice. (Hebraization of 
Gk. oryza (- rice), which derives from 
Old Pers. brizi, from Afghan vrile. 
ultimately from Old I. vrf/u'( = rice). See 

'rice' and cp. 'Oryza' in my cedel. cp. 

nnK f.n. cedar panel (a hapax legomenon 
in the Bible, occurring Zeph. 2:14). 

1 Formed fromnx with third suff.n;,i. | 

ffHKf.n. NH risotto. [Formed fromnx 
(-rice), with dimin. suff. n'u, as loan 
translation of It. risotto, dimin. of riso 
( = rice).| 

mx to travel, journey. I Arab. rdha{-\\t 
went away). Tigrc marha ( - he showed 
the way. led. conducted). Base ofrnx, 
nrnlx. cp. rn\| — Qal nix intr. v. 
wandered, journeyed. — Pi. rnx pbh he 
accommodated. — Hith. rnxnn pbh he 
stayed with. — Hiph. nnxn mh (of 
s.m.). — Hoph. rnxn nh was ac- 
commodated. Derivatives: nrmx. nnx, 
rn'x.nrnx,;], rnxn. 

rn'N m.n. (pi. nlrnx,) l path. way. route. 

2 mode, manner. 3 way of life. I From 
mx. cp. BAram. xrnx. Aram, xrnix, 
OS Arab, mx, Akka. urhu ( = way).| 


nrn'N see nrnlx. 

JViOTNf. adj. artesian. [Formed with f. 
adj. suff. n\.., from Fren. artesien (= of 
Artois), from Old Fren..4r/m, from L 
At rebates, a people that lived in the 
northwest of Gallia, cp. 'arras' in my 
CEDEL. Artesian well owes its name to 
the circumstance that the first such 
wells were established by Belidor 
(1698-1761) in the province of Artois, 
who therefore called them puits 
artesiens. I 

rrnVTS-iN f.n. fw artillery. [Fren. artil- 
lerie. from Old Frcn. artillier (=to 
provide with engines of war), from Med. 
L. articula ( = engine of war), dimin. of 
ars ( = art). cp. dd^ix. For sense 
development cp. Eng. engine, from L 
ingenium ( nature, disposition, ca- 

op , t?"lNm.n. FW artist: artiste. [Fren. 
artiste, from It. artista. from arte 
( = art), from L. ars. gen. artis ( - art), 
which is related to artus ( = joint), and 
derives from IE *art-. enlargement of 
base *ar-{- to join), cp. nnV'tns. mJj?x. 
^■"VOnnx,, and the first element in 
rrtnpiUDnx,, ^073- "won. cp. also 
n^jniix and the first element in 

rPsVip^N f.n. fw articulation. I Fren., 
from L. articuldlid ( separation into 
joints), from articuldtus. p. part, of 
articuldre ( -- to separate into joints: to 
utter distinctly), from arliculus 
( joint). I 

pitP'ViNm.n. fw artichoke. [Northern 
It. articiocco. altered from It. carciofo. 



from Sp. alcachofa, from Arab. 
alkarshdf, from al- {- the) and karshuf 
( = artichoke).] 
rrntriXf.n.FW artery. [L. arieria, from 
Gk. arieria (= windpipe, artery), prob. 
contracted from aerieria, which is a 
derivative of aeirein, airein ( = to lift, 
raise, bear). See nyilxx and cp. the 
second element in ilxpQ .] 

V>8, n !!7« rn.n. (pi. n^x,, also D'mx.) lion. 
[Related to BAram. rrnx, Aram. -Syr. 
xnx (=lion), Ethiop. 'arwe (-wild 
beast), Akka. aru (-eagle), cp. Arab. 
'arwd ( = ibexes), cp. also the first 
element in ^xnx,', 'rxnx, 1 ",, and the first 
element in'rijjnx,.] 

^"W m.n. hero (a hapax legomenon in 
the Bible, occurring Sam. II 23:20). 
[Prob. stands for ^xnx, and lit. meaning 
'lion of God'. cp.Vjrw.] 

^nx M m.n. hearth of the altar in the 
Sanctuary (see Ezek. 43:15). [Of 
uncertain origin; possibly related to 
Arab. 'irya h ( = hearth, fireplace). See 
mx"andcp. l 78: , vi.] 

^snK" 1 m.n. name of Jerusalem in Is. 
29:1, 2, 7. [Prob. meaning lit 'lion of 
God', and identical with^nx,'.] 

ansm.n.PBH web, fabric, cloth. [From 


runsf.n. pbh weaving. [Verbal n. of rjij. 
Seenx and first .] 

rrHK seenx,. 

rpnxf.n. MH plucking, picking, gathering 

(of fruit). [Verbal n. ofrns. Seemx 1 and 


rnnx f.n. FW aria (music), lit. aria ( = air, 
melody), from L. derea, f. of the adj. 
dereus (- pertaining to air), from der 
( = air), which derives from Gk. aer 
(-air), which is of uncertain origin, cp. 
the second element in nn^p. cp. also 'air' 
(atmosphere) and 'air' (melody) in my 

nPTKf.n.NH packing. [Verbal n. ofrj$. 
Seenx and first] 

rrnx m.n. pbh l a narrow brick. 2 a small 
bar. 3 square bracket. [Together with 
Aram. -Syr. xmx (- half-brick), bor- 
rowed from Akka. arhu.] 
Tp"iK adj. nh long. [Aram.ifiK,. See-px .] 
x;*™ adj. PBH (pl.ppnx.) long (occurring 
esp. in phrases quoted from Talmud 
and Midrash, as in xynx, xp1\ 'a long 
day'). [Aram., emphatic case of ipx 
( = long).See"px.| 

"^"IK f.n. pbh l length, lcngthiness. 2 pa- 
tience, forbearance. [Formed fromjix 
with first] 

Manx f.n. pbh length, lcngthiness, long 
life. [Formed fronrpx] 

'^"IX m.n. nh ant lion. [Compounded 

of nx, ( = lion), and "?pj ( = ant). ] 
onKm.n.PBH land tenant (who tills the 
owner's soil for a share in the produce), 
lessee, [cp. ony". From Aram. x^nx, 
which is a loan word from Akka. irrishu 
{ = tiller of the soil, land tenant), from 
ereshu (- to till the soil). Arab, irris is an 
Aram, loan word.] Derivative: nwnx,. 

mens f.n. pbh land tenancy. [Formed 
from onx with suff. ma . ] 

jltSp/HX m.n. pbh a solemn feast, festive 
banquet. [Gk. ariston( = morning meal, 
breakfast; later 'the midday meal'), 
formed from the locative a(i)eri (-in 
the morning). The suff. -sio-n in 
ariston stands for *d-to-, zero degree 
of root ed- ( = to eat), whence Gk. edein, 
esthiein, L. edere ( - to eat). ] 

onpioo'nx m.n. FW aristocrat. iFren. 

tIi I ■ -i 

aristocrate, back formation from 
aristocratic SeeTrpijrtDtpnx, . ] 

'onjTitjpnKadj.FW aristocratic. [From 
DijTlDtpns, and suff. 'U . ] 

rroni?i»pnKf.n. FW aristocracy. [Fren. 
aristocratie, from L. aristocratia, from 
Gk. aristokratia ( = rule or government 
of the best), which is compounded of 
aristos (- best) and -kratia ( = rule of), 
from kratos (- strength, power, rule). 
Aristos is superlative to areion 
(-better), and related to arete 
{- virtue), areskein ( = to make good, 
conciliate). These words derive from IE 
base *ar- (= to join), whence also Gk. 
arthron (=a joint), L. artus ( = joint, 
limb), ars ( = art). See osp^g. For the 
etymology of kratos seen^j?a] 

rnns f.n. pbh cursing, imprecation. 
[Verbal n. of-nx( = he cursed). Seemx 
and first] 

'pan-HK adj. FW arithmetical [Back for- 
mation fromnj^pgrvnx. . | 

n^njanns f.n. FW arithmetic. [Ulti- 
mately from Gk. arithmetike techne 
( = the art of counting), from arithmein 
(-to number, count, reckon), from 
arithmos (= number), from IE base *ru 
(-to count). Base *ri- is prob. an 
enlargement of base *ar- (=to join), 
whence L. arma ( = weapons), ars 
( = art), etc. See uiyipix and cp. the 
second element in Drrnji 1 ?. I 

•pKto be long. [Related to Phoen. j\k, 
Aram, p$, Syr. ipx, ( = was long), Ugar. 
grk, Akka. ardku (- to be long), Arab. 
'araka, arika (-he delayed), OSArab. 
p-\K (= enduring), Ethiop. 'arga 
(= became old).] — Qal"spx intr. v. was 
long, lasted, lasted long, was pro- 
tracted. — Hiph. T^p ne length- 
ened, prolonged, protracted; it became 
long. — Hoph. pjen nh was length- 
ened. — Hith. Tjujnn mh was length- 

ened, became long. Derivatives: n^nx, 
^rnx, N? v it?. px, ]i's, nmx, ■•stk, ]jnx, 
n?"j{<n, niDnxnn, Tp-ix.9. ms^-ngp, Kji?p, 

ps adj. long. [Fronrpx .] 
nrJ] , l i8(q.v.). 

"ijnsm.n. length, longitude. [From pK. 
cp. Aram. -Syr. x^iix ( = length). Deriv- 
ative: , 3TX.] 

'X?"lKadj.FW archaic. IGk. archaikos 
(= old-fashioned, antiquated), from 
archios (- ancient), from arche 
(- beginning, origin). Seevix and suff. 

OPKjnK m.n.FW archaism. [Gk. archa- 
ismos, from archaizein (=to be old- 
fashioned, copy the ancients in 
language), from archaios (-ancient). 
See'X^ix. and suff. dpq.] 

njsnx, n|^ns f.n. pbh knee, knee joint 
[Like BAram. n?;:ix, Arab. rukba h 
( = knee), metathesized equivalents of 
Biblical Heb. t\ii. The x in na^nx is 
prosthetic, cp. nais-i. cp. also aipiy.] 
Derivative ^'a^TX. 

rca^nKf.n.NH knotweed, knotgrass. 
[Formed fromna^ix with suff.n'C.] 

ro*mf.n. lengthening, prolonging. 
[BAram. nyix (Dan. 4:24), xj-ix (ibid. 
7:12), from ipx, (=was long). See px 
and first suff. ng. As shown by the 
passages quoted from Dan., the form 
n$7&, given in most dictionaries, is 


Jlsns m.n. PBH ruler. [From Gk. archon 

( = ruler), properly pres. part of arche in 

( = to rule).] 
f]i»ns m.n. 1 nh stirrup. 2 pbh instrument 

of torture. [Of uncertain origin.] 
'SIS adj. NH of length, longitudinal. 

[Formed frormrYx with suff.'d.] 

'31X m.n. PBH rule, dominion; term of 
office, office. [Gk. arche ( = beginning, 
first cause, origin, first principle; office), 
from the stem of archein (=to begin, 
rule), whence also archos ( = leader, 
chief, ruler), cp. "•xyix, cr^ix, r)»?ix, 
n^-ia the first element inn;aVrtx'3ix and 
the second element inojnx^po. ^?ljr». 
oisiij'^s. cp. also" 1 ? 1 !? . I 

□>3 , 1K FW archi- (a pref. meaning "chief, 
'primitive, original"). [Gk. archi-, 
related to archos (= leader, chief, ruler). 

ai^is , '? , i8m.n.FW archaeologist [Back 
formation fromn;aV?lKVix .] 

TJi^iK'P'lK f.n. NH archaeology. [Gk. 
archaiologia (-the study of ancient 
things), compounded of archaios 
(- ancient), and -logia. See ^ix and 
n'jl^u. I 



rjia?>j>3«n{ m . n . j-w archbishop. I A 
hybrid coined from Gk. archi- and 
Gcr. Bischof ( - bishop), which 
ultimately derives from Gk. episkopos 
( overseer). See ??7X and iit^? . I 

Jl»?7$ m.n.PBH archives. |Gk. archeion 
( public building, town hall), pi. 
archeia ( = public records, the archives), 
from arche (-beginning, origin). See 
'?7S.| Derivatives: mx)1'?7X, 'Xjl'jix. 

rflKJl'anN f.n.NH work in archives. 
I Formed from|1*?")8 with suft'.m. :.| 

'KJl'pnK m.n. NH archivist. I Formed 
fromil*?7S with sulY. , x..:.| 

'Si'snNadj.NH archival. | Formed from 
jl'jig withsuff.V.I 

WS'O'SlKm.n.FW archetype. [From L. 
archetypum. from Gk. archeiypon 
(-pattern, model), properly neuter of 
the adjective archetypos ( = stamped 
first) used as a noun, from arche- 
(- archi-. "first"), and typos ( = a blow, 
mark of a blow). See. .^x and oirp. I 

DjTO^lNm.n.FW architect. \Frcn. archi- 
tecie. from L. archiiecius. from Gk. 
archiiekion (- master builder), from 
archi- (see -"V??) and tekton 
( = carpenter, builder), which is related 
to techne (=an. skill, craft). Secxjso 

nnio^O'snK f.n. fw architecture. |Fren. 
architecture, from L. archi tectura. 
from archiiecius. Sec Dj?p , ?78. For the 
ending of L. architeclura seesuff."-ure" 

cao^Vo-iS m.n.PBH gang leader, rob- 
ber, chief. [Gk. archilestes (- robber 
chief), compounded of archi- (see 
"•37K and lestes ( = robber). Seecpo 1 ? . I 

trrtjjj'sng m.n. F\v archimandrite (head 
of a monastery, or of a group of 
monasteries, in the Gk. church). [ Med. 
L. archimandrita. from Med. Gk. 
archimandrites, from archi- ( - chief; 
see .^zik). and mandra{- fold, stable), 
which is prob. cogn. with Old I. man- 
dura (-stable), mandirdn ( = room. 
house, palace, temple). I 

sVs'pnxm.n. f-vy archipelago, lit. arci- 

pelugo (lit.: "the chief sea"), com 

pounded of arci- (-chief), from Gk. 

archi ( - see .■'578). and pelagos ( = sea). 

In ancient and mediaeval Greek the 

word archipelagos does not occur, in 

modem Greek it is an Italian loan word. 

The fact that archipelago orig. denoted 

the Aegean Sea may help us find the 

origin of this word, which is a real crux 

etymologorum. It. arcipelago very 

prob. arose a mistaking of Gk. Aigaion 

pelagos ( - the Aegean Sea) for 

archipelagos ( - the chief sea), a 

confusion suggested by the numerous 
Gk. words beginning with archi-. I 

J^TK m.n.PBH lengthencr. long-winded 
person (esp. in prayer). I Formed from 
■px with agential suff. ]!.'.. I Derivative: 

ruling f.n.NH long-windcdness, verbo- 
sity. I Formed from J57X withsuff.m ;.| 

"OS}? adj. nh very long, tiresome. 
I Formed from jjtx with suff. , ..i.| 

DTK f.n. Syria. Mesopotamia. Icp. Akka. 
Aramu.Arumu. Arimit. Prob. related to 
on ( to be high), and orig. meaning 
"Highland". I Derivatives: \'?nx i .n -, P7N. 

rnaTKf.n.FW armada. ISp. armada 
(-fleet, navy), from L. armdta. f. p. 
part, of arrndre ( = to furnish with 
weapons), used as a noun, from arma 
( - weapons), which derives from • IE 
base *ar-{= to join). Secotri^x .| 

y , 7»TKm.n.F\v armadillo (an American 
burrowing mammal). ISp. armadillo. 
dimin. of armado ( = armed), from L. 
armdtus. p. pari.ofarwjdre(seern?57x)-. 
so called in allusion to its hard, bony 
plates resembling armor. I 

ji»"iKm.n. (pi. n1ilD7X, also nttjpx) 
palace. lOf uncertain etymology, pos- 
sibly related to Akka. admdnu 
( building, palace), cp. pair;. I 

'ST K adj. Aramean, Aramaic. I Formed 
from din with suff. V-'.l Derivative: 

rfl»»3K f.n.NH Aramism. (Formed from 
'S7X, ..| 

DT'onSm.n.FW Aramaism. (Formed 
fromDix, with suff.DP .:.) 

rppnKf.n. Aramaic language. I Properly 
adv. use of the f. of 'onx, ( = Aramaic), 
from dtx,. For the ending see adv. suff. 


V»1K to become a widower. (Denom- 
inated from xbatx ( widower), resp. 
xn"?D7X ( - widow). See njoVx and cp. 
n^pnx. cp. alsoja^x.) — Nith. >a7xnj 
pbh he became a widower, ^jtixtu pbh 
she became a widow. 

niVmx f.n.PBH widowerhood. widow- 
hood. I Aram, m^x ( = widowhood), 
fromxn^x. SeeVmx andnuD^x .| 

ink m.n. pine tree. IRclated to Akka 
erinu. emu ( - cedar). Low identifies the 
px with the laurel. 1 Derivative: n-px. 
cp. p'n. 

ajHKm.n. hare (in the Bible only the f. 
form njjix occurs). (Related to Syr. 
xjpx, Ugar. anhb. Arab, amab, ar- 
nabu and annubu. and the proper 
names Amabd, Arnabalum, An 
nabutum. These words possibly derive 
from a base 3JX ( = to jump), and 
properly mean "jumping (animal)'. I 

Derivatives: jlajnx.rr^nx. 

jiajnK m. n. nh small hare. I For med from 

rpajnKf.n. nh rabbit hutch. I Formed 

nans f.n. the female of the hare. |See 

ral3"lNf.n. 1 pbh crop tax. 2NH (now) 

properly tax. I A secondary form of 

njlax ( = provision, ration). | 

n'rixf.n. nh pine mushroom. I Formed 
from px ( r. pine tree), with suff. tp ,;* so 
called because it grows only near pine 
trees (cp. its English name). I 

priKm.n. NH bag. purse. |Back forma- 
tion from Aram. "'pnx. which is 
borrowed from Gk. arnakis ( = 
sheepskin coat), a f.n. prob. formed 
through haplology from arno-nakos. a 
compound formed from aren. gen. 
arnos ( - sheep), and nakos ( -■ fleece).] 
Derivative: ]ippx. 

onxto betroth. |var. ofsnx.l —Pi. d}x 
tr. v. pbh he betrothed, became engaged 
to. — Pu. pbh (f.) nij7X she was 
betrothed, was engaged to. — Nith. nh 
(f.)rt97xn) (of s.m.). Derivatives: onx, 
n9nx,.ppnx.roD7xnn, 07x0. 

DTK m.n. pbh poison, venom. I From 
earlier oyx. Of uncertain origin. 
Perhaps, together with Syr. 'irsd (of 
s.m.). a blend of Gk. ios ( = poison) and 
L. n~nts (poison). | Derivatives: "^x. 

, ?<?7»- 
'OlKadj. MH poisonous, venomous. 
[Formed from 07s with suff. \.\| 

nvpiN f.n. mh poisonousness. venom- 
ousness. I Formed from -dix with suff. 

m .I 

jonKm.n.FW arsenic. (Fren. arsenic. 
from L. arsenicum, arrhenicum. from 
Gk. arsenikon, arrenikon (-yellow 
orpiment), from Med. Pers. zarnik 
( = gold. golden: orpiment), whence 
Modern Pers. and Arab, zarnik 
( orpiment), through the medium of a 
Sem. language. Seeypi.l 

, 30"lg adj. NH poisonous, venomous. 
I Formed from 075 with suff.-j... I 

mx to happen. I Dissimulated from yiv\ 
which was formed from tnp". a 
secondary form of mp (to happen), 
through change ofp toy. resp. x.andn 10 
v. cp. rVpx ( butcher shop), a sec- 
ondary form of r'?uv. alteration o( 
r^pp.l — Qal yix pbh it happened, 
occurred, took place. — Pi. inx pbh it 
happened, occurred, took place. — Pu. 
irix pbh (of s.m.). — Nith. y>xn: pbh 
(of s.m.). Derivatives: yns. runx. "Vix. 
-?•)#, niynxnn, six?. 

5 7 


xyix f.n. pbh earth. I Aram., emphatic st. 
of y?N, I - earth). See px and cp. inVp ■ I 

]1snKm.n. mh (pi. nWyix). happening. 
I Formed from ynx with suff. rl: .I 

'SHX m.n. pbh chance, temporariness. I A 

secondary form of'xyy, .1 
■•sng, 'STgadj. PBH temporary, casual. 

[Formed from yis with suff. v . cp. 


ni'VTNf.n.NH temporariness. [Formed 
from -yn it with : . cp. m-jny. | 

n^yns f.n. pbh bottom of something (as 
of a flower pot). I Formed from Aram. 
yiK, Kyis ( = earth) with subst. suff.rr . I 

nijf.n. (P 1 - n1x .3l?) I earth. 2 land. 

country. 3 ground. [ Related to BAram. 

xjrix (for the change of x to p cp. Heb. 

"it?i?. 'he caused to smoke", with Aram. 

ipy). Aram. ynx, nyix. Ugar. grs. Arab. 

ard, Akka. erseiu ( - earth). Tigre 'ard. 

cp. Arakiel — name of the earth in the 

Book of Enoch 8:3. cp. nynx. piK. 

npix.l Derivatives:^?. 1V7S- 
'SIS adj. IMH earthly. 2NH territorial. 

national. I Formed from px w ' tn su ^- 

v.. I Derivative :rn'XiK. 
m'Sisf.n.NH i earthliness. 2 territo- 

rialism. [Formed from -X"W with suff. 

m. .1 
]yis m.n. nh tellurium (chemistry). 

[Loan translation from Modem L. 

tellurium, which was coined by the 

German chemist Martin Heinrich 

Klaproth in 1798 from L. telhis, gen. 

telluris ( earth), to denote this element 

as the opposite of the one called by him 

uranium (after Gk. ouranos (sky. 

heaven). I Derivative: jynx. 

pns to tellurize (chemistry). [Denom- 
inated from ]$"i8.| — Pi. ]S"iK tr. v. NH 
he tellurized. 

pTKto earth, to ground. [Denominated 
from Aram. x;rm ( - earth). Secpx and 
cp.np7x.l-— Hiph.p-ixnNH he earthed, 
grounded. — Hoph. pn{tn nh was 
earthed, was grounded. Derivatives: 
n i?}Nn. pnx;?. 

P"JSm.n.NH arrack (brandy). I Arab. 
'araq ( = sweat; juice of fruit), cp.pny. . I 

ngisf.n. mh earth, ground. I BAram. 
xp7s(- earth). Seeps and cp.pis .| 

'ppnx adj. FW Arctic. |L. arciicus. from 
Gk. arktikos (= of a bear; of the Great 
Bear; northern), from arktos ( = bear; 
the constellation of the Great Bear; the 
north), which is cogn. with Old I. 
'rksah. Avestic ar^ssho. L. ursus 
(-bear). Fpr the ending of 1 9p7X, see 
suff.-..:. cp.'PjnKiflX.I 

tin to curse. I Base of -tin. tiki? etc. 
Related to Akka. ardru (-to curse). 

arralu ( = curse). This base occurs only 
in Heb. and in Akka. For other 
Heb. -Akka. equations sec ^dn and 
words there referred to. I — Qal tin tr. 
v. he cursed. — Niph.ixj (also tin? mh) 
was cursed. — Pi. tin he cursed. 

— Hith. Tixnn pbh was cursed. 

— Nith. -nsn? pbh (of s.m.). — Hoph. 
(or passive of the Qal) "win was cursed. 

TIN m.n. MH curse (poetical). [From 
tin. I 

iyTN to betroth. [Among the many 
attempts to find the origin of this word 
the most probable is the one which 
connects it with Akka. erishu 
(^bridegroom), irshiiu (-betrothal), 
which, according to Haupt. derive from 
Akka. ereshu (-to desire). See na/ns, 
and cp. din. cp. also Arab, 'arus 
( - bridegroom). For the change ofx toy 
see the introductory article to letter n .| 

— Pi. anx tr. v. he betrothed. — Pu. (f.) 
n'cn'x she was betrothed. Derivatives: 
D'iynN, n'sn'xB. 

ty'TNm.n. expression. [Back formation 
from nan x.| 

nttJ^Nf.n. expression (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring Ps. 
21:3 in the phrase vg$to na/^tt. which is 
usually rendered by 'the request of his 
lips". Most Jewish commentators, 
however, render vn^tp ntnx, by 
"expression of his lips'. [Prob. related to 
Akka. ereshu (-to desire), erishiu 
( - desire, request). | Derivative :a*"iN.^^fire. [Related to BAram. 
x^x. J Aram, n^n, emphatic st. xn^N, 
Ugar. (sht. Ethiop. 'esdt ( = fire). Akka. 
ishatu ( = fire, fever). Syr. xne*x ( = fever), 
is prob. an Akka. loan word. cp.x#x.| 

Viaa/N. m.n. nh spadix. [A blend ofrtstfx 
( cluster), and n"72tt> (^ear of corn).) 

"•Via^Nadj.NH spadiceous (botany). 
[ Formed from blaaJx with adj. suff.v . 1 

]Tiatf n, jnatfN m.n. pbh i level country. 
2 fiat place, where water gathers; pool. 
I Prob. related to Arab, mushdbir 
(swamp). According to B. Gross 
liatfx is borrowed from Gk. 
symphoreon. pres. part, of symphorein 
( to bring together), or from symphors 
( = a bringing together), which both 
derive from sympherein. antonym of 
kaiapherein ( - to bring down). 
Accordingly, symphora/e, *sybbore, 
*sybore, *sbore, *asboren (with 
prosthetic a). Gk. sympherein is formed 
fromsi'H ( = with, together with: see i i^p) 
and pherein ( = to bear, carry). See 

"iaa/Km.n.NH despatch, consignment. 
I Formed from "Utf. | 

rnatfNf.n.PBH i habit, routine. 2 slip of 
the tongue; slip of the pen. I A collateral 
form of rnjtfn. cp. Aram. xrnjaTx 
( current phrase).| 

itt*N to pour. |Aram.TO>x(^ to pour). Syr. 
itt^x ( :-- he poured out), Arab, asada 
(- he pursued). Base of itfx andrna^. 
The orig. meaning of these words prob. 
was "he rushed, plunged", cp. the Arab, 
root 'a-s-d ( = rush) and the n. 'asad 
I = lion). I 

HtfNm.n. waterfall, cascade. |From 


TlttJNf.n. l slope of a mountain. 2 water- 
fall. [Formed from Ttfx with first suff. 


n^^ltt/Nf.n. l language of the Ashdod 
people (Neh. 13:24). 2NH a foreign 
language. 3 nh pidgin, jargon. [ Formed 
fromTha/x( = Ashdod). I 

n#N f.n. (pi. D^. also, very rare. nltfx) 
woman, wife. [Related to Aram.xnnjx, 
xnnx. Syr. xnnx. Nab. nnnN. Ugar. qii. 
Arab, 'untha. Ethiop. 'anest. Akka. 
ashshatu. OSArab. nnax ( = woman, 
wife). The origin of these words is 
uncertain. They are not related to cfx 

n#N m.n. (pl.D^x) burnt offering. [ Prob. 
nomen unitatis formed from tf x and lit. 
meaning 'offering made by fire". I 

nitfNf.n.PBH spool, reel. I Prob. lit. 
meaning 'that which is placed" and 
derived from the base of nia* ( =he put. 
placed) : see ma*, cp. Syr. xrnia* ( = spool, 
reel), which is prob. formed form 
Aram. -Syr. -^(^ Heb. nj#). cp.rmtfx.l 

mtfNm.n.PBH fir (tree). [Related to 
Aram. -Syr. xmtf x. Arab, shuh ( = fir). I 

rnutef.n. PBH spool, reel. I A collateral 

DWKm.n.NH accusation, charge, in- 
dictment. [Fromn^x. Formally, verbal 
n. ofas'x. Pi.ofotfx.l 

]WK adj. NH hard, rough, stiff, rigid 

1 Aram, ptfx, x^«{t ( - strong), cp. Arab. 
hashin (- rough), hashun ( = was 
rough). For the interchangeability of x 
and n see the introductory entry to 
the lettern.l Derivative: nirc'tt. 

I^N m.n. lime (?) (a hapax legomenon in 
the Bible, occurring Pr. 20:20 in the 
phrase "lEmptfxa, which prob. means 'at 
the time of darkness"). [Together with 
Aram, xjitfx, prob. borrowed from 
Akka. ishinnu ( = fixed time), which 
itself is a Sumerian loan word.1 

"lltfN 1 i Ashur( = lhesecondsonofShem). 

2 f.n. the land of Assyria. 3 m.n. the 
people of Assyria. |Akka..4s/js/H/r. cp. 



nnw.l Derivative :n'*S- 
"WtfX" m.n. box tree (a hapax legomenon 
in the Bible, occurring Ezek. 27:6 in the 
phrase c-i^j-nj). [Of uncertain origin. 
Some scholars explain Dn^-rq as one 
word and read D-n^xna. See-wtf xn . I 

•NtfX, "1^$ m.n. step. [Fromitfx 1 .] 

■N#X' m.n. NH pronouncing happy. [Ver- 
bal n. of itfx. Pi. of -raw 1 .] 

"U#X" m.n. I pbh confirmation, corrob 
oration. 2NH authentication. [Verbal 
n.of-itfx" 1 .] 

aftl'HtfX m.n. fw Assyriologist. [Back 
formation frOmrrjI^I-utfx . ] 

rnalVnitfx f.n. fw Assyriology. 

[Formed from -utfx 1 and rrj1"?C! 

^itfKadj.&n.PBH Assyrian. [Formed 
from -u#x with gentilic suff.'J . ] 

rv*H#Xf.n.PBH the Assyrian language, 
[f. of n^K used as a noun.] 

mtfxf.n. PBH mole (the animal). [To- 
gether with Aram. xrutfx, of unknown 

rfltfxf.n. MH married state, matrimony. 

'tfXadj.MH of fire, fiery. [Formed from 
tfx( = fire), with suff.-c.] 

rntfxf.n. pillar; foundation, base (a 
hapax legomenon in the Bible, occur- 
ring Jer. 50: 1 5 in the pl.frnttzJx). [Prob. a 
loan word from Akka. asitu ( = pillar), 
whence also Aram. -Syr. xrHpx 
( = pillar). Arab. asiya h ( = pillar) is an 
Aram, loan word.] 

rwptfx, f.n.NH hardness, roughness, 
stiffness, rigidity. [Formed from ptfx] 

ntjpBfoE 1 f.n. (pi. nltMpx,, also D^tpx,) cake 
made of dried, compressed grapes. 
[Prob. lit. meaning 'something compact 
or solid", and derived fromtftfx. For the 
ending see first suff. n? .] 

nc^tfx 1 ' f.n. MH bottle of glass, flagon. 
iFrom Aram, xiptfx,, which is of 
unknown origin, cp.ttW x . ] 

^|tt/x m.n. testicle. [Related to Syr.xnse*. 
Ugar. yshk, Ethiop. 'eskii. Akka. ishku 
( = testicle).] Derivativesin^x.n^x^. 

nastfx f.n.NH burial. [Formed from 
s^tfn ( = he caused to lie), on analogy of 
Aram, xn^x ( = a causing to lie). See 

ViStfx, Vsa/X m.n. (pi. nVrts^x, also 
nVrtstpx) cluster, bunch. [Related to 
Aram, x'jsnx, Ugar. i/tkl ( = grapes), 
Ethiop. 'askdl (- grape), Arab, 'ithkdl, 
'ithkdl, 'uthkul ( = cluster of dates).] 
Derivatives: '"Tlstpx, rvVtoip x, Vs^xzj. cp. 


rrtVtotfx f.n. pi. pbh schools. [Formed 

with prosthetic ox from Gk. schole 
(- school; see n^lsipx). However, the 
Mishnah explains nfttetpx as the pi. of 
^l3tt/x' (- grape cluster, grape), and 
applies it figuratively to scholars, and 
the Talmud explains ^1stt>x in our 
Mishnah folk-etymologically as a 
contraction of 1a V3n«> afx, 'a man in 
whom there is everything'.] 
'^totfXadj.NH racemose (botany). 
[Formed from bls^x with adj. suff. ""a.] 

rpVlStfX f.n.NH grapefruit. [Formed 
fromblstfx with suff. rra.] 

TJStfxm.n. I Ashkenaz — eldest son of 
Gomer (Gen. 10:3). 2 name of a people 
mentioned in Jeremiah. 3 MH Germany. 
[Of uncertain origin. Some scholars 
identify this people (sense 2) with Akka. 
Ashguzai, Iskuzai.] Derivative:"'Tj3tt>x. 

'HStfXadj.MH i German. 2Jew from 
Germany or other countries from 
Central Europe and from Eastern 
Europe. [Formed from tl3fx with 
gentilic suff. '.7. ] 

ISCJK m.n. PBH kind of locust, mentioned 
in the Talmud. [Of unknown origin.] 

1?^K, tl»UfiX m.n. PBH l cobbler, shoe- 
maker. 2 saddler. [From Aram.x^ssftx 
(whence also Arab, 'iskdj), also x$j^, 
which is a loan word from Akka. 
ashkapu (= cobbler, shoemaker), cp. 

"i$#X m.n. gift. [Prob. a loan word from 
Akka. ishkaru {- chain; tribute; field) 

— whence also Syr. instfK (= field) 

— which itself is borrowed from 
Sumerian eshgar.} 

y1"i:p#x m.n. PBH box wood. (Aram., of 
unknown origin.] 

nso^Kf.n. NH orchitis (disease). [Coined 
from ^flx (= testicle), according to the 
pattern nVyg serving to form names of 
diseases on the analogy of rnria 
( = bright spot on the skin). See n^x and 
cp. words there referred to.] 

VtfX'm.n. tamarisk. [Related to Aram, 
x^nx, Arab, 'athl, OSArab. "?nx, Akka. 
ashlu ( = tamarisk). Aram, x^x is a 
Heb. loan word. cp. x^tfx. V^x. cp. 

tox"m.n.PBH l hotel, inn. 2 eating, 
drinking and lodging. [From "h^ 1 , 
which was explained by R. Nehemya 
(Sota 10a) as pnJiD ( = lodging place). 
According to Rashi, ibid., this explana- 
tion is based upon the word V'tPX, 
regarded as nj' 1 ?. nyra/, n^ajj( = eating, 
drinking, lodging). SecV'tt/x.] 

V"tfx m.n. NH expenses (for board and 
lodging). I Formed from the initials of 
the words n'pax, {- food), n;o«> ( = drink) 
andnj^( = lodging).] 

X^Xm.n. PBH tamarisk. [Aram., bor- 
rowed from "?#x '. cp. xa'ja} x^x . ] 

xrnn xtox m.n. & adj. pbh a great man 
(lit.: 'a great tree'). ISce xtyx 
( = tamarisk). For sense development cp. 
Arab, 'athil ( = of noble origin, 
highborn), which derives from 'athl 
(- tamarisk).] 

iVtfXm.n. PBH potash. [Prob. from 
Akka. ashlaku ( = the waster; material 
used by the washer), which is a 
Sumerian loan word.] Derivative: 

]jV#Xm.n. PBH potassium. [Formed 

from >tyx with suff. p . ] 
rr^tfX f.n.NH deception, delusion. [A 

collateral form of n^n. For the 

difference of meaning between these 

two words seenjrqx .] 

V'VtfX m.n. NH Reaumuria (botany). 
[Coined from "7E>x' through 
reduplication of the letter"? . ] 

DtfXto sin. be guilty. [Arab, 'athima 
(=he became guilty, sinned, erred), 
'ithm (= offence, misdeed). Baseofotfx, 
ngtf x. cp. 'xgipx . ] — Qal otfx intr. v. he 
committed an offense, was guilty, sin- 
ned. — Niph. d^xj became guilty, was 
accused, was charged, was blamed, suf- 
fered punishment. — Hiph. o^xn he 
accused, declared guilty, blamed. 
— Hoph. otfxn nh was accused, was 
declared guilty, was blamed. Deriv- 
atives :m#x, nijijJxn, d^xj., d#x, d^x . 

D#X m.n. guilt, offence, sin, blame; guilt 
offering. [FromDtfx.] 

DtfXadj. guilty, culpable, blamable. 
[FromDtfx. cp. Arab. 'athim(- guilty).] 

'XTatfX, "'atfXadj.PBH guilty, sinning, 
sinner. [ Prob. from Dtf x .] 

'xnatfx, "H&tfX m.n. PBH Asmodeus, the 
prince of the demons. [From Avestic 
Aeshma-daeva (lit.: 'Aeshma, the 

natfx f.n. guilt, charge, blame, ac- 
cusation. [Formed from Dtfx with first] 

rruatfx, mbtf x f.n. watch, night watch 
(one of the three divisions of the night). 
[ Formed from notf with prosthetic ox 
and subst., resp. nj . ] 

'J?tfX see'XO^x. 

D^ darkness (a hapax lego- 
menon in the Bible, occurring Is. 59:10 
in the form o^g^xj, which is of 
uncertain origin and meaning; usually 
rendered 'in the darkness'. 

rnbufx seerniaipx. 

3JU7X m.n. window lattice, small window. 
I Prob. metathesis for 3tf3X and formed 
from 3*3 (= to blow), with prosthetic nx. 
cp. Akka. nappdshu, Arab, man/as 



( = air-hole). For sense development cp. 
ling, window. from Old Norse vindauga 
(lit.: "windeyc"); Frcn. veniouse. From 
vent (-wind); Sp. ventana, from vento 
(wind). I Derivatives: ajtfx, -Kgj^K, 

ajjys to fenestrate. I Denominated from 
ujtfx.l —Pi. ajtfx tr. v. NH he 
fenestrated. Derivative: autfx. 

'XaStfXm.n. NH information clerk. I Lit.: 
"clerk at the window". Formed from 
ajtfx ( - small window), with agential 

313U7N m.n. NH fenestration. I Verbal n. of 

t]$N m.n. I magician, conjurer. 2 NH chef. 
[Together with BAram. i#k. Syr. 
KDltfx. borrowed from Akka. (w)dshipu 
(base iB7i). I Derivative:rus^x. 

nstfN'f.n. quiver (for arrows). |Prob. 
borrowed from Akka. ishpatu 
( = quiver; whence also Ugar. ytpt, of 
s.m.), which itself is a Sumerian loan 
word. I 

nstfX" f.n. PBH dung heap, dunghill. 
I Back formation from n'9tfx.| De- 
rivative :|n9^K. 

T19U7N m.n. NH l accommodation. 2 hospi- 
talization. I Verbal n.ofistfx. Seeistfx .| 

■HStp'S m.n. NH finishing. [Verbal n. of 
istfx.SeenstfK .) 

niD^Nf.n.NH sorcery, magic. I Formed 
from l^K with suff. nv : . | 

tsiytfto accommodate, hospitalize. [De- 
nominated from Aram. xrgtfx 
( guest). See rstfx.l - Pi- tstfx tr. v. NH 
l he accommodated; 2he hospital- 
ized. - Pu. istfx nh i was accom- 
modated; 2was hospitalized. - Nith. 
:9tfxn? NH (of s.m.). Derivatives: ngtfx, 

ntstfi* f.n. nh hospitalization. [Denom- 
inated from istfN. For the ending see 
first suff. n.,.. The word nj9^x was 
coined by Yizhak Avineri.l 

1'SfXm.n. (pi. lT?9?f) • pbh inn. 2PBH 

host. 3MH guest. I Med. Gk. hospition, 

hospeiion ( = inn), from L. hospitium 

( = inn; hospitality), from hospes, gen. 

hospitis (=host; guest), which stands 

for *hosti-poiis and orig. meant 'lord of 

strangers', cp. Old Slavic gospodi 

( = lord. master), which also means lit. 

'lord of strangers" and is the exact 

equivalent of L. hospes. The first 

element in L. hospes and in Old Slavic 

gospodi is cogn. with Gothic gasis. Old 

Eng. gaest, giesi, etc. ( = guest). The 

second element is cogn. with L. potis 

(able), poiens (-powerful); see 

"'V^gp-'K.I Derivative :TDtfN.cp.]5r9^. 

]?r?#xm.n. pbh host, landlord, inn- 

keeper. [From f9tt>x. cp. Syr. xjjigtfx 
(of s.m.). I 

nsitfsto finish (textiles etc.). [Frormotf 
(q.v.).| — Pi. i9tfx NH he finished 
(textiles etc.). Derivative: "H9tpx. 

ISO'S m.n. portion of food (in the Bible 
occurring only Sam. II 6: 19, Chron. I 
16:3). [Of uncertain origin and mean- 
ing; usually rendered by "portion (of 
food)'. I 

"iStfN m.n. I PBH mender of clothes. 2 NH 

T 1 - 

decorator. | Formed from iDtf ( = to be 
good, to improve, beautify), with pref. 

-IK. I 

rnstfNf.n.NH finish, finishing (of 
textiles). [Fromistf; a secondary form 
ofrn^tfn. See alsoiwtfx .[ 

nbtfx, ntettto f.n. (pi. mngtfx) ash heap, 

dirt, dung. [Formed from nstf with pref. 

jnsttte m.n.NH scavenger, dustman, 

dung carrier. [Formed fromngtfx" with 

suff. ]n :. | 

i?90 , "n K^KPBH because of a trifle (lit.: 
'because of the leg of a litter"). [See 

n^pttte, 7i;?tt7Nf.n.MH chess. [From 
Old Fren. eschees. From Rashi's com- 
mentary in his explanation of the word 
rem: as 7p»K yvpw pimp ( ^the game 
called eschees). Old Fren. eschees is the 
pi. of eschec (= check at chess, defeat, 
blow. loss), from earlier eschac. bor- 
rowed (through the medium of Spanish 
and Arabic) from Pers. shah (- king), 
which is related to Old Pers. .xsliaya 
(=king). See j9T?ttJnit.| Derivative: 


firi^s m.n. chess player. [ Formed from 
n j?ip^x with agential suff. ]..: . I 

nvj?t^K f.n. NH investment. [A secondary 
form of ny;?tfn, verbal n. of rp^n. Hiph. 
of yptf . | 

"HtfN'to walk straight, to walk. [Phoen. 
"itfx ( = place), Aram, "itf x ( = trace, 
place), Aram. -Syr. irjx,, xinx,Ugar.^/r 
( = to go, walk, tread), Arab, 'ilhr 
(place). Ethiop. 'ashar ( = track), 
Akka. as/jnv( = place).| — Qalitpx intr. 
v. he walked. — Pi. itfx he led. — Pu. 
-i#x was led. Derivatives: ntfx, "itfxo. 
-HjJKO'.cp.-inx,, N^ns. 

"uyN"to be happy. [Base of i^x. i^'x. 
nipx. Perhaps related to Ugar. i/shr 
{- happiness), Arab, yasara ( = was 
easy), yassara ( = made easy, pros- 
pered).! — Pi. i#x tr. v. he pronounced 
happy, called blessed. — Pu. "itfx was 
made happy, was blessed. Derivatives: 

"ittJx 1 " lo strengthen, confirm. I Back 
formation from Aram, -itfx ( = hc 

confirmed, strengthened), from ttu> 
( = was strong).) — Pi. i#x tr. v. I he 
strengthened; 2 pbh he confirmed; 3 NH 
he authenticated. — Pu. "Hpx nh was 
confirmed, was authenticated. — Hith. 
-itfxnn nh was confirmed, was 
corroborated, was authenticated. 
Derivatives: "Kp;x, "U#x", rntfx, -nwx, 
nnatonn.-i^xD" 1 , possibly alscx^uTx. 

"HP's m.n. happiness (a hapax legomenon 
in the Bible, occurring Gen. 30:13 in 
the form "•"ltfKii, 'in my happiness'). 
[From"iwx". C p.'Htfx.l 

ntf N 1 pron. who, which, that,that which. 
2conj. in order that. [Related to Ugar. 
Qtj ( = that which), cp. Moabite "iux. 
According to most scholars these 
words were originally nouns meaning 
'trace, place", and are related to Arab. 
'athira ( = to leave traces), 'ilhr ( - trace, 
place), and to Aram, inx,, x-jnx, Syr. 
xinx ( - place). See inx, . | 

nxTv^N f.n. nh inspiratioa [A secondary 
form of njaffri, verbal n. of rntfn, Hiph. 

"•xnty'Km.n.PBH credit. [Aram., prob. 
from "itfx ( = he strengthened, he 
confirmed). Seeitfx 1 ".) 

m^Hf.n.NH visa. [Formed from -itfx 1 " 
with first sufT.n.^. | 

rnty's (pi. rrhtf x, . also Q-ntfx, ) f.n. i n ame of 
a sacred tree or pole. 2Asherah — a 
Canaanite and Phoenician goddess of 
fortune and prosperity. [Of uncertain 
origin, cp. Ugar. airi ( = the wife of El 
and mother of the gods), Akka. goddess 
A shratu, S Arab, goddess mnx . | 

"irn^N m.n. NH ratification. [Verbal n. of 

"ntfx. SeevitfK.I 

Pitt's m.n. NH umbel (botany). 
[Formed from ffih& ( = root). with pref. 
tx.) Derivative^^n^x. 

"tfintfx adj. nh umbelliferous (botany). 
[Formed from Eflitf x with suff^ : . I 

ntfxi happy is.... blessed is... 2 pbh 
name of the prayer beginning with the 
words ^rrg "asA"' "H^x ( = Happy are they 
who dwell in thy house). [ Prob. constr. 
st. pi. ofitpx, a var. ofnc?"x ( = happiness). 
Accordingly e.g. yic'x lit. means 'thy 
happiness!', whence arose the meaning 
"happy art thou". I 

"niyxto ratify. [Pil. of -iCn 1 ".] - Pil. 
-ntfx tr. v. NH he ratified. — Pu. ~oy$ 
nh was ratified. Derivative: "in^x. 

uWNto strengthen. [Arab, assasa (he 
founded, established), Akka. ushushu 
(-to strengthen. fortify, found, 
establish).! —Pi. tf#X mm he 
strengthened. — Pu. tfflx pbh was 
strengthened. — - Po"el Win nh he 



encouraged. — Po'al bWx nh was 
encouraged. — Hithpo'el Bflplxnn he 
showed himself strong, regained 
strength, gained courage. Derivatives: 

mtftfixnn, tfijfiXD. tf^xo, and prob. 

BWXm.n.PBH bottle of glass, flagon. I A 
secondary form ofniptpx," ( = bottle of 
mntfNadv.PBH this vear. [Shortened 
from XT xntf ( = this year). See nji? 
( = year). and xi ( = this). cp. the first 
element in i?ntfx.] 
"T^ntfK adv. pbh last year. [Contraction 
of Aram. nxz?7i? xntf (lit.: "the preceding 
year"), from xntf ( = year) and nxDT?,, f. 
of x?7?. corresponding to Biblical Heb. 
■•97? ( = the former, the first), from Dij? 
( = Heb.D7?).l 

nx', unxprep. the mark of the accu- 
sative. Usually prefixed only to a 
definite noun, as in aMjtrrnx ( - the man). 
[Related to Moabitenx. Phoen. mt (to 
be readn;x). Aram, (also B Aram.) and 
Syr. n; (this latter mostly used as a 
noun). Egypt.-Aram. ni. Arab, 'iyyd 
(only used with a suff. to emphasize the 
pron.) and possibly also to Ethiop. kiyd 
(also used only with a suff. for the sake 
of emphasis). Orig. — as Syr. rr, xrr — 
a noun in the sense of 'being, essence, 
existence'. The orig. form prob. was 
'iwyath (cp. the Phoen. form), which 
ultimately derives from base mx(=to 
sign, mark), whence also n1x( = sign). ] 

nK" prep. with. [Related to Akka. itti 
( = with). These words possibly stand for 
int. resp. inti, and derive fromSem. base 
n:x (-to bring about), whence also 
Ethiop. enta ( = in the direction of. 
toward), cp. "Tin ( = my giving), from nn 
( = to give). According to some scholars. 
Akka. itti and Heb.nx" lit. mean 'to the 
side of. and derive from Old Sem. t 
( = hand). ep.nxq( = from).| 

nx i!l m.n. (pi. cnx. also dtix) a cutting 
instrument usually rendered by 
'plowshare'. [Prob. a loan word from 
Akka. itiii ( = plowbeam). | 

nxf. personal pron. you. thou. [From 
earlier vix. assimilated from 'ami. 
Related to Phoen. nx, Aram ri}x, nx, 
Syr. nx, Egypt.-Aram. 0)nx. Arab. 
'ami. Ethiop. 'ami, Akka. aiti (= thou, 
you). See nnx and cp. words there 
referred to. I 


"WKm.n. nh challenge. [Back forma- 
tion from n-^nn. Hith. of rnj.) Deriv- 
ative: iinx. 

"linxto challenge. [Denominated from 
iinx.) -Pi. -iyi K t r. v. nh he chal- 

nnx' to come. [Related to Aram, xpx,, 
Syr. xnx, Arab, 'atd(y) (-he came), 
OSArab. mx and 'nx, Ethiop. 'atdwa 
( = he came back), Ugar. gtw, SArab. 
mx and nx ( = to come), cp. Trn. I - Qal 
nnx and xnx he came, arrived (used on- 
ly in poetic parts of the Bible). 
Derivative: rrnx,. cp. jln'x and xn " . 

nnx " to address a person familiarly. 
[Formed from nnx ( = thou).| - Pi. nnx 
tr. v. NH he theed (a person), he ad- 
dressed (a person) familiarly. 

nnK m. personal pron. you, thou. [Re- 
lated to BAram. nrox, rnx, Aram, nx, 
n}x. Syr. nix, Ugar. at, Arab, 'anta, 
Ethiop. 'anta, Akka. 'atta{ = thou, you). 
The primitive form was prob. 'anta for 
the m. and 'ami for the f., which are 
perhaps compounded of the element 
'an-, occurring also in 'jx, ( = 1) and its 
correspondences, and -id, resp. -if. 
which appear also as suffixes, resp. 
prefixes, denoting the second person in 
the conjugation of the perfect and 
imperfect of the verbs, cp. nx, nnx. cp. 

Jinxf.n. (pi. ntilnx,) she-ass. [Related to 
Aram, xjnx,, xjnx. Syr.njnx, Ugar. at nt, 
Arab, 'atdn, Akka.atdnu{- she-ass). | 

JWX m.n. furnace. [ Aram.I 

Dinx m.n. fw ethos. [Gk. ethos ( = habit, 
custom, usage, disposition, character, 

"iinx m.n. NH localization. [Verbal n. of 
"inx. Pi. ofinx.] 

nwxm.n.NH signaling. [Verbal n. of 

nVnnxf.n.NH beginning, inception. [A 
secondary form of n^nnn.l Derivative: 


* * » 1 - 

xn?nnx f.n.PBH beginning (occurring in 
phrases quoted from Talmud or 
Midrash, as in nVxn xnVnnx, 'the 
beginning of the redemption"). [Aram., 
equivalent to Heb. n^rmn( = beginning).] 

'^nnN. adj.NH initial. incipient. 
[ Formed from n^nnx with stiff.'::; . 1 


"•nxadj.Fw ethical. [Back formation 
from n^nx. For the ending see adj. suff. 

Otwnx m.n. fw atheism. [Fren. athe- 
isme, formed with suff. -isme (see dpq) 
from Gk. atheos (- without god), from 
privative pref. a- and theos ( = god). See 

O0"»X»nx m.n.Fw atheist. [Fren. atheiste. 
SeeDppnx and suff. o^a.] Derivative: 

'tsownx adj. fw atheistic. [ Formed from 

Dipx'nx with suff. r;.l 
n»nxf.n.MH coming. [Verbal n. of nnx 

( - he came). See nnx and first suf | 
WlKm.n.FW ethyl. [Ger. and Swedish 
ethyl, coined by the Swedish chemist 
Jons Jakob Berzelius in 1840 from 
aither ( = the upper air), and hyle 
( = stuff). See-inx and ^vn . | 

pTna ^nx name of a 'daghesh' (as e.g. in 
the letter in the word'5^ in the phrase 
"W nr?V- Ps. 68:19). [Aram., lit. 
meaning 'coming from far'. See nnx, ;jg 

pw m.n. column, porch, gallery. [A 
word of uncertain origin and meaning 
(see Ezek. 41:55.1 

n^nxf.n.FW ethics. [Gk. ethicos 
( = pertaining to morals, moral), from 
ethos ( = habit, custom, usage, dis- 
position, character, moral), which is 
related to ethezein ( = to accustom), 
eiotha ( = I am accustomed), and cogn. 
with Old I. svadhd ( = custom, pe- 
culiarity), L. soddlis ( = fellow, compan- 
ion), suescere ( = to become ac- 
customed). The orig. meaning of all 
these words was 'property, peculiarity". 
They are traceable to IE *swedh-. a 
compound base lit. meaning 'to make 
one's own', formed from the reflexive 
base *swe- (- his own), and *dhe ( = to 
make do), cp. first element in nj^ttnx, 


U^nxm.n.FW athlete. [L. athleta. from 
Gk. athletes (- combatant, champion), 
from athleo (=1 contend for a prize), 
from athlos, contracted from aethlos. 
The first element of this word is perhaps 
cogn. with Old I. vd-yati {-he fatigues 
himself); the second element is of 
unknown origin.] Derivative: "^nx. 

'tpVnx adj. fw athletic. [SeeoVnx and suff. 

nj^rigf.n.FW athletics. [From L 
athleticus, from Gk. athletikos 
( = athletic), ftomathletes. Seeu^nx.] 

onx m. personal pron. you, ye. I Related 
to BAram. & Tal mudic Aram. jwx . Syr. 
jinx, Ugar. qtm, Arab, 'antum, Ethiop. 
'antemu, Akka. attunu{ = ye. you). The 
primitive form prob. was 'an-tumu (for 
the m.) and 'an-tinna (for the f.). For 
the first element of this form see nnx. 
The second element appears also as the 
suff. of the second person pi. in the con- 
jugation of the perf. (seeDFU jn~) pi. of 
the verbs.] 

nnnnx interj. pbh how strange! how 
curious! lAram., a derivative of aon 
( = he wondered). See nan .] 

Vlnnx, Vlanx, Vl»nx adv. yesterday. [A 
secondary form of ViDn. Related to Syr. 
^onx.^onx, Mand."7Dnx( -yesterday).] 

jnx m.n. NH tonic. [Back formation from 
jrrx ( = strong). See jnx. 



jns to gain strength. I Inexactly coined as 
a back formation from jrrx (-strong), 
as if jrrx were a derivative of base jnx. 
In reality, however, jrrx derives from 
base irv.| — Hith. |nxnri NH he gained 
strength, recovered. 

]ns, ]ns (also njnx, now only used in 
poetry) f. personal pron. you, ye. 
[Related to Aram, fnjx, Talmudic and 
Syr. n?s, Arab, 'antunna, Ethiop. 
'anien. Akka. aiiino ( = ye, you). The 
primitive form was 'an-tinna. SeeDnx.l 

n:nsf.n. reward of a harlot (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring Hos. 
2: 14). [Prob.dissimilatedfromj)nx.| 

rrpnjijnsf.n.l-w ethnography. [Com- 
pounded of Gk. ethnos ( - nation, race), 
and -graphics from graphein ( = to 
write). Gk. ethnos is related to ethos 
(- custom, usage). See n^nx. For the 
second element see n^D3^ j. | 

nsnxm.n. imii "ethnah" —name of a 

t : 

disjunctive accent. 2NH semicolon. 
3 N H pause (in music). 4 nh back sight of 
a gun (so called from its shape). 
[Properly 'pause', from mj ( = to rest). 


snnsnxf.n.MH imh Aram, name for 

t : • i v 

njnx. 2NH pause. [Aram., from the stem 

ofrjn( = torcst). SeemJandcp.njnK.I 
jjnNm.n. reward of a harlot. [ Prob. 
metathesized from jnjx, from jm (-to 
give). According to Ruzicka, ]jnx was 
dissimilated from \\r\y According to 
Bauer-Leander it derives from the 
energetic imp. |jnx( = I shall give). I 
yjnK m.n.NH motivation. [Formed from 
¥"*}nn, Hiph. ofmj.l 

f|T3nK m.n.FW ethnarch. [Gk. etnarches 
( - ruler of the people), from ethnos 
( = people), and arches ( = leader, chief, 
ruler), from the stem of archein ( = to 
begin: to rule). Seerrsniljnx andv?x .| 

Nnnyns f.n. phb awakening; inspira- 
tion. [Aram., related to T?, Syr. xt? 
( - awake). See iiy ( = to be awake), and 

nDj?ns f.n. NH attack of nerves, attack of 
disease. [ A secondary form ofn^nn .| 

"inx, NTnNm.n. pbh place. [Aram., 
related to Arab, -athr, 'ithr, Ethiop. 
'ashar (= track, trace), Akka. ashru 
(-place). See itfx 1 and cp. itt^.l 
Derivatives:"inN,-irV?N.cp. "in^ (prep.). 

"ins to localize. [Denominated from 
Aram.-inx,^ place).| — Pi.nnxtr. v.NH 
he localized. — Pu. "inx NH was 
localized. — Hith. "inxnn NH (of s.m.). 

Dcrivatives:""nx, nnnxnn, inxjp. 

"inxm.n. fw ether. [L. aether, from Gk. 
aither (=thc upper, purer air), which, 
together with aithra ( = the clean sky, 
fair weather), derives from aithein ( = to 
burn). This verb derives from IE base 
*aidh- (- to burn), whence also L. 
aedes {- a building sanctuary, temple). 
See 'edify' in my CEDEL and cp. words 
there referred to. I Derivau ve.nnx. 

nnnnx f.n. NH l warning. 2 warning order 
(military). [A secondary form ofnx^nrj, 
verbal n. ofrnnn, Hiph. ofmn .) 

llnnxm.n. pbh 'ethrog', citron. [A loan 
word from Pers. turnuj, whence also 
Arab, turunj, utrunj, utrujj. cp. 'toron- 
ja'inmyCEDEL.I Derivative:!™. 

"nnx adj. fw ethereal. [Formed from inx 
withsuff." 1 :;.! 

nnsto signal. [Like its collateral form 
mx " denominated from nix'. | — Pi. nnx 
tr. v. nh he signaled. — Pu.nnxMH was 
signaled. Derivatives: nwx, nnxo. 

nnx m.n.NH signaler. [Coined from n1x 
( = sign), according to the pattern ^>yg, 
used to form nomina opificum.I De- 
rivative :mnnx. 

ninnxf.n.NH signaling. [Formed from] 


a The second letter of the Hebrew 
alphabet. Its name is 'Beth' Qxi.: 
'house'); so called in allusion to the an- 
cient Heb. form of this letter, 
representing a house. In pbh it has the 
numerical value two. 3 alternates with 
D: cp. e.g. the river name n)3X. and njiyx, ; 
the place name jIst and rlo'i; (en? 
( = healthy, fat), and xn? ( = fatling); the 
place name nj;: in Heb. and pz?: in Syr. 
(whence Gk. iamnia, iamneia). 3 also 
alternates with D: cp. e.g. i!3 and its 
( = to scatter); Heb. lO) and 303 ( = to 
blow); -on and nsn ( = to sew); Heb. ni#? 
( = val ley) and Syr. xny?9 (of s.m.); Heb. 
ion ( = to turn), Akka. abdku ( = to 
bring, turn). 

□ a prep, (also D3, a?, as, D3, D3, ac- 
cording to its position) i in. within (as in 
'rya* 'in the eyes of). 2 on (as in roiag, 
'on the altar'). 3 with (as in cats*?, no??, 
'with the rod'). 4 for, for the price of (as 
in "71113, 'for "7nV; xb.? hd?3, 'for the full 
price'). 5 as, in the condition of (as in 
■•■11373, 'as my help'), [cp. Ugar., Phoen. 
□ 3 (=in, with), Aram. -Syr. aa (=in, 
with), Arab, bi- (=in, by), Ethiop. ba 
( = in).l 

S3 1 m.n. he who comes. I he who 


arrives. 2 adj. coming, subsequent, 
next. [ Part. ofxia(= to come).) 

l3X3adv. in his youth. [From 1sx, 
suffixed form of3X. with pref. oi.\ 

331X3 m.n. fw baobab (tree). [ Borrowed 
from some African language.) 

"HX3 m.n. MH explanation, commentary. 
I Verbal n. ohx3, Pi. ofixa .] 

*WK3adj.MH explanatory. [Formed 
fromiK? with suff. , J.\ 

ttftXBadj. stinking, malodorous. [Pass, 
part. ofOX3.SeeOx3.| 

□ mxa, f.n. NH (in na-mxa) represen- 
tation. [ Formed from X3 ( = he came; see 
xis) with suff. run.) 

nO'xa f.n. stench. [Verbal n. of 0X3. See 
0x3 and suff. rig.) 

'Xi;?xaadv. nh accidentally, at ran- 
dom, by chance. [Formed from 'Xipx 
with pref. 133.) 

"ixsf.n. (pi. mix?) well, pit. [cp. Ugar. 
bir, Aram. -Syr. xixa, xya, Arab, bjr 
( well). Akka. biiru ( = pit).) 

1X3 to explain, make clear, [cp. J Aram., 
Samaritan and Aram. ixa, Akka. bdru, 
bu'uru.l — Pi. -1X3 he explained, made 
clear. — Pu. ix'a PBH it was explained. 

became clear. — Hith. "ixann and Nith. 
Oxa to stink, to smell bad. [Akka. 
ba'ashu ( = to be bad), OAram. c?X3, 
BAram. Oxa, Syr. «7X3, Arab, ba'isa 
(=to be unhappy), Ethiop. ba'sa ( = to 
be bitter).) — Qal 0X3 it stunk, had a 
bad smell. — Niph. 0X3) I he became 
odious; 2 fell from grace. — Pi. Oxa MH 
he stunk, emitted vile stench. — Hiph. 
O'xsn l emitted a stinking odor; 2 he 
caused to stink. — Hoph. Ox3n, Ox3n 
MH he became odious. — Hith. Oxsnn 
MH I he became odious; 2 he quarreled 

Oxa m.n. stench, stink. [From 0X3. cp. 
Akka. bu'shu.] 

noxa'f.n. MH noxious plant. [An an- 
cient derivation from Sem. *b'sh ( = to 
be bad), cp. Syr. xO's, Ethiop. ba'sa 
( = to be bad). See 0X3.) 

nOxj'Tn. MH bad smell, fetidness. 
[Semantic change of nOxa 1 , under the 
influence of 0x3. See Oxa. I 

|^X3 m.n. NH cleome (plant). [Prob. 
derived from nOxa'or from nOX3".J 

nOxsf.n. nh bad breath, halitosis. 
[Coined from 0X3 according to the 
pattern ^5*9. serving in NH to form 
names of diseases. I 

35 m.n. NH gateway, entrance. [From 
Aram. X33(q.v.).| 

XSBm.n. pbh section of a treatise in the 
Talmud. [Aram., properly meaning 
'gateway, entrance', cp. Arab. bab. M.- 

naa f.n. apple of the eye, pupil of the eye. 
[cp. Aram.-Syr. xnaa, Arab, bu'bu'. 
Perhaps related 10 xaa . ) 

naa f.n. nh doll, puppet, marionette. 
[Coined by Eliezer ben Yehudah as a 
Hebraization of Arab, bu'bu', bubbu' 
( = little child, doll), cp. Ger. Puppe, 
Fren. poupee.\ 

nxiaaf.n. ipbh reflection, image. 2NH 
afterimage. [Related to J Aram. x^3i3 
and perhaps also to Arab, babbal 
(- little child), understood as a reflec- 
tion of a man. I 

pagm.n. fw baboon, dog-ape. [Fren. 
babuin, babouin, a blend of babine 
(- the pendulous lip of certain animals, 
esp. monkeys), and baboue ( = wry, 
ugly face). Both babine and baboue are 
of imitative origin. I 

JJlBJm.n. NH camomile. [From Arab. 

P?.13B f.n. NH dolly. | Dimin. of nas . | 
nrnsa adv. mh in the capacity of, as, like 
Qit.: 'in the aspect of). [Formed from 
njTja, c. st. of nj/na ( = examination, 
aspect). I 

fhoaam.n. nh marionette theater. [A 
contraction compounded of na^ and 


Vaa. proper n. Babel, Babylon, Baby- 
lonia. [Akka. bdb-ilu (lit.: 'the gate of 
god'). Seex33andVx'.| 

"•Vm adj. PBH Babylonian. [Formed from 
^33 with suff. "J. I 

rvVsg f.n. pbh the Babylonian language. 
[Subst. use of the f. of the adj. ,, ?33.l 

nOj33 adv. nh please, welcome. [Form- 
ed from nOj?? with pref. as. I 

133 see 13-3. 

naa f.n. MH pupil of the eye. [Shortened 

nnx'n33adv. pbh at once, simulta- 
neously. Seen3'"andnnx.| 

Vi33adj. NH doll-like, dollish. [Formed 
from n33 with suff.v:.) 

nvnsa f.n. nh dollishness. [ Formed from 
^33 with suff. nv,;. I 

23 m.n. food (in the phrase J3"ng, 'portion 
of food', delicacy). [From Old Pcrs. 
parii-baga (- allotment, distribution, 
portion), cp. Syr. xiang, X1309 (name 
for a kind of delicacy), Arab. baja.\ 

■733' to betray, deceive, to act 
treacherously. [Prob. denominated 
from "U3 1 (- clothing, garment) and lit. 
meaning "to cover with, or as with, a 
garment", "to conceal*. For sense 
development cp. "wo (-to act 
unfaithfully, to behave treacherously), 
which prob. derives from V^yrp ( - upper 
garment, coat); cp. also Arab, labisa 
(-he put on a dress, clothed, dressed), 
and labasa (-he disguised, he 
confused), labbasa ( -. tangle, confu 
sion).| — Qal i?3 he acted treach- 
erously. — Niph. ij33 NH he was 
betrayed. Derivatives: 133". TU3. uu 
niiia, riTjs. ni-ris. ■•nai3. 

133 "to dress. [Denominated from "!$' 
( garment. dress).| — Qal 1J3 pbh he 

iJJ'm.n. (pi. o^ja, also nlija) garment, 
dress, mantle, cloak, [cp. bijdd.\ 
Derivative: 1J3. 

6 3 


"tta"m.n. betrayal, treachery, deceit. [Sec 

nlisaf.n. pi. betrayal, treason, treachery 
(a hapax legomcnon, occurring Zeph. 
3:4)). IFronno 1 . Formally, pi. of rnj.a 
orrnj3,f. ofij'3.1 

TOB adj. MH within the bounds of. 

[Formed from m?, c. st. of vt|( = fence), 

withpref. LJ3.] 
iJB adv. PBH in, inside, in the midst. 

| Aram., from i? (of the s.m.), with pref. 

TtoB adj. treacherous. [From tja; see 

T13 1 .] 

"fljam.n. NH clothing, dressing. [For- 
mally verbal n.oftJa".] 

TJtoaf.n. F\v begonia (botany). [Fren. 
begonia, named by the botanist 
Plumier after Michel Begon 
(1630-1710), governor of Santo 
Domingo, patron of botanical study.) 

nV»JB f.n. fw bagatelle. [Fren. bagatelle 
( = trifle, bagatelle), from It. bagatella 
( = trifle). Of uncertain origin. Ac- 
cording to Schuchardt it goes back to 
L. baca, baeca ( = berry).] 

nrsaf.n. PBH treachery. [Verbal n. of 
"t?3; see TQ 1 . For the ending see suff. 

niTiaf.n. MH betrayal, treachery. 
[ Formed from -na ' with the suff. mc] 

paa adv. pbh for, for the sake of. [From 
Aram, pa, which is formed from ]"% 
(= protection), and perhaps derives 
from Aram, pi (= to protect), with pref. 
as . cp. Heb. pi ( = to protect, to cover). ] 

Via m.n. NH adult. [From Aram. tss, 
adj. (= having attained manhood), from 
1J3 ( = to become hard, ripe, to attain 
manhood, womanhood).] 

HTsaf.n. NH adolescence, maturation, 

maturity. [Verbal n. ofil3; see "iia. ] 
nn'jgf.n.NH adulthood. [Formed from 

TJ3 with suff. ma| 
VVlBprep. for, because of. [Formed from 

^?» with pref. □?.] 
f"?lm.n.NH High Court of Justice. 

[Abbr. formed from the initials of the 

words pis 1 ? rrtaj H'rva . | 

"ttato grow up, to mature. [Of uncertain 
origin. Perhaps related to Syr. i?3 ( ~ to 
close, to belt). Prob. a collateral form of 
base 133. Some scholars connect it with 
Arab, balagha ( = he reached, he was 
sexually mature).] — Qal -ij3 pbh he 
grew up. — Niph. -\}2) PBH he grew up, 
matured. — Pu. -tja NH (see 1J3D). 

— Hith. "ijsnn NH he grew up, matured. 

— Hiph. -p^art nh (of s.m.). 

"UBm.n. pbh maturity. [Fromiia.l 

mil} f.n. adolescence, maturity. 
[Formed from iia with 

iB'm.n. linen, cloth, material. [Of 

uncertain origin. It may go back to 

13"'(= part, portion). 1 
T3"m.n. pole, bar, rod; branch (of a 

tree), [cp. JAram. xts, Arab, badd 

(= olive-press).] 

nS'"m.n. part, portion. [Lit.: 'something 
cut off, something separated', from Tja 
(=to separate). Whence "a"?, adv. 
{- alone), cp. Arab. badd{- separation, 
something separated, part of some- 

na, lv m.n. lie, fabrication. [Related to kts 

Nia to invent, to fabricate, to concoct, 
[cp. Aram. X73 ( = to invent, to 
fabricate), OS Arab. pna ( = chatter). | 

— Qal X73 he invented, fabricated, 
concocted. — Pi. »na pbh (of s.m.). 
Derivatives: mK^a.'K^a.'K-ja.nKna. 

niN^iaf.n. pbh fabrication, fiction. 

[ Formed from Kia with suff. ma. | 
wam.n.PBH liar, fabricator, impostor. 

[ Formed from ina. Pi. of xtj . ] 

"•iOaadj. NH lying, invented, fabricated, 
false. [Formed from xtj with adj. suff. 

, Niam.n. PBH fiction, phantasy. [From 


nato be alone, be separated, isolated, 
[cp. Arab, badda, baddada ( = he 
parted, separated), Aram. Tta ( = to 
disperse).] — Qal ma he parted, 
separated. — Niph. ma} was separated, 
was isolated. — Pi. -na nh, Trta pbh he 
separated, isolated. — Pu. ma^ mh, Trta 
NH was isolated, was insulated. 

— Hith. rrtanrt PBH remained alone, 
was isolated, secluded. — Hiph. Tian 
nh he isolated, insulated. — Hoph. Ton 
NH was isolated, insulated. Derivatives: 
Trta, "ma, tj'", nvrna. nman, nmlann, 
-na?, m3D, -niao, Trtan;?. 

Tra adv. alone. [Derived from "na. See 

T V 

Tjam.n. PBH olive presser. [Formed 
from tj" according to the pattern Vys, 
which serves to form nomina opifi- 

ma 'to invent, fabricate, concoct. [A 
secondary form ol' base xtj.] — Qal 
rrj3 pbh he invented, fabricated, 
concocted. — Niph. m3J NH was 
invented, was fabricated, was con- 
cocted. — Pi. m? l he invented, 
fabricated, concocted; 2 he charged 
with lying, proved a liar. — Pu. ma PBH 
he was charged with lying, disproved, 
refuted. — Hith. msnn pbh he was 
proved wrong (untrue), incorrect, false. 
— Hiph. msrt NH he proved that 
something is wrong, false, untrue. 
Deri vatives: nvjs, nns, mns, rns, map. 

ma" to take out, isolate, separate. 

[Related to ma or ma.| — Qal n-ja he 

separated, isolated. 

Tina m.n. NH loneliness, isolation, se- 
clusion. [From ma (q.v.).] 

"ma m.n. NH separation, isolation. [Ver- 
bal n.of-n3,Pi.ofTi3.] 

ma adj. IMH lonely. 2 pbh torn. [From 
ma;formally pass. part, ofma .] 

n'Pia m.n. NH entertainment, causing joy, 
amusement, arousing laughter, telling 
jokes. [ Verbal n. of rna. Pi. of m:.] 

"•na adj. pbh invented, fabricated, con- 
cocted, imaginary, made up. [Pass, 
part, of rna; see ma 1 .] 

"•nam.n. MH fabrication, falsehood, 
prevarication. [Verbal n. of rna, Pi. of 
ma 1 .] 

■ma m.n. NH beduin, bedouin, Arabic 
nomad. [From Arab, badawiyy.] 

Vna. adj. MH isolated, separated, distinct. 
[Pass. part, of Via , Pi. of "na . ] 

^^a m.n. NH distinction, differentiation. 
[Verbal n.ofna, Pi. of ma.l 

[h? m.n. NH canvas hut. [Formed from 
ia' with suff. rtn.) 

IJViam.n. NH linoleum, oiled canvass. 

[Compounded of tj 1 (- linen) and ljn 

( = wax).] 
pnaadj. pbh proven, tested, authentic, 

verified, inspected, checked. [Pass. 

part, of pia; see pia.] 

pwa m.n. NH control, censorship, check- 
ing, overhaul. [Verbal n. of pi?. Pi. of 

">j?naadj. pbh a child of unknown 
parents (so called because the mother 
of the child is investigated about the 
identity of the father). [From pna with 
suff. 'a] 

ilia m.n. NH entertainment, recreation, 
diversion. [Verbal n. of ma. Pi. of to.] 
Derivative: nn?. 

nn$adj. nh entertained, amused, de- 
lighted, scattered. [Pass. part, of ma.] 

■nnaadj.NH entertaining. [From ina 
with adj. suff. nj. I 

nvraf.n. NH falsehood, lie, legend, [cp. 
Aram. xrma. From ma 1 with suff. m o. ] 

NnnaPBH, nnnaNH f.n. fiction. [Aram.; 

T I T I 


ma to be happy, gay, jolly, in a good 
mood [From Aram, ma.l — Qal 
riT3NH he was jolly, happy, gay. — Pi. 
rna NH he caused joy, amused, 
entertained. — Pu. rrja he was made 
jolly, amused, gay. — Hith. rnanrj NH 
he became happy (gay), was amused, 
was in a good humor. 



njra adj. nh playful, jocular, frolicsome, 
amusing, gay. facetious. I From nia ; sec 
ma. I 

jlrnam.n. nh jesting, joking, prank. 

laughter. (From ma with suff. p . j. I 
i»»mi i^ms see iVrn. 
nvnsf.n. NH farce. I From ma with suff. 

jrn? m.n. MH jester, humorist, clown. 

joker, prankster, merrymaker. [From 

ma. Pi. of ma. I Derivatives: Trna, 

jma to cause joy. to joke. [Denominated 

from jma.) —Pi. JOT? NH he caused 

joy. made jest, joked. 

nurnaf.n. NH jesting, fun, merrymak- 
ing. [ Formed from jrna with suff. m a. 1 

':rrra adj. NH amusing, entertaining, 
jesting clownish, funny. [From jma 
with suff. ■•;:. | 



naadv. for. for the sake of. [Com- 
pounded ofiCq.v.) and pref. :i3.| 

nsna, nnaf.n.MH fabrication, false- 
hood. [ Verbal n. of xia; for the ending 
see suff. n,;. | 

nucnaf.n. mh fiction. [From xi3 with 
suff. m :.| 

T75 m.n. NH a small branch of a tree. 
[Dimin. from"T3"( = asmallrod.| 

T7BPBH,T7BNHm.n. la small ditch 
around a tree for watering. 2 digging 
instrument, mattock, spade. [Of uncer- 
tain origin. Perhaps related to ma (-to 
separate, isolate). I 

HTHa'f.n.PBH small olive-press. [From 
ia". Formally a verbal n. of Tra with 
suff. n v .| 

nTH3" f.n. MH isolation, loneliness, se- 
clusion. [Verbal n. of ma; see ma. For 
the ending see suff. ng. | 

nnna f.n. mh loneliness, solitude, se- 
clusion, isolation. [From ma; see ma. 
For the ending see suff. m □ . I 

'T73pron.PBH to me. with me. [Aram.; 
compounded of 'n ( = minc), from n 
( - that, which), and pref. .a . | 

n^Taf.n.MH lie, fabrication, falsehood, 
invention, legend. I From ma with suff. 



^'7? m.n. nh fantasy, invented story. 
iFromma with suff. |Vj.| 

'tfna adj. nh fantastic, something not 
real. I From jlna with suff.' .;. | 


nnnaf.n.NH joke, jest, funny story, 
witticism. [Verbal n. of ma; for the 
ending see suff. n,,;. | 

nin'TJjf.n. PBH joy, jesting, happiness, 

fun, jocularity. |From ma with suff. 

m; i. cp. Aram. xmrria . | 
Kmrrnaf.n. pbh joy, jesting, fun. 

pleasantry, jocularity. [Aram., from 

ma. | 

Vna'm.n. tin. [Perhaps from ma (=to 
separate), because it is the dross in 
silver and gold and separated from 
them. I 

V , 7a ,l conj. pbh as to what refers to. on 

account of, for the sake of, in order 

that. [Aram.; compounded of n. pref. 

a and suff. V i. Corresponds to Heb. 

JHam.n.NH one who invents stories. 

fantast. [Formed from ma 1 with agential 

suff. I,;. I 
■oynaadv. pbh after the event, post 

factum. [Aram., shortened from 

ngna f.n. pbh examination, inspection, 
audit, test, check, check-up. I Verbal n.. 
of pi? ; see pia" and suff. n.,: . | 

Via to depart, be detached, to remove, 
separate, stay away from. [cp. Aram. 
Vra, Syr. ma. Arab, badala {- he 
changed, substituted).! — Qal Vja pbh 
he departed, he stayed away from. 

— Niph. Vja} he separated himself 
from. — Pi. "na NH he differentiated. 

— Pu. "n^ NH was differentiated. 

— Hiph. Vnan he distinguished, 
divided. — Hoph. "nan pbh was 
separated, was divided. — Hith. Vianri 
nh he detached himself from, 
separated. Derivatives :Vja, Vr^, ^a. 

Via m.n. a separate part, piece, end. 

Via adj. mh separated, detached, with- 
drawn. [FromVia. I Derivative: niVia. 

Via m.n. MH difference, partition, screen. 

[From Via. | 
ruViSf.n.NH separation, detachment. 

aloofness. [Formed from Via with suff. 

nVTBm.n. t crystal. 2 bdellium (an 

aromatic resin). [Aram. xrr>na. Phoen. 

nma. JAram. nn^na. Akka. budulhu. 

cp. 'bdellium' in myCEDKL.I 
"•n^is adj. nh crystal. crystalline. 

[ Formed from n^7a with suff. "• ;p. ! 

wVia adv. pbh if there is not, when this 

is lacking, it is quite a different matter. 

[ Formed from xa-'b ( - there is not) and 

suff. :a and. :t.| 
1^7 2r n- n -NH separatist, isolationist 

[ Fonned from ma with agentiaJ suff. 

I,;. I 

maVtaf.n. NH separatism, isolationism. 
[Formed fromjVia with suff. nv i.| 

'aVra adj. nh separatist, separatistic. 
[Formed from jVia with suff. vi. I 

jna 1 to mend, repair. I Aram, pna (-he 
split). Arab, balaka ( = to detach, cut 
off). Ethiop. balaka (of the s.m.). Tigre 
batka (=to tear, to cut off), Akka. 
bataqu ( = to cut off, to divide), Aram, 
xma (-breaking into, breach, defect), 
Syr. x;?73 ( = mending, repair). Ugar. 
bdqt (- clefts in the clouds). See pro.| 

— Qal pia tr. v. he mended, repaired (a 
hapax legomenon in the Bible, occur- 
ring Chron. II 34:10). Derivatives: 
pm', pnap. 

JH3" to examine, inspect. [JAram. pia 
( = he inspected, examined), cp. Syr.pia 
(=he explored, examined). According 
to most scholars identical with pia'.l 

— Qal pia tr. v. pbh he explored, 
examined. — Niph. pia} pbh it was 
inspected, he was inspected. — Pi. P73 
nh he examined, controlled, censored, 
checked. — Pu. P35 NH was examined, 
was controlled. was censored. 

— Hoph. pian mh was inspected, was 
examined. Derivatives: pna, pna, 7113, 
npna, 1^73. np7?, piaia, nma??. 

piam.n.NH censor. [Formed from pi a 
(-^to inspect, examine), after the pat- 
tern "?¥9. serving to form nomina 

|?TJ m.n. 1 rent, breach. 2 mending, re- 
pair, [cp. JAram. xpia (breaking, 
breach). Derived from pm 1 . 1 

]j?73m.n. NH a meticulous or overscru- 
pulous person. [Formed frompia" with 
agential suff. j.;. I 

ni3|?73f.n. NH meticulousness. [Formed 
from jma with suff. j.:. I 

^i? adj. Nil meticulous, overscrupu- 
lous. [ Formed from jma with suff. ' .:. I 

njnaf.n.NH censorship. [Formed from 
pia" (-to inspect, examine). For the 
form. cp. rnpa ( = critique) from i?a 
{ = criticized).! 

ma to scatter: to entertain, amuse. 
[From Aram. -Syr., also BAram.. ma 
( = he scattered), which is related toiis. 
-113. For the interchangeability of a and 
D. 1 and 1, see the introductory entries to 
the letters a and 1. Arab, badhara t - he 
sowed, disseminated), is an Aram, loan 
word).| —Pi. ma 1 pbh he scattered; 
2 NH he entertained, amused. —^ 
NH 1 was scattered; 2 was entertained. 
— Hith. mann NH 1 it was scattered; 
2 he was entertained. Derivatives: in?. 
I773, nrnann. 

1375 m.n. nh entertainer, artiste, come- 

t> 5 


dian. I Formed from "r»3, Pi. of ma, with 
agential suff.J/.l Derivative: minis. 

n13TT?f.n.NH entertaining, entertain- 
ment. I From 1373 withsuff.m;.] 

31 inflected pers. pron. meaning 'in her", 
'in it". I Formed from ;a with suff. n v . | 

xnaPBH [Orthographical variant ofnn? 

nrisconj. pbh with. [From J Aram, ^773 
( = in the presence of, during the time 
that). Compounded of "nn ( = con- 
nection of) and pref. a? ( - in). Related 
to Syr. 'in (^ to connect), related also 
to 'Tin ( = each other, mutually, 

nnato be astonished, amazed. iPerhaps 
derived from =»n!3 .| — Qal nn3 was 
astonished, was amazed (mostly used 
in the part. nnla). Derivatives : nyi 3, nnla . 

?na m.n. emptiness, chaos. [ From base 
nna. cp. Arab. bah\v( = hollow).] 

'ttnaadj.PBH hasty, in a hurry; excited, 
worried, puzzled. [Pass. part, ofrna.l 
Derivative: mVvia. 

Din? m.n. NH brutalization. [Verbal n. of 

pmaadj.NH shining, bright, flashing. 
[ Pass. part, of pna . I Derivative: mp'na. 

uVnnaadv. absolutely, decidedly, defi- 
nitely. [Formed from u'pnn with pref. 

una m.n. alabaster, porphyry (?) (name 
of a precious stone) (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring Est. 
1:6). I Some scholars connect it with 
Arab, baht (= aelites), others see in it a 
loan word from Egypt, 'bhty ( = a 
precious stone from Nubia). I 

r^naf.n.NH astonishment, amazement 
[Verbal n. of nna. For the ending see 

M^nsf.n.PBH haste, hurry, excitement, 
alarm. [Formed from tons, pass, part 
ofVna, with suff. m:-i.) 

m|?»nsf.n. mh 1 radiance, luster. 2NH 
luminance. [Formed from pwa, pass, 
part of pna, with suff. run. | 

Viijadj. 1 bright, brilliant, clear (a 
hapax legomenon in the Bible, occur- 
ring Job 37 :2 1 ). 2 nh lucid, light. From 
"ina. cp. Aram, irvna ( = shining, bright), 
Syr. xn'73 (=dim, uncertain), Arab. 
bahara( = io shine), Ethiop. barha (= to 
shine).! Derivative: nmrja. 

nwnaf.n. imh brightness, clearness. 
2NH lucidity. [From V73 with suff. 


Vnato be alarmed, be frightened. [Base 
of rrjrja. Related to JAram. "?73 (=to 
frighten), Arab, buhali ( = idiot, stu- 
pid).) — Qal (see ^3). — Niph. ^na? 
he was frightened, was alarmed. — Pi. 

■773 l he dismayed, terrified, alarmed; 
2 he hastened. — Pu.^na was hastened. 
— Nith. "77311) pbh he became 
frightened, became alarmed. — Hiph. 
^■•rian he frightened, terrified, dismayed, 
alarmed. — Hoph. ^737 nh the was 
frightened; 2 he was hastened. 
Derivatives: ^3, V^ao. "pnaip, ^na), 
nVnaf.n. fright, dismay, terror, con- 
fusion. [Formed from bna with suff. 

Dnato brutalize. [Back formation from 
n^na (= beast), cp. Arab, abhama 
( = dumb), Ethiop. behma (=was or 
became dumb).! — Pi. 073 NH he 
brutalized. — Hith. 073117 nh he was 
brutalized. Derivatives: 01:13, morpnn, 

onapron. inflected personal pron. 
meaning 'in them' (m.). [Formed from 
l a with third personal pi. m. suff. See 

Dnam.n.NH animal driver, drover. 
[Back formation from no73.] 

nana pron. inflected personal pron. 
meaning "in them' (poetically). See 

nana f.n. animal, beast, cattle, [cp. Ugar. 
bhmt (=life stock, cattle), Aram. 
nmona, nnona ( = livestock), Mand. 
KD'nxa ( = ass). Arab, bahfma 1 ' ( = beast 
animal, cattle), bahma 1 ' ( = lamb, 
sheep), bahnt (= small cattle). For the 
ending see suff.n.;..] Derivatives: ona, 
on a, '^3. 

ntonam.n. hippopotamus (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring Job 
40:15). [Originally pi. extensivus of 
nijna ( = beast). The Heb. word rri»73 
was borrowed by several European 
languages; see Eng. behemoth ( = hip- 
popotamus) etc.) 

mttnaf.n.MH animality, bestiality, bru- 
tishness. | Formed from non-i with suff. 

'ttn? adj. MH of an animal, brutish, 
bestial, brutal. [Formed fromnona with 
adj. suff. \:. cp. Arab, bahimiyyi 
(= bestial, brutish).! 

m'ttnjf.n. imh animal nature, ani- 
mality. 2NH bestiality, brutishness. 
[Formed from 'pqs with suff. ma. cp. 
Arab, bahimiyyah (= bestiality, bru- 

Jfla, ]n$pron. inflected personal pron. 
meaning 'in them" (f.). [Formed from 
pref. i-ia with third personal pi. f. suff. 

jn/am.n. (pi. n1a1na) thumb, big toe. 
[Related to Arab, 'ibham ( = thumb, big 
toe), Ethiop. habin (s.m.), Akka. ubanu 
( = finger, toe).! Derivatives:]na, |730. 

|na to toe, to stand on tiptoe. I De- 
nominated from ]na.l — Hiph. prun 
nh he stood on tiptoe. 

njna pron. inflected personal pron. 
meaning 'in them' (f.), (used in poetry). 

1 See 173.] 

pna to shine, to glow, to glitter. 1 Related 
to JAram.-Syr. P73 (= it shone, 
glittered), Syr. pnax (=to shine), Arab. 
bhak ( = to appear behind the clouds).! 

— Qal p73 mh it shone, glittered. — Pi. 
P73 mh it brightened, illuminated. 

— Nith. p73n) MH it glittered, shone. 

— Hiph. p^nan pbh 1 it glittered, shone; 

2 it made to shine. — Hoph. p7an mh it 
was illuminated. 

pn'a'm.n. 1 a kind of diseas 1 hapax 

legomenon in the Bible, occ ring Lev. 

13:39). 2NH vitiligo (disea' . [Aram. 

Nj?n3, Arab, bahaq, Akka. tfjju.l 

i?n'a n m.n.MH brightness. [From pna. 
Related to pna 1 .] 

]jn? m.n. 1 nh vitiliginous. 2 pbh albino. 
iFormed fromp7'3' withsuff.]^.] 

"■ajna adj.NH bright, white. [Formed 
fromp7'3" with suff.^v.] 

n;?na f.n. MH leukodermia, albinism (dis- 
ease). [Formed fromp73' with suff. no, 
according to pattern nbyg, used to form 
names of diseases.] 

ina to clarify, clear, brightea [Aram. 
n73, Arab, bahara. Prob. extended 
from na'".] — Hiph. V737 tr. v. MH he 
cleared, clarified, brightened, explained 
himself. — Pu. n7?n NH it was clarified, 
was cleared. — Hith. n7377 NH it 
became clear. Derivative: nna. 

nna m.n. mh clearness, clarity. [From 

anna m.n. MH the Rabbi's son. [Contrac- 
tion of 13 (=son of) and 377 (=the 
Rabbi).] ' 

nnnaf.n. macula, bright spot (on the 
skin). [Aram. X773. Akka. bi'aru. 
Formed from "ins according to pattern 
n"?£9, used to form names of diseases.] 

la pron. inflected third pers. singular m. 
of; :3', meaning 'in him', 'in it", 'therein'. 

Niato come, come in, arrive, enter, 
reach, happen, set (said of the sun). 
[Akka. bd'u, Arab, ba'a (=he re- 
turned).] — Qal K3 he came, came in, 
arrived, entered, reached, happened, it 
set (said of the sun). — Hiph. x'37 he 
brought, brought in, caused to. led to. 
— Hoph. xain was brought. 

ixia (poetically natrta) towards, into, as 
you come to, in the direction of. 
[Properly: inflected second pers. 
singular m. of xia.] 

tfJrta m.n. nh skunk, stinker, Mephitis 
(an animal that excretes stinking secre- 



lion against its enemies). [Subst. use of 

N^NSf.n. PBH (a secondary form of 

TriBm.n. traitor, betrayer, turncoat, 
renegade, treacherous, unfaithful, dis- 
loyal. [Subst. uscofthepart.ofi}3;see 
TJ3.1 Derivatives: rmjjia, '37^3. 

jn'TflB m.n. fw bogdikhan ( = Mongo- 
lian noble). [Mongolian bogdi-khan 
(=the holy Khan).] 

IHSiJlSf.n. NH treachery, unfaithfulness, 
traitorousness. [Formed fromijls with 

'Hlta adj. NH treacherous, unfaithful, 
traitorous. [Formed fromtjtla with suff. 

nK^Hia f.n. FW bougainvillea (a genus 
of plants). [So called after the name of 
the French scholar Bougainville (19th 

"UlBm.n. PBH adult, mature, adolescent, 
graduate of. [Subst. use of the pres. 
part, of I?} ; sec -112.] 

'icna adv. pbh certainly, undoubtedly. 

[Formed from 'K35 ( = certainly) and 

TTiaadj. 1 lonely. 2NH single, lonely, 

isolated. 3NH far away. [pres. part, of 


DrrniSm.n.FW Buddhism (the teaching 
of Sidharta Gautama (563-483 B.C.), 
who was called the Buddha, 'the 
enlightened one'). [From Old I. bud- 
dhdh(= awakened, enlightened).) 

rrrnlaf.n.PBH a small oil-press. [De- 
rived from 13", through reduplica- 
tion of the last letter, with] 

nVTiaf.n. IMH 'parocheth' (curtain of 
the Ark of the Law). 2NH curtain. 
[Subst. use of nVrla, f. of "rrts, part, of 

pTiam.n.MH examiner, inspector. 
[Subst. use of the pres. part, of pi?; see 

nrita adj. pbh flabbergasted, dumb- 
founded. [Pres. part. ofnn3;seenn2.] 

niania f.n. FW unconventional style of life 
(esp. of artists and students). [Fren. 
boheme ( = gypsyhood, gypsy-like), 
from Bohemia (Czechoslovakia), the 
home- land of the gypsies.] 

'DHlaadj. bohemian (one who lives 
unconventionally). [Scenes.) 

pnta'm.n.PBH albino. [Formed from 

prilB ll adj. nh shining, glittering. (Formed 


nato despise, mock at, treat with 
contempt. I Related to ni3. cp. Arab. 
badha'a.] — Qal T3 he despised, 

mocked at. treated with contempt 
Derivative: na. 

TIB m.n. shame, mockery, contempt, 
disgrace. [Fromm.] Derivative: njw. 

ntra m.n. shame, disgrace, [f. ofna . | 

HlBm.n. robber. [Subst. use of the pres. 
part. oftT.3; see 113.] Derivative: ]J]13. 

JTTla m.n. nh robber, plunderer. [Formed 
fromTrts with suff. j s ;.| 

]rr1a m.n. NH examiner, tester. [Subst. 
use of the pres. part. ofjn3;sec]ri3 .] 

inlBm.n.NH voter, elector. [Subst. use 
of the pres. part, of "in?; seeira . I 

ntJiBadj.NH biting, sharp, strong, [pres. 

ptJlSm.n.FW boutique, shop. [Fren.. 
from Old Provencal botica. also botiga, 
from Gk. apolheke ( = any place where- 
in to lay up something, magazine, 

TBI a see n;t?3. 

'KJBiam.n.FW botanist. [Derived from 
njr^a with suff. v.] 

'Jtfa adj. FW botanical. [Fromn^yti .] 

nj'JljIa f.n. FW botany. [Fren. bota- 
nique, from Gk. botaniche ( = knowl- 
edge of botany), from botane (= pas- 
ture, fodder).] 

DijTiam.n.FW boycott. [From Captain 
Charles Boycott, an English land agent 
in Ireland, who was the first to be so 
treated (in 1880).] 

ju^ia see jt^a. 

71a to be confused, to become perplexed. 
[Aram. 713, ip.3, Arab, bdklikha. Sec 
■px.] — Niph. ^13} he became 
perplexed, was confused, was be- 
wildered. — Hiph. ^pan MH tr. v. he 
perplexed. confused, bewildered. 
— Hoph. ij3in nh he was perplexed, 
was confused, was bewildered. 

iraia m.n. pbh spider. I Aram. ]. 

vaia seevD3. 


Via'm.n. produce, fruit. [Perhaps from 

V«"m.n. block, lump. [Akka. bulu (=a 
block of dry wood), Gk. bulos ( = a 
lump of earth).] 

Via 1 " m.n. nh (postal) stamp. [From 
Arab, bul (of the s.m.).] 

*nw m.n. nh bull's-eye. [From Eng.] 

nw^af.n.NH stamp collecting, phila- 
tely. [Formed from 'X^] 

'K^lBm.n.NH stamp collector, phila- 
telist. [Formed from b>a [n with suff. 

'K^Wadj.NH philatelic. [Formed from 
^a" 1 with suff.' x u.\ 


WB^IB see onft]. 

I^B^B see 1913^. 

Jll^Bm.n.FW bulldog. I Eng. bulldog. 
Compounded of bull and dog; so called 
because originally used for baiting 

"lTlT>ttm.n.FW bulldozer. [Eng. bull- 
dozer, formed from the verb bulldoze 
(-to break boulders of rock or ore, to 
move, clear, level off). Derived perhaps 
from bulldoze, in the sense 'a large por- 
tion of bull work'). I 

B^1B adj. PBH 1 protruding. 2 conspic- 
uous, prominent, remarkable, [pres. 

pw^am-n.FW bulletin. [Fren. bulletin. 
from It. balletino ( = form, receipt), 
from bolla ( = seal, sealed paper). See 
'bull' (edict) in my CEDEL.) 

Oltt^aseeDiD 1 ^. 

p'atttoam.n.FW Bolshevik. [Russian 
Bolshevik ( = lit.: 'one of the majority'), 
from bolsh (=more. larger). So called 
with reference to radical majority frac- 
tion of the Russian Social- Democratic 
party (in its second congress, 1903), 
when to fraction of the party arose ma- 
jority Bolsheviki and minority 

n^Via f.n. 1 PBH reconnoitering troop. 
2NH secret police. [Subst. f. form of the 
act. part, of s^? ; see b;"?3 . ] 

DIB m.n. NH boom. [Of imitative origin.] 

Dia apparent base of nijs (q.v.). 

'ODBttia adj. FW bombastic. [ From Bom- 
bastic (= lit.: 'in the style of Bombastus 
Paracelsus' (1493-1541). The private 
name Bombastus derives from Med. L. 
bombax, from Gk. bambakion (= cot- 

m»O0aa1af.n.FW bombast. [Formed 
from ^93912 with suff. ma] 

«|"9« abbr. NH the four labials (in the 
Heb. alphabet). [Formed from the 
initials of the names of the letters rva, n, 

JJ'ittlBm.n.FW boomerang. [From na- 
tive Australian name.] 

ftwam.n.FW (pi. nlufyjra) bungalow. 
[Eng., from Hindustani bdngla 
(= house in the Bengal style).] 

JTJla' m.n. builder, mason. [SubsL use of 
the act. part, of nj3 ( - to build); scema .] 

n?1a" m.n.NH beaver. [Lit.: 'builder'. See 

D»1B m.n. FW bonus. [ L. bonus ( = good), 
related to L. bene ( = well), bellus 
( = handsome, charming, fine). See 
'bonus' in my CEDEL and cp. words 
there referred to.] 



)(}llm.n. F\v Bunscn burner. iNamcd 
after its inventor, the German chemist 

msJiaf.n.NH insight (psychology). 
[Formed from pis. Pi. of pa', with suff. 

013 to tread, trample. [Prob. related to 
oca, Aram. 053. Mand. oioa ( = to tread 
down).] — Qal 03 he trod. — Po'lcl 
opl3 he trod under foot, trampled. 

— Hithpol. oplsnn was trod upon, was 
trampled down. — Hiph. can nh was 
trodden upon, trampled down. 

— Hoph. 03m was trampled down. 
Derivatives: n^arj, motplann, ngiao, 0310, 
n^ian, l^ian. cp. ooa". cp. alsootfa. 

Dfom.n. fw boss. [Eng., from Dutch 
baas{= master).] 

nyiB f.n. MH bubble; blister, boil. I Aram. 
K^s, xnjna, from yis (-to bubble, to 
blister), which is related tonsa 1 (q.v.). ] 

n'ytt f.n. NH a small bubble, a small 
blister. | Formed from ny^a with the 
dimin. suff.nv;.] 

"ilrtB 1 m.n. ignorant, boor. [Subst. use of 
the act. part, of isa'".) 

Ig1a" adj.NH 1 burning. 2(fig.) most 
urgent. [Pres. part, ofnya; seenya 1 .] 

yiam.n. fine linen, byssus. [Together 
with Aram, and Syr. x;pa prob. 

.borrowed from Akka. biisu ( = fine 
linen, byssus). Gk. byssos ( = fine white 
linen) is a Sem. loan word. cp. Arab. 
bddd, abyadu ( = white). See njpa . ) 


fJHa' m.n. NH Verbuscum (botany). 

[ From Aram, x^y ia ( = candle, light); so 

called in allusion to the shape of the 

] , :na"m.n.PBH marrow (vegetable). 

[Aram.; see x^is.] 

la^iam.n.PBH candle, light. [Aram., 
loan from Akka. businnu ( = lamp 
wick), bit businni (=lamp; lit: 'wick 

prtBm.n. NH Butomus (botany). [Lit.: 
'marsh plant'. Formed from n$3 
( = marsh).] 

rvjnaf.n. pbh a small boat (a variant 
form of mj3). [From Aram, xrpyg, 
xn'jjw (of the s.m.). According to some 
scholars derived from n^3 (= marsh, 
swamp), hence lit. meaning 'a swamp 

"Ma m.n. vintager. [Subst. use of the act. 
part. ofi5f3;see"iX3'.| 

pia to be empty. | Base of npis. cp. related 

!ij?lBf.n. emptiness, desolation (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring Nan. 
2: 1 1 in the phrase nj^a^i nj^aa^ nj?ia, 

'emptiness and void and waste'). 
I Formed from pia with first suff. nu. cp. 
Arab, bdqa {- to perish, to be missed). ] 
ns'piaf.n.NH elm. [From Arab, buqisd,^ 
from some Slavic source. Prob. from 
Serbo-Croatian bukvica ( = small 
beech), dimin. from bukva {- beech), 
which is akin to Russian buk, Eng. 
beech, Ger. Buche, etc.] 

DplBm.n.FW boxing. [From Eng. box 
(lit.: 'a blow') which is of uncertain, 
possibly imitative, origin).] 

lpj?1am.n.FW boxer. [Eng. boxer. 
Formed from box (see op, 1a).] 

j?j?lBadj. empty. [Act. part, ofpjj^. See 

ipia m.n. herdsman, shepherd. [Derived 
from np 3 ( = cattle, herd). ] 

"liam.n. (pi. nnla) 1 cistern, pit. 2 dun- 
geon. 3 grave. [For -ixa, from ixa 
( = well, pit).] 

113' to choose, examine. [A secondary 
form of "na 1 .] — Qal "is tr. v. he chose, 
examined (a hapax legomenon in the 
Bible, occurring Eccles. 9: 1). 

113" to lie fallow, to be uncultivated. 
[Aram, na (=to lie fallow, to be 
uncultivated). Arab, bawwara is 
perhaps a loan word from Aram.] 
— Qal "is. PBH it remained uncultivated, 
it lay fallow. — Hiph. Tan and Tain 
pbh he let (a field) to lie fallow, left un- 
cultivated. — Hoph. nam pbh was left 
uncultivated. — Pi. V3 PBH he let (a 
field) lie fallow. — Pu. va^ NH was left 
uncultivated. Derivatives: "lis (n.), 

ma 1 m.n. pbh fallow land, uncultivated 
(field). 2 adj. pbh illiterate, ignorant. 
[From -na".] 

NiiBm.n. Creator, Maker, God. [Subst. 
use of act. part. ofx}3. Seexi3.] 

leasee fe-ia.. 

'sn^asee 1 }^. 

DTrtam.n. PBH dysentery. [Of uncertain 
origin; perhaps a compound of lis 
( = cistern, well) and D} ( = blood). I 

IWMaf.n. PBH illiteracy, ignorance. 
[Formed from ma (in sense 2) with suff. 

rPilB 1 f.n. NH Saponaria (botany). [From 


K$"NBf.n. PBH absurd, nonsense. 

ngpViWf.n. FW burlesque. [Fren. bur- 
lesque, from It. burlesco, from bur la 
( = jest), from L. burrula.burula, dimin. 
of L. burrae (= flock of wool; used in 

the pi. in the sense of 'trifles, non- 

no^iaf.n. FW stock exchange. iFren. 
bourse { = purse, exchange), from Late 
L. bursa ( = purse). The sense devel- 
opment of the word is due to the fol- 
lowing facts. In the 13th century a 
famous family of merchants living in 
Bruges (Belgium) was called Van der 
Bruse in allusion to the three purses 
contained in their coat of arms. The 
place before their house became a 
celebrated meeting center of merchants 
and bankers. This is why the Exchange 
of Antwerp built after the pattern of 
that in Bruges was called Burse. Later 
this word became a general name 
denoting exchange.] Derivative :1971s. 

'Diia secpn^. 

JO^am.n. NH stockbroker. [Formed 

from n^a with agential suff. jq. 1 
niKjonia seemxgt? - ^. 
7031a see 7973. 

"niBm.n. MH arbitrator. [Subst use of 
the act. part, of 113. See na 1 .] 

nvntaf.n.NH arbitration, arbitrage. 
[Formed fromiils with suff. ma. ] 

WD 1 to be ashamed. [Related to 
Aram. -Syr. nn3, Ugar. bash, Akka. 
bdshu ( = he was ashamed), Arab, b-h- 
ih( = to fornicate).] — Qaluflsintr. v. he 
was ashamed, was embarrassed, was 
disappointed. — Pi. 0^3 tr. v. pbh to put 
to shame (possibly derived from nt^ia). 

— Pu. #*| NH he was put to shame. 

— Hith. #»3nn pbh he was ashamed. 

— Hithpol. tfgfiann he was ashamed. 

— Hiph. tf-gn, tf'aln 1 he put to shame; 
2 he acted shamefully. Derivatives: tfla 
(adj.), n^«. tfva, ^3, njtpa, n^a, 
matylann, mtf»3nn, o'tpoip, ^39, #39. 

ttfl3"to delay, [cp. Arab, bassa (=to 
drive an animal gently). — Pol. ##13 
( = to be late).] 

ttfiB adj. pbh ashamed, shamefaced, 
bashful. [Part, of #3. See una 1 .] 

nt^ia f.n. shame, disgrace. [Formed from 
una 1 with first suff. na. cp. nyS .] 

TJ 1 m.n. booty, spoil, prey, plunder, pil- 
lage. [Fromna.] 

TJ" m.n. pbh falcon. [Prob. a derivative 
of ra and lit. meaning 'plundered, 
plunderer'. Aram.; related to Arab. 
bd'z (of s.m.). I 

MBTB. m.n.NH finch. [Of imitative origin.] 

THHBm.n. NH waste, squandering, ex- 
travagance. [ Verbal n. of T3|3; see nia . ] 

T3T3 to waste, to squander, to dissipate. 
[Pilp. of TT3 (=to spoil, to plunder); 
related to Aram. T3J3 ( = to tear down). 
Arab, bazbaza ( = to take away), cp. 



other Pilp. verbs: bkun ( = to slow 
down) from UN; W?3( ^ to confuse) from 
y?3; pxa (to burst forth) from H3; V1V1 
I = to roll) from ^i: oicu ( = to rustle, to 
tinkle) from vvy -yin ( = to crush, 
oppress) from pt; "7sVs ( = to cause to 
hang down) from ^2t; pifn ( = to make 
thin; to examine minutely) from ppi; 
cncn (-to tread) from fan, cm; "pi 
(^- to purify) from pt; ^t"7t( = to despise) 
from V^i; -jron (-to clear one's throat) 
from prt: oddd ( = to knead, made 
stupid) from ddo : dddd (=to melt, 
dissolve) from odd; fDXD (=to suck) 
from }'XO: popD (= to cause to rot) from 
ppD: iqio ( = to cause bitterness to, to 
embitter) from vid; pdipo ( = to touch, 
to feel, to examine, to search, to 
manipulate, to handle) from wo-, nam 
(=to slumber) from Dia : ixsx"(=to be 
pressed) from px; "?pV to shake, to 
whet) from Wp (=to be swift); Vp" 
(=to spoil, damage) from ^>p ( = to be 
lightly esteemed); -pn ( = to soften 
slightly) from -pi: jnn ( = to rustle) 
from ym" ; «psi ( = to flutter) from ^si 
(=to move gently); ^WDB? M ( = to ap- 
pease, to pacify) from pc\] — Pilp. taia 
PBH he spent, wasted, squandered, dis- 
sipated. — Pulp. T3T3 nh was spent, was 
wasted, was squandered, was dis- 
sipated. — Hithpalp. tgjann nh (of 
s.m.). Derivatives: tatjD, 13150, tdt?, 

JTBtBm.n. NH squanderer, spendthrift. 
[Formed from 1313 (see tan) with 
agential suff. ]v.| Derivatives: nujata. 

nujara. f.n. nh squandering, extrava- 
gance, prodigality. [Formed from rrajs 
with suff. ru 3.} 

'Jtatjadj. nh prodigal, extravagant. 
[Formed from 11313 with suff. \j.] 

nrato despise. [Base of nt3 and of fl'ja. 
Related to Aram. xts. Aram. Syr. X93, 
Arab, bada'a (of s.m.), Akka. buzzu'u 
(=to maltreat).] — Qal njs tr. v. he 
despised, disdained, scorned. — Niph. 
ntaiwas disdained, was scorned. — Pi. 
nj? pbh he despised, disdained, 
scorned. — Pu. n?s pbh was despised, 
was disdained, was scorned. — Hith. 
nisnn pbh was despised, was disdained, 
abased himself. — Hiph. npn he caused 
to despise. — Hoph. npn nh he was 
degraded, was humiliated. Derivatives: 
n'T3. nta. *m?, jvja, nwsnn, nj3}, nj30. 

ni| adj. despised (a hapax legomenon in 
the Bible, occurring Is. 49:7 in the 
phrase tf^-rrta, 'despised by men'). 
[From ma. cp. Arab, fcadu'a ( = to be 
dissolute, wicked). | 
njaf.n. booty, spoil, plunder, pillage. 
I Formed from na with first suff. n; .) 

HtSm.n. pbh plunderer, robber. (De- 
rived from TT3, according to the pattern 
"71»9 used to form agential nouns. I 

'MS adj. despised, contemptible. [Pass, 
part. ofnj3(seenn).| 

'HSm.n. pbh despising, contempt. [Ver- 
bal n. of nja(= he despised), Pi. ofnt3.| 

pUB/adj.NH scattered, sprinkled. [Pass, 
part. ofpi3;seepT3'.| 

i?Wf adj. nh flashing. [Pass. part, of pi?; 

njHjf.n. fw bazooka (a light anti-tank 
shoulder weapon). |Eng.; originally 
name of a kind of wind instrument 
invented and named by the American 
comedian Bob Burns (died in 1956). I 

1WB m.n. NH decentralization. [Verbal n. 
of "H3. Pi. of 113; lit. meaning 'scat- 

"Utaadj.PBH scattered. [Pass. part, of 

ttato spoil, plunder, pillage, rob. [Re- 
lated to Aram, na, Syr. 13, Arab. 
bazza (=to spoil, to plunder).] — Qal 
na. 13 he spoiled, plundered, pillaged, 
robbed. — Niph. rtaj, na? pbh was 
plundered, was pillaged, was robbed. 
— Pu. na (of s.m.). — Hithpol. Trtann 
pbh (of s.m.). 

)1'JB m.n. (pi. nttVja) shame, disgrace, 
contempt, scorn (a hapax legomenon in 
the Bible, occurring Esther 1:18). 
[ Formed from nta with stiff. |Vj.| 

■•ai'ta adj. NH shameful, disgraceful. 

[ Formed from |Vja with suff. r .] 
nPia f.n. nh plundering, pillage, robbery. 

[Verbal n. of 113; see na and first suff. 

n^.\ Derivatives^ 1 , ^3,1113, npia. 

Tj'tjm.n.PBH censer. (Together with 
Aram. via. h?" 1 !? borrowed from Pers.] 

VforrV'taadv.NH very cheap. [See Vr 1 

nynaf.n.MH tearing, rending. [Verbal n. 
of »I3. Seewa and first suff. r\j . ] 

np'ta 1 f.n. NH strewing, scattering. [Ver- 
bal n. of pra 1 . For the ending see first 
suff. ng.] 

npna" f.n. nh flashing. [Verbal n. of pn". 
For the ending see first suff. n v ; .] 

"Ptjm.n. PBH falconer. [Pers. bdzydr 
( = falconer), from bdz ( = falcon). See 


1^.8 f.n. nh basalt. [L. basalies, ex- 
plained by most lexicographers as a 
word of African origin. According to 
other scholars basal tes is a corruption 
of L. basanites, which may have come 
from Gk. basanites (lithos), lit. 'the 
stone from Basan'. Basan is the Gk. 
transcription of 1^3 ( = Bashan), a 
region east of Jordan especially rich in 

'H^Jadj.NH of basalt. [Formed from 

n^3 with suff. \>.| 
snato tear, rend. [Aram, »i? ( = hc tore, 

rent). Related to base yxa.] — Qal yi? 

pbh he tore, rent. — Pi.yj? NH (of s.m.). 

— Niph. »13? NH was torn, was rent. 
Derivative: nf 13. 

pta 1 to strew, scatter. [Related to Aram.- 
Syr. pi? (-he strewed, scattered), 
Arab, bdzaka (=he sowed, he spat).] 

— Qal P13 tr. v. pbh he strewed, he 
scattered. — Niph. pja? pbh was 
strewn, was scattered. — Hith. p^nn 
nh (of s.m.). Derivatives: pi?, piao' . 

pl3"to flash. [Denominated from pj3 
(= lightning, flash).] — Qal pt3 intr. v. 
MH it flashed. —Hiph. p-\jn mh (of 
s.m.). — Hoph. pian nh it was flashed. 

— Hith. p53nn nh it was flashed. 
Derivatives: p.133. njjpn, mpj3nn, PT.3D". 

pia m.n. lightning, flash (a hapax lego- 
menon in the Bible, occurring Ezek. 
1:14). [Of uncertain etymology. The 
meaning has been influenced by the 
word pi? (= lightning), and according 
to some scholars pj3 in the Bible is an 
error for P73.] 

pta'm.n.NH telecommunication. [From 
pja(= lightning, flash).] 

pta"m.n. fragment, shred. [From pi>. 

cp. Aram. xpj3 ( = fragment, shred), Syr. 

N£T3(= small pebble). I 
lia to scatter, strew (a hapax legomenon 

in the Bible, occurring Dan. 11:14). 

[Related to bases its and na. cp. 

J Aram. 133, Syr. -na (of s.m.), Arab. 

badara ( = to sow, to scatter).] — Qal 

-1.T3 he scattered. —Pi. "vg (of s.m.). 

— Pu. "i?a pbh was scattered, was 
strewed. Derivatives: 1^3, "m?. 

nta m.n. fw bazaar. [From Pers. bazar 
{- market).] 

]ina m.n. watchtower (?) (a hapax lego- 
menon in the Bible, occurring Is, 
23: 1 3). I Prob. derived from fro (q.v.). ] 

Jina m.n. 1 examiner (a hapax legome- 
non in the Bible, occurring Jer. 6:27). 
2NH yardstick, criterion. I Derived 
from jna (sec jna), according to pattern 
Vivo, used to form agential nouns).] 

71119 adj. PBH examined, tested. [Pass, 
part. ofirt3(see]na).] 

■unB' adj. chosen, elected. [ Pass. part, of 

rnp" m.n. young man, youth, [cp. 
Akka. (sabu) behrum ( = elite soldier). 
Prob. related toiro' ( = to choose).| 

nninaf.n. PBH girl, maiden. I Derived 
from 11113 with f. suff. n:,). I 

]1"Nna m.n. nh youngster. I Formed from 

"Hna with dimin. suff. j1i-.l 
nVunaf.n. pi. period of youth. I Formed 




nrnnj f.n. nh young girl. I Formed from 
n^nnj with f. dimin. suff.nj ).] 

Bftnaadj. NH stirred, mixed. I Pass. part. 

tlftna m.n.NH stirring, mixing. I Verbal n. 

of ^n?. Pi.ofums.] 
npina' adv. pbh in the state of, by virtue 

of. considered as. I Formed from n pin, 

est. of njjin. with prcf. ; 13.] 
njtna" adv. nh to the nth degree (math- 

ematics). [Formed from npin, c. st. of 

nj?Tn. withpref. ^3.] 
n^naf.n.NH loathing, disgust. [Verbal 

n. of^n? ; sec ^na 1 and first suff. ng .1 
nrnaf.n.MH examination, test. iVerbal 

T • 1 

n. ofjrj3;see|na and first suff. ng.] 
vnaadj. chosen, elect, select. [Derived 

from -ins 1 . 1 
nvnaf.n.PBH choice, election; option, 

alternative; free will. [Verbal n. ofina'.] 
ntt^naf.n.NH stirring, mixing. [Verbal n. 

ofa?na. For the ending see first suff. n g.] 

Vna'to abhor, loathe (a hapax lego- 
menon in the Bible, occurring Zech. 
11:8). [Of uncertain origin, cp. Arab. 
balaha (= destitution).] — Qal bn% he 
abhorred, loathed. — Hiph. ^n^n MH 
he filled with loathing. Derivatives: 
n'rna, "vrap'. 

Vn3"to ripen, [cp. Arab, balah ( = dates 
at their second stage of ripening).] 

— Qal ^09 pbh it ripened, reached the 
first stage of ripening, ripened early. 

— Pi. "7113 PBH (of s.m.). — Hiph. "rron 
PBH (of s.m.). — Hoph. "7n;n NH was 
ripened. Derivative: n^ron. 

^nam.n. PBH la ripening fig. 2 puberty 
(of a woman). [Frombna 11 .] 

ina to examine, to test. [Aram. jn-i. Syr. 
jna (= to test, try), Arab, mdhana ( = to 
probe, to examine a student).] — Qal 
jng tr. v. he examined, tried, probed. 

— Niph. jnsj was examined, was 
tested, was tried. — Hiph.pnan pbh he 
distinguished, differentiated. — Hoph. 
jnan nh was distinguished, was 
differentiated. Derivatives: |nl3, rlna, 
pn?. pna. n}-rj3, 103, jro, jga, n^ros, 
njgan, 11333. 

]na. m.n. watchtower (a hapax legome- 
non in the Bible, occurring Is. 32:14). 
[Either a loan word from Egypt, bhn 
( = castle, town), with later semantic 
influence of the verb ]n3, or an ancient 
derivative from Sem. jna ( = to examine, 
to test).] 

ina m.n. examination, trial, test (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring 
Ezck. 2 1 : 1 8). [ Derived from jna . I 

injjm.n. NH examiner, assayer, auditor. 
iFrom jna. Nomina opificum are 
regularly formed after the pattern ty&; 

if the second radical is a n or n, tyg 
becomes V^.cp.fn^ani.] 

ina 1 to choose, select. [JAram., Akka. 
beru ( = to choose), cp. Bedouin bdhara 
(^he looked around). Related to]n3.) 

— Qal "in? tr. v. he chose, selected, 
elected. — Niph. in}} was chosen, was 
selected. Derivatives: irria, i^ns', tits, 
nTris, pqa, "i1n39, ins??, iroo, nnqan, 

ina" to be young. [Base of nn?", nnin?, 
nVuna, nnqj. Related to Akka. 
bahuldli ( = warriors). ] 

nnnaf.n.PBH youth. [ Formed from ina" 

]in?adj.NH fastidious, finical. [Coined 
by Eliczcr ben Yehudah (1858-1922) 
from "in3 and agential suff. |g.] 
Derivative: mnrp. 

mnnaf.n.NH fastidiousness, finicality. 
[Coined by Eliezcr ben Yehudah from 
DC!3 (q- v -) ancl suff.mLL] 

U?nato stir; to agitate. [Related to 
Aram. -Syr. tfns ( - he stirred, agitated), 
and prob. also to Arab, bahatha ( = he 
searched, examined), Akka. be'ashu, 
be'eshu, bahashu ( = to stir), Mand. ©ro 
( = to look for, examine).] — Qal tfrjs tr. 
v. pbh he stirred, mixed. — Niph.tfrj}} 
NH was stirred, was mixed. — Pi. tfna 
NH he stirred, mixed. — Pu. tfrr-a mh 
was stirred, was mixed. — Nith. tfnan; 
nh (of s.m.). Derivatives: Mna. mp-ria, 
™?[]3, Hpqs, tfma;:, tfrqij. 

'Ktt^njadv.PBH secretly. [Formed from 
'xtfn ( = secrecy) with pref. ^3 ( = in). ] 

ntfnBf.n. pbh ladle. [A loan word from 
Aram. K^qs. from tfn3 ( = he stirred, 
mixed). Seewna and first suff. ng.] 

K»ato utter, to express. I Base of kid 3, 
, 1B3, JIN03 and NO?*?. It has no 
equivalents in the other Sem. 
languages, cp. no3 .] — Qal X03 PBH he 
uttered, spoke rashly. — Niph. KU3J NH 
was uttered, was expressed. — Pi. X03 
l NH he spoke rashly; 2MH he uttered, 
articulated, expressed, pronounced. 

— Pu. N03 MH was articulated, was ut- 
tered, was pronounced, was expressed. 

— Hith. Nognn NH 1 he expressed him- 
self; 2NH it was articulated, pro- 
nounced, expressed. Derivatives: M03, 
K039, nsyan, niKtpann. 

JiKlgBm.n. NH organ, journal, newspa- 
per. [Coined by Ithamar Ben-Avi 
(1882-1943) from K03 ( = he pro- 
nounced) and suff. |1a, prob. on the 
analogy of riny ( = journal), which was 
coined by his father Eliezer ben 

BteOS m.n.NH swelling. [Verbal n. of 
0303; see oaoa.] 

0303 to swell, to protrude. [Of uncertain 

origin, possibly imitative, cp. yax3.) 

— Pi. 0303 intr. v. nh it swelled, 
protruded. — Nith. 0393115 pbh became 
swollen. Derivatives: 01303, n^oann 

noato speak rashly, to utter, to artic- 
ulate, to pronounce, to express. [A col- 
lateral form of xoa. cp. Ugar. blw, 
Akka. betw ( = to cheat).) — Qal 7103 he 
spoke rashly, he uttered, articulated, 
pronounced, expressed. Derivatives: 

KW3 m.n. 1 MH utterance, pronunciation. 
2 NH expression, phrase, idiom. [ Verbal 
n. of K«3, Pi. of Koa. A collateral form of 

rntJSadj. trustful, safe, confident. [Pass, 
part, of no? (=he trusted). This is an 
exception because intransitive verbs 
regularly have no passive part, in the 
Qal. For similar exceptions cp. "ras, 
jik-j, ->\x$, 'io-j, DID} 1 , mo}", nnj, rrny, 
nr»9", iun, 'idi 1 , ^33, *\vti-\, rani, moi?, 
313^. |i3^, ?ip^, pin^, Qixri, 'inn, aran, 


nitps m.n.NH insurance. [Verbal n. of 
n»3. Pi. ofno3 (= he trusted); seenoa .1 

nmwaf.n.NH safety, security. [From 
noa. For the ending see suff. ng. Back 
formation based on a modem 
reinterpretation of the Biblical n1m&3 
(adv.). 'safely, certainly', as a pi. form 
of anoun.Seenlmtts.] 

n1m»Badv. (in NH nlmoa) safely, 
certainly (a hapax legomenon in the 
Bible, occurring Job 12:6). [Derived 
from mo? (q.v.).] 

■»TO3 m.n. 1 PBH utterance, pronunci- 
ation. 2 NH expression, phrase, idiom. 
[Verbal n. of noa. cp. XID3.] 

V*»B m.n. pbh cessation, stoppage, abo- 
lition, abolishment, revocation. [Ver- 
bal n. of b\s2 ( = he abolished), Pi. of Voa 

pS'm.n.NH lining. [Verbal n. off»3. Pi. 
ofjos" (q.v.).] 

pB2"m.n.NH placing concrete, concre- 
ting. [Verbal n. denominated from JID3 

j1»am.n.FW concrete. [Fren. beton, 
from L. bitumen. See I9«ra.] De- 
rivative :"»Kj105. 

'KJtoam.n.FW concrete mixer. [From 
J1D3 with agential suff.'KU.] 

Btt»B m.n. nh kicking, knocking. [Verbal 
n. oftfos, Pi.ofutoa.l 

noa to trust, rely, depend upon; to be at 
ease. [Old Canaanite ba-ti-i-ti, JAram. 
no?. Arab, balaha ( = to be tight, firm).] 

— Qal no? l he trusted, relied, 
depended upon; 2 he was at ease. — Pi. 
no? nh he insured. — Pu. no^ nh was 
insured. — Hiph. rro^n pbh he assured. 

no 2 


promised. — Hoph. npan pbh was 
assured. Derivatives: m»3. C»D3, nm»3, 
nlmuj, npg, nnp3. Fr>V3. mrrps. nnpan, 
rtpap, DP39. 0»39- "P39- 
npa'm.n. safety, security, tranquility. 

npj"adv. in safely, securely, certainly. 
nnpaf.n. safety, security, confidence (a 
hapax legomenon in the Bible, occur- 
ring Is. 30:15). [From noa with first 
fimjBm.n. (pi. ntilnpg) security, con- 
fidence, trust. [From noa (q.v.) with 
suff. T 1 : -l Derivative :^1ntp?. 
'jlrroaadj.NH security (adj.). [Formed 

from jlntf? with suff. \i .] 
n^tfjf.n.FW sweet potato, batata. [Sp. 
batata, a variation of /wro/a ( = sweet 
potato). I 
mrrpaf.n.NH i safety. 2security. 
[Formed from mo? with suff. mo.\ 

'mrrpaadj.NH pertaining to security. 
[Formed frommn'pa with adj. suff.'^.] 

V^adj.NH idle, unemployed. [Derived 
fromtyg (v.); see'roa. cp.Vpg (adj.).] 

nV'03 f.n. pbh idleness, destruction. 
[Verbal n. of bus ( = he was idle); see bvi. 
For the ending see first suff. ng.] 

tf'BJ m.n. NH tamper (tool). [Derived 
from tfpg; see etoa.] 

ntf'pa, ntfps f.n. i mh treading, tamp- 
ing. 2NH beating (of clothes etc.). 
[Verbal n. oftfpg. Seecroa and suff. ng . | 

Vuato cease. [Related to Aram, and 
BAram. ^pg. Arab, balala, Ethiop. 
batdla ( = he was vain, was futile), 
Akka. batalu (-to cease). I — Qal ^pg 
intr. v. he ceased, was idle (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring Ec- 
cles. 12:3). — Niph. bpa? pbh was idle; 
desisted (from). — Pi. ^pg pbh he 
abolished, suspended, revoked; he 
repealed, abrogated (a law or a decree). 
— Pu. 'rpg mh was abolished, was 
suspended, was revoked; was repealed, 
abrogated. — Hith. Vpgnn pbh, Nith. 
^panj pbh was abolished, was 
suspended, was revoked; was repealed, 
was abrogated; was idle.— Hiph>pan 
J pbh he suspended, interrupted; 2NH 
he was deprived of work, caused 
unemployment. — Hoph. ^pan NH was 
deprived of work, was locked out, was 
made unemployed. Derivatives: ^193, 
*93- ^P3. >P3 (adj.), tya. nftg, fog. 

^ adj. pbh 1 idle, unemployed. 2 null, 
void. [From "7D3. 1 

V\pa m.n. pbh something that causes 
neglect. [From "?oa.] 

ntyj f.n. pbh 1 idleness. 2 naught, vanity. 
I Formed from ^oa with first sufF. ng. | 

Jl^pam.n. fw battalion. |Frcn. batal- 
lioiu from It. baltaglione, from bat- 
taglia (= battle), from L. batiudllia, 
battalia (= fighting and fencing 
exercises of soldiers and gladiators), 
from batttwre, battere ( = to strike, 
beat), cp.nnps.l 

jVpam.n.PBH I idler, loafer. 2PBH 
'batlan' — a poor man sitting all day in 
the synagogue and living on charity. 
3NH an impractical person. [Formed 
from Voa with agential suff. jg.] 
Derivatives: m^ps, ^03. 

nuVp$f.n. IMH idleness. 2NH imprac- 
ticability. [Formed fromftpg with suff. 

'aVuaadj. NH l idle. 2impractical. 
[Formed fromftpg with suff. r.:.) 

jP3'to make pregnant, impregnate. 
[Denominated from jpa. cp. Arab. 
batunal ( = was pregnant), from bain 
( = belly). I — Hiph. j'pan MH he made 
pregnant, impregnated. — Hoph. njpan 
NH she was made pregnant, was 

J»3"to cover with lining, to line. 
[Denominated from njpa ( = lining).] 
— Pi. J»3 NH he covered with lining, 
lined. — Pu. JP3, NH was covered with 
lining, was lined. Derivatives: JW3 ! . 


]U3'"to place concrete. [Denominated 
from J1D3 (= concrete). I — Pi. ]P3 NH he 
placed concrete, concreted. — Pu. |P^ 
NH was treated with concrete. 

jPpm.n. 1 belly, abdomen. 2 bowels. 
3 womb. [Related to Aram. xjpg 
( = belly, womb, interior), Arab, bain, 
TA batnu (of s.m.).[ Derivatives: pa 1 , 

njpaf.n. NH lining. [Formed from |pg 
with first suff. ng cp. Arab, bdtin 
( = lining), from bain (- belly). I Deriv- 
ative: pa". 

njp$, D'Jpa. m.n. pistachio — the fruit of 
the Pistacia vera (a hapax legomenon 
in the Bible, occurring Gen. 43:11). 
[Related to Akka. butnu, butnatu, 
bututlu, Aram. xppia, Syr. xnppa. 
Aram, butm in an Aram, loan word. cp. 

*m ■] 

njpa. f.n. pbh Pistacia vera (kind of a 

terebinth). [See njpg.] 
J13PS m.n. 1 pbh one of the ancient 

musical instruments. 2NH double bass. 

I Formed from jpg with suff. |UJ.] 

'KjHpjm.n. NH double bass player. 

[Formed from jupg with agential suff. 


rwupsf.n.NH violoncello. [Formed 
from ]«pg ( = double bass), with suff. 

n^.i. I 

nnwjf.n.FW battery. |Frcn. batterie, 
from bait re ( = to beat), from L. 
bat Mere, battere ( = to beat), cp. rt^pg • 1 
etoato tamp, to stamp, to beat. 
( Borrowed from Aram, tfpa ( = to tamp, 
to stamp with the feet), which, together 
with Arab, batasha ( = he knocked out, 
hit, struck) is prob. of imitative origin.! 
— Qal tfpg tr. v. 1 mh he stamped, beat; 
2 nh he kicked, pushed. — Pi. #P3 NH 
he tamped. — Pu. tfpg nh was tamped. 
Derivatives: tf'ps, mj^pa, ni^pa, ttTpgp, 
ruj^af.n. mh treading, beating. [Verbal 

n. oftfpa; seercoa and cp.n^pa.] 
'B m.n. house, home (occurring in 
numerous phrases quoted from 
Talmud or Midrash, as in Kij^ja-'g, 
'synagogue'; Nrnop-->g, 'bath'; aya, 
'school'; ■•gn^-'g, 'partnership). Aram., 
c. st. of xrrg ( = house). See n^g . ] 
'a 1 pron. in me. [Inflected personal pron. 

Formed from ;ja with suff. v. cp.'g".] 
'B" adv. please! pray! [Of uncertain 
origin. It is possibly a contraction of "73 
( = request), from base nyg ( = he asked), 
hence properly meaning 'request, peti- 
tion'. For the contraction of 'yg inwg 
cp. Vg, name of the Babylonian god 
Marduk, fortyg (see"?g andVyg); Aram. 
xnitf ( = talk), for xn}Mtf (see xnitf ); x\\o 
( = loan, burden), for njjnd (see jyu). 
Others explain ""g in the above sense as 
an elliptical phrase for rtyn ->g ( = upon 
me be the iniquity; it is my fault), and 
|1yn 'j^ , 3^"'3 (=upon me, my lord, 
upon me be the iniquity).] 
cj'a pref.FW bi-. [L. bi- ( = twice, 
double), which is cogn. with Old I. dvi-, 
Gk. di-. Old Eng. twi- ( = twice, 
double). See u'n' and cp. aon. cp. also 
the second element in J?39V .] 
n^Bf.n. imh coming. 2 pbh entrance. 
3 nh corridor. 4 pbh sexual intercourse. 
[From xia (=to come), cp. np'j? 
( = standing up), from Dip ( = to stand 
up). For the ending sec first suff. ng.] 

3'3 m.n. pbh pipe, gutter, sewer. 
[Formed from agj ( = was hollow).] 
Derivatives: 3 , 3, 3J3. 

a'ato make sewers; to canalize. [De- 
nominated from 3'3 .] — Pi. a.*3 tr. v. NH 
he made sewers; he drained, canalized. 
— Pu. a^ nh was drained, was 
canalized. Derivative: 31*3. 

3»j m.n. NH sewerage worker. [Formed 
from a'3 after the pattern tya, which 
serves to form nomina opificum.] 

'Va'Badj.FW Biblical. [Back formation 
from n;>3'3. For the ending see stiff, v. I 



n^f? fn. RV The Bible. I L. biblia, from 

Gk. biblia (- collection of writings), pi. 

of biblion (--- paper, scroll, book), which 

is the dimin. of biblos, byblos (=thc 

inner bark of papyrus; book), from 

Byblos. Gr. name of the famous Phoen. 

transit port, whence the Greeks 

received the Egypt, papyrus. Gk. 

Byblos has been assimilated from V)}, 

the Heb. -Phoen. name of the city 

(-lit.: 'frontier-town'), cp. Heb. Via* 

(= frontier, boundary). Arab, jabal 

(= mountain), cp. jubayl, the actual 

Arab, name of ancient Gebhal (Jubayl 

properly is a dimin. formed from the 

original name of the city). For the sense 

development of Bible from Byblos cp. 

'parchment' (from Pergamon) in my 


t;nji»'?a , a m.n. fw bibliographer. [Gk. 
bibliographos ( = writer of books, tran- 
scriber, copyist), compounded of 
biblion ( = little book), dimin. of biblos 
( = book;), and graphos (secy}}:]).] 

'D^Ji^a'? adj. fw bibliographic. [Back 
formation from rr?;jj1 ,, ?3 , 3 (q.v.). For 
the ending see adj. suff.M. ] 

rPDia1»toP3 f.n. fw bibliography. [Gk. 

Tl"l "I ' ^ I- -< 

bibliographia ( = writing of books), 
compounded of biblion and graphia; 
see r yu1 ,l ?2 , 3 and rr^f ; . ] 

^•'Di'Va'a m.n. F\v bibliophil(e). [Fren. 
bibliophile (-lover of books), com- 
pounded of Gk. biblion (=book; see 
n»'?3 ,, 3), and philos ( = friend), which is 
of uncertain origin.] 

la'am.n.PBH zoological garden. [Gk. 
bibarion, identical with L. vivarium (= a 
place where living animals are kept), 
properly, neuter of the adj. vivarius 
(= pertaining to living creatures), used 
as a noun, from wVere( = tolive).| 

"lyam.n. PBH beaver. [Perhaps from L. 

fiber (- beaver), which derives from IE 

base bhe-bhru-s ( = very brown). See 

'beaver'in myCEDEL.) 

rvai'af.n. fw bigamy. [Fren. bigamie, 
from Ecclesiastic L. bigamia, a hybrid 
coined from L. bi- ( = twice), and Gk. 
gamos (= wedding, marriage), from IE 
base *gem(e)- (=to marry), cp. the 
second element innnpjttlD and irpy^te .] 

ornV>arra m.n. behaviorism (psychol- 
ogy). [Eng. beliaviorism, coined by the 
American psychologist J.B. Watson 
(1878-1958) from behavior and suff. 

aV>a fw bio-. [Combining form meaning 
'life'. From Gk. bio-, from bios ( = life), 
from IE *g w iwos.\ 

a**? m.n. sewerage, canalization. [Ver- 
bal n. of 2^3. See a'a.l 

'W^*? adj. FW biogenetic(al). [Eng. bio- 

genetic, back formation from 
biogenesis, which was coined by the 
English biologist T.H. Huxley in 1870 
from Gk. bios ( = life) and genesis 
(-origin, source).] 
t]3li s a m.n. fw biographer. [Compound- 
ed of Gk. bios (-life) and -graphos, 
from graphein (= to write). See ;.rt»3 and 

'DVl"? adj. fw biographic(al). [Back for- 
mation from nail's. For the ending 
see adj. suff.'p.] 

rpsnii'a f.n. fw biography. [Late Gk. 
biographia (= description of life), from 
Gk. bios (= life) and -graphia, from 
graphein (- to write). See TJJ1'3 and 

Vvam.n.NH affixing of stamps. I Verbal 
n.ofV'3. SeeV^.] 

JiVi'am.n. FW biologist. [Back forma- 
tion from rraft1»3.) 

VrtVl'aadj. biologic(al). [Back formation 
from rpjV?1'3. For the ending see adj. 
njxM'af.n.FW biology. [Ger. Biologie 
(=lit.: 'the study of life'), suggested by 
the German naturalist G.R.Treviranus 
as a modern coinage from Gk. bios 
( = life) and -logia. See n1«3 and n*}V?a. ] 
Dl'am.n.NH staging, theatrical presen- 
tation. [Coined by Itshak Avineri from 
nijs ( = high place), to which it stands as 
di*|? (= confirmation) stands to ngg 
( = standing corn), cp. C3 . | 
JWm.n.NH interpolation. [Verbal n. of 

1*3, Pi. ofp" .] 
|l s a" m.n. NH intelligence service. 
[Formed from nj'3 (= understanding, 
intelligence), as a loan translation of 
Eng. intelligence in the above sense.] 
p»a m.n. NH 1 addition of an egg or eggs 
(to soup, etc.). 2 ovulation (biology). 
[ Verbal n. off 3, Pi. of fa . ] 
&nj?in ! Pam.n.FW bureaucrat. [Fren. 
bureaucrate, back formation from 
bureaucratie. SeerPtpnjrt-iva .] 
rrnpnjjnraf.n.FW bureaucracy. [Fren. 
bureaucratie, a hybrid coined by the 
French economist Jean Claude Marie 
Vincent de Gournay (1712-59) from 
bureau (=desk, writing table, office), 
and Gk. -kratia ( = rule of), from 
kratos ( = strength, power, rule). ] 
ni'i^jrlTPa f.n. fw bureaucratism. 
[Formed from ■"pn^-irs with suff. m a.] 

ttft'am.n. MH putting to shame. [Verbal 

n. oftf •? ( = to put to shame), Pi. oftfia".] 
m»a m.n. NH domestication, taming. 

I Verbal n. of n;s, Pi. of n->3 . ] 
"ini'a adv. pbh most, in particular. 

[ Formed from inV' ( = more, most), with 


|1ram.n.FW bison. IL. bison, from Old 
High Ger. wisunt, which is cogn. with 
L. vissio{- stench). The bison is named 
after the peculiar odor of musk emitted 
by it during the rutting season.] 

TV^r? adj. fw Byzantine. [L. Byzan- 
tinus, from Byzantium, name of the 
capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, 
cp. 'Byzantine' in my CEDEL. For the 
ending see adj. suff.""U.] 

"nrraadv. pbh especially. [Formed from 
"Nrr (= setting aside, distinction), with 

Jttlwam.n.FW bitumen. [L. bitumen 
(= mineral pitch), an Osco-Umbrian 
loan word (the genuine Latin form 
would have been *vetumen, from 
*gwetumen, of Celtic origin, cp.'po^ .] 

p , 3U , 'am.n.FW beatnik. [Eng. beatnik, a 
hybrid coined from the adj. beat 
( = exhausted) and -nik, a suff. of Yid- 
dish, ultimately Slavic origin. The adj. 
beat derives from Middle Eng. bete, 
properly short form of beten, p. part of 
beten (=to beat), from Old Eng. 
beatan, from IE base *bhat- (=to beat, 

V'ato stamp. [Denominated from ^3'" 
(= stamp).] — Pi. V'3 tr. v. NH he affixed 
stamp(s) to, he stamped. — Pu. V^ NH 
was stamped. Derivative: Vi»3. 

n' T S7nV»a f.n. fw Bilharzia (a genus of 
worms parasitic in the blood). iModem 
L. Bilharzia, named at the suggestion 
of the English biologist T.S. Cobbold 
after the German physician Theodor 
Bilharz, discoverer of this parasite.] 

T}K*V»a m.n. FW billiards. [Fren. billard, 
first denoting 'a bent stick', then 'a stick 
to push balls' (whence its modem 
sense), from bille ( = log). See 'billet' 
(= stick, log) in my CEDEL.] 

Jl^a m.n. FW billion. [Fren. billion, a 
hybrid formed on analogy of million 
(= million), from L. pref. bi-, from bis 
( = twice). See 'billion' in my CEDEL and 
cp.jV^ij and words there referred to.] 

DJSm.n.NH stage manager. [Coined 
from D»a ( = he staged), after the pattern 
Vyg, which serves to form nomina opifi- 

D'a to stage. [Coined by Yitshak Avineri 
from nijs (= stage), to which it stands as 
Q?P (= he fulfilled, confirmed) stands to 
n 9i? ( = standing corn), cp. m*a, o«3 and 

'KJj'Im.n.NH stage manager. [Formed 
from nys ( = stage), with subst. suff. 

njya f.n. pbh platform, pulpit, stage. [A 
loan word from Gk. bema ( = pace, step, 
platform, stage), which derives from 
the stem of bainein ( = to go), whence 



also basis ( = a stepping, pedestal). See 
C93 and cp. i^p.! Derivatives: viD'g, 
nj>3. 'no'g. 

njb'Sf.n.NH a small stage. iDimin. of 
n?p(- stage).! 

"Hf'Sm.n.NH stage technician. [Coined 

from no'g ( = stage), on the analogy of 

agent nouns ending in*v.) 
'n^Badj.NH of the stage, theatrical. 

I Formed from no'g ( = stage), with adj. 

suff. v. 1 Derivative invnD'g. 

JWn^Bf.n.NH theatricality. (Formed 
fronrny? with adj. suff. v.] 

\*y to separate, to divide; to distinguish, 
to understand. [Related to Arab, bdna 
(=he was separated, was distinct, was 
clear, was evident), Ethiop. bayyana 
(-he perceived), Aram.-Syr. p (=he 
made to understand), Ugar. bn (=to 
understand). Sab. p ( = to wise).! 
— Qal. ]3 tr. & intr. v. he understood, 
perceived. — Niph. p} he became 
wise. — Pol. pla l he considered 
attentively, observed: 2PBH he 
reflected, pondered. — Hith. pterin (of 
s.m.). — Hiph. pn I he understood; 
2 he gave to understand, explained, 
instructed. — Hoph. ]gu mh i was 
understood; 2 was given to understand, 
was explained. Derivatives: p, rip, 
njgn, rmpnn, pp. jjio, jpno, npn 1 . 

p"to interpolate. [Coined from p 
( = between).! —Pi. p NH he inter- 

]"»Bprep. between, among, during. [Orig. 
c. sl of the n. p ( = interval). Related to 
Aram, p, Syr. 'p, np, Arab, bayna 
( = between), Ugar. bn and bnt, Ethiop. 
bayna (- because of), Akka. ina biri, 
ina birit ( = between), OSArab. p .) 
Derivatives: np, p", np, nip, -"rtrs, 
D?p, D'np. cp. first element inDNJS. 

DpNH combining form meaning 'in- 
ter-' (as in 'ntfarpg, 'intercon- 
tinental'; ^axV-p, 'international'; -ps 
>rtvs?. 'interurban'). [From the prep. 

nj'B f.n. understanding, comprehension, 

intelligence. [From ps'. For the ending 

see first suff. n,;.| 
nrgf.n. NH space, interstice (music). 

I Formed from pg ( = between), with first 

,Dlr?m.n.FW binomial (mathematics). 

[Med. L. binomus, coined from L. bi- 

( ^ twice), and Med. L. nominus, from 

the stem nomen ( = name). See ^ptt 

and cp. words there referred to. I 
^J>Sadj. 1PBH middle. 2 intermediate. 

3MH participle. [ From p ( = between). 

For the ending see suff.'U.) Derivative: 


n^Jtt'B. f.n.NH mediocrity. [Formed 

from "'jlJ'g with suff. mu . | 
nlra. prep, between, among. [See p. I 

Drpjjm.n. middle, intermediate, interim. 

[Dual ofpg.) Derivative: 'Orpg. 
"•D^gadj.NH medieval, intermediate. 

I Formed fromD^p with adj. suff. 'p.] 

n'J'Bf.n. barbel (fish). lAram.xrrrg; of 
uncertain origin.) 

TO^J'B adj. NH international. [Formed 
from .ip (winter-) and "•o^ 1 ? ( = na- 

'Jlvyraadj. NH interurban. [Formed 
from ;;p (= inter-), and 'p'y ( = ur- 

D^nraadv. pbh in the meantime, mean- 
while. [ From p ( = between). ) 

cainterj. J-av again! encore! [L. bis 
(^ twice). See'bi-'inmyCEDEL.I 

niaO'Bm.n.FW bismuth. [Ger. Bismuth 
(now spelled Wismut), Latinized by 
Georgius Agricola (in 1 530) into 
bisemuium. The origin of the word is 
uncertain. | 

CMjrO'Bm.n. FW biscuit. [Fren. biscuit. 
from L. bis coctus ( = twice cooked), 
from bis ( = twice; see eg), and coctus. 
p. part. ofcoquere{= to cook).! 

^3 to egg; to ovulate. [Denominated 
from n^g.l —Pi. jp i tr. v. NH he 
added eggs to, egged; 2 intr. v. NH it 
ovulated. — Pu. }p i NH was egged; 
2NH was ovulated. 

njPBegg (pi. QT3). I Related to Aram. 
xyg, xn}p, Arab, bayda. These words 
prob. derive from a base ps (=to be 
white), cp. Akka. pasu. pisu, Arab. 
abyadu{- white). Seeps.) Derivatives: 

, S , a adj.MH egg-shaped, egglike, oval. 
[Formed from n;p (-egg), with adj. 

rPS'Bf.n.NH fried egg(s). [Formed from 
n5p( = egg), with suff. nv:.| 

rvx'Bf.n.NH ovule. [Formed from nqp 
( = egg) with suff.nrj.) 

">?j}f.n. pbh (pi. rrt-rg) cistern, pit (a 
hapax legomenon in the Bible, occur- 
ring Jer. 6:7). [Related to ixs ( = well, 
pit), and toils (= cistern, pit), cp. i;g .] 

"Vj m.n. pbh cistern digger. [Formed 
from T3 after the form ^9, which 
serves to form nomina opificum.) 

KV8. m. & f.n. pbh cistern, pit; well. 
[Related to Heb. is? ( = well; pit). See 


rrva 1 f.n. l castle, palace. 2 the Temple in 
Jerusalem. 3NH capital city. [Prob. a 
loan word from Akka. birtu ( = citadel, 
fortified town), cp. rvjp .) 

n^B'Tn. fw beer. [Ger. or Eng. beer, 

from Ecclesiastic L. biber ( = drink, 
beverage), from L. bibere ( = to drink). 
See 'beverage' in my CEDFL. 1 

rvrBf.n.PBH garter. [Akka. blriiu 
( = chain). | 

n'jvaf.n. castle, palace. [In the Bible the 
word occurs only in the pi. nVjp, 
hence is in reality the pi. of np 
( = castle). The pi. nl'jvg prob. derives 
from Akka. bfrdndtu, pi. of birtu 
(= citadel, fortified town). The singular 
n'jrg which does not occur in the Bible 
is a back formation from nVjyg .) 

tt*Badj.PBH (pi. r ^g) bad. [Aram., 
related totfxg ( = to be evil). Sectf xs .) 

Ta^taadj.NH unfortunate, unlucky. 
[From Aram, xjjifp. Compounded of 
«p(= bad) andij( = luck).) 

1^'am.n.FW bishop. [Ger. Bischof. 
from L. episcopus ( = overseer, super- 
intendant). in Ecclesiastic L. bishop, 
from Gk. episkopos ( - overseer), from 
epi ( = on, over), and skopos 
( watcher). See 'epi-' and '-scope' in 
my cedel. cp.fyiup'DTx.l 

mttpf.n.NH badness, evil. [Formed 
from up with suff. m. i.| 

j^»aadj.PBH shame-faced, ashamed, 
bashful, shy. I Formed from ttfo with 
agential suff. ].;.) Derivatives: nutjp, 

n»^}f.n.MH bashfulness. shyness. 

[Formed frompjp with suff.nv :.) 
■>jtf>3 adj. NH shame-faced, ashamed, 

bashful, shy. I Formed from pjp with 

suff. 1 :.| 

'OT adj. pbh of Beth Shean. | Formed 
from the abbreviation ofixtf n'g ( = Beth 
Shean). with suff.' :.) 

n?B m.n. (pi. o-'ng) l house, home, family. 
2 school. 3MH stanza (of a poem). 
I Related to Akka. bftu. Ugar. bt, 
Phoen. ns, Aram. xrp. Aram.-Syr. ng. 
Arab, bayt .\ Derivatives: n-'g, n's. n»g, 
, n , s,' , 3n , 3. 

n'B m.n. pbh (pl.prvg) 'beth'. name of the 
second letter of the Hebrew alphabet. 
|Lit.: 'house' see n?g); so called in 
allusion to the ancient Hebrew form of 
this letter, representing a house, cp. the 
second element in n'g-^x. cp. also 


D'3 to domesticate. | Denominated from 
n?3.| —Pi. n»? tr. v. nh he do- 
mesticated, tamed. — Pu. n?s nh was 
domesticated, was tamed. Deriva 
tivesini'g.n^g, mso. 

n»B adj. pbh domestic (said of an ani 
mal). lFromn'g.1 

Kn>B f.n. PBH (pi. p'g) beta, name of the 
second letter of the Greek alphabet. 
I Aram., from Gk. Beta, Heb.-Phocn. 


jv? ( house). The final a was added 
because a Greek word cannot end with 
a t.\ 

'Dljva m.n.PBH Boethusian, member of 
a Jewish sect related to the Sadducees. 
(Lit.: follower of olrrs (=Boethus), 
from Gk. boeihos, name of a priest 
whose son was made high priest by 
Herod the Great. I 

'ma adj. pbh domestic. [Formed from 
n?3 with adj. suff. "\;. I 

m'Jvaf.n.NH domesticity, homeliness. 
[ Formed from , n , a with suff.nv: . | 

|Mm.n. 1 palace. 2NH pavilion. 3NH 
kiosk. [Prob. from Akka. bitdnu .] 

'jrpa adj. NH staying at home, home- 
loving. I Formed from rv? ( - house), 
with suff. '?;.] 

13(in pauses) pron. in thee, in you(m.). 
[Inflected personal pron., formed from 
.3 with suff. v .] 

^]3pron. in thee, in you (f.). [Inflected 
personal pron., formed from 3 with 

ssam.n. a species of balsam tree 
mentioned in the Bible. [Of uncertain 
origin; possibly related to Arab, baka'a 
( = it dripped), and so called from the 
dripping of the resin. See naa. | 

'723 adv. pbh in vain. [Aram., prob. 
shortened from 3ns ( = lying), from 333 
( = to lie), which is related to Heb. 3!? 
( = he lied). Hence H33 lit. means 'in a 
mendacious way". For the pref. see: 3 .) 

:2W naa conj. pbh in order that. [See 

naa to weep. [Aram. -Syr. xas, Arab. 
bdkd>. Ethiop. bakdya (=he wept), 
Ugar. bky, Akka. bakii ( = to weep), cp. 
Arab, baka'a ( = it dripped, dropped).) 
— Qal nas intr. v. he wept, cried. — Pi. 
nj3 1 he bewailed, lamented; 2PBH he 
caused to weep. — Hiph. nsan pbh he 
caused to weep. Derivatives: nas, '133, 
'03. maa, '33. :t t 33. n;?3, £33, maa. n^g. 

naa m.n. weeping (a hapax legomenon in 
the Bible, occurring Ez. 10:1). [From 
naa. I 

'las adj. nh tearful. [Pass. part, ofnjs. 
See naa. | 

,! iaa m.n. NH bewailing, lamenting. [ Ver- 
bal n. of n$3. Pi. of naa. I 

maa m.n. imh ripening. 2 NH preferring. 
I Verbal n. ofnaa, Pi. of naa. cp. o»t,©3 . 1 

nl33m.n. (pi. cniaa. also nmiaa) 
1 firstborn son. 2 senior, elder. I From 
13a. cp. Arab, bikhr, Akka. bukru 
( - first born).| Derivative:mnlaa. 

nniaa f.n.NH birthright, primogeniture. 
[From naa with suff. ni,). cp. Aram. 

xrn-roa. xnmlaa. Syr. xnnaia ( = birth- 
right, primogeniture). I 

nniaa, nniaa f.n. 1 first-ripe fig. 2 early 
ripening fruit. I Formed from naa with 
suff. n;j. cp. Arab. bakura h (= first fruit, 
early fruit), whence Sp. albacora 
(= early fig). I 

ninlaaf.n.NH birthright, primogeniture. 
[ Formed from maa with ) 

oniaa 1 first fruit. 2 pbh Bikkurim, name 
of a Mishnah tractate in the order cynj. 
[ Formed from naa with m. pi. suff.CQ . ] 

niaa f.n. weeping, mourning (a hapax 

legomenon in the Bible, occurring Gen. 

35:8 in the phrase ma? ]1Vk, 'the Oak of 

Weeping'). [Formed from naa with suff. 

nv ;. cp. Aram, xniaa (- weeping, 

'33 m.n. weeping. [Fromnaa.] 
njaa f.n. PBH weeping. [Verbal n. of naa; 

see naa. For the ending see subst. suff. 


njaa f.n. mh weeping. I Formed from naa 
with first suff. n:,;. cp. n»33 .[ 

jVaam.n.NH weeping, sniveling. [Ver- 
bal n. of ['a?. See pa.) 

|J33 m.n. NH weeper, sniveler, crybaby. 
[Formed from naa with agential suff. 
[; . I Derivatives: pa, nu^a. -raa. 

| , 33to snivel. [Back formation from 
£33. 1 Derivative :jva3. 

niras f.n. nh tearful disposition, snivel- 
ing. [ Formed from pa with suff. ma.] 

^saadj.NH weeping, whining, tearful. 
I Formed from pa with suff. "J . I 

V33 adj. NH senior, elder, superior. 
[Back formation from nnpa (as 
occurring in the Bible).) Derivative: 

V33, V313 m.n. PBH shuttle. I Of uncer- 
tain origin. I 

vas'adj. ripening early. [Fromnaa.) 

va?" m.n. the first rain of the season. 
[Fromnaa. cp.nT'?3. ) 

nvpa f. n. PBH the first rain of the season. 
I A f. var. ofn-33»(n.).| 

niTaaf.n.NH seniority. [Formed from 
n-33 with stiff, m .| 

rpa f.n. weeping (a hapax legomenon in 

the Bible, occurring Gen. 50:4). 

[ Formed from naa with subst. suff.n\,:. 

cp. Aram. srpa, xm-33 ( - weeping).] 
VVsaadv.MH generally, in general. 

[Formed from'? 1 ?? with pref. i?.| 

D'^aaabbr. NH the four prepositional 
prefixes (in Heb. grammar). [See 
prefixes :a, :a, ;), . ;o.| 

aa^ pron. in you (m. pi.). [Inflected 
personal pron., formed from :s with 


|?5pron. in you (f. pi.). [Inflected 

personal pron., formed from 3 with 
suff. pi.] 
n»a, H3313 f.n. 1 PBH protuberance (in 
fruit). 2NH piston, pestle. [Of uncertain 

naa to bring forth. |Aram. n?3, Syr. nss 
( = it brought forth), Aram.-Syr. xna-i. 
Ugar. bkr, Ethiop. bak»er. Tigre 
bek"er, Akka. bukru (. = first born). 
Arab, bikr {= firstborn, eldest; virgin, 
woman having the first child), Arab. 
bakr, Akka. bakru (= young camel), 
Arab. bakiir(= coming early), bakurah 
C = first fruits, first results), cp. naa. cp. 
also*albacore' in my CEDEL.l — Pi.n?3 
tr. v. 1 he invested with birthright, 
considered as firstborn; 2 pbh nna3 she 
bore for the first time; 3 it (the tree) 
produced the first fruits; 4NH he 
preferred. — Pu. ns^ 1 he was invested 
with birthright, was considered as first- 
born; 2 NH was preferred. — Hiph. 

1 n-g^n pbh produced its fruits earlier; 

2 nT?3n she bore her first child. — Hith. 
naann pbh it ripened early. Derivatives: 
nlaa, nn1a3rnni33, nnwarO'n.iaa, n-ga; T33 
(adj. & n.), ny33. nngs, nin^s. naa, 
rna3, nyaag. 

133 m.n. young camel (a hapax lego- 
menon in the Bible, occurring Is. 60:6 
in the form "naa). [Fromnaa. cp. Arab. 
bakuru, Akka. bakru (= young camel).] 
Derivative: nnaa. 

nnba see nniaa. 

T ( ♦ I 

nnsaf.n. young she-camel (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring Jer. 
2:23). [f. of naj, cp. Arab. bakra h 
(- young she-camel).] 

V? 1 adv. not. 1 Related to Akka. balu 
( = lack, deficiency), Ugar. bl ( = not, 
but. yet). Ethiop. enbala ( = without, 
except), Arab, bal and balha ( = on the 
contrary, nevertheless). All these 
words prob. meant orig. 'a rubbing off, 
detrition, disappearance, non-exis- 
tence', and derive from Heb. n^a 
( became worn out), resp. its 
equivalents, cp. "V?- ^3{(, and first ele- 
ment in -nj;'^. I 

Vg" m.n. fw ball. IFren. bal{ = ball), from 
baler, bailer {- to dance), from Vulgate 
L. balldre, from Gk. ballizein ( = to 
dance), which prob. derives from bal- 
lein ( = to throw). See nj^pp^a. and cp. 

njfr nj-nfca. 
srtsprep. without. (Formed from pref. 

3 and x^ not).] 
n1«^3 f.n. pi. PBH (of the same meaning 

and origin asO'X^i). 
"•NVsm.n.NH rag dealer. [Nomen opificis 

formed from n"?3 ( - to be worn out). I 

"•N^am.n. nh amortization. I Formed 
from n"73 with suff. "•«..!. I 



O'N^B m.n. pi. pbh worn out clothes, 

rags. [Fromn^a. For the pi. suff. seeD'U. 

laVaadv.PBH alone, only, solely. 

[Formed from i$ (= alone, only), with 

pref.a?.) Derivative: ^3^3 . 

'^Sadj.NH exclusive. [Formed from 
tj^3 with suff.'^.l Derivative ininj^g. 

runaVaf.n.NH exclusiveness. [Formed 
from r ?3( r 9 with suff. mo.] 

toaVam.n. MH confusion, perplexity. 
[Verbal n. of?3^3; see ^3 . 1 

toaVa, ViaVia m.n. mh bulbul (a song- 
bird). [ Pers. bulbul (whence also Arab. 
bulbul), a word of imitative origin.! 

n^a^af.n.NH confusion. [Formed from 
"7^3 with suff. njc.] 

onb%, DiB^a m.n. i a kind of onion. 
2NH bulb, tuber. 3NH potato. [Gk. 
bolbos ( = bulb, bulbous, root, onion), 
from the reduplication of the IE 
imitative base *bol-. See 'bulb' in my 
CEDEL.) Derivative: J93^. 

Vab>3to confuse. [Pilp. of tta ( = to mix), 
cp. Aram.-Syr. "73^3, Arab, balbala 
(-he confounded, confused). For 
other Pilp. words formed from yy 
verbs cp. T3T3 and words there referred 
to.] — Pilp. "73^2 tr. v. pbh he confused, 
bewildered, perplexed. — Pulp, ^a 
pbh was confused, was bewildered, 
perplexed. — Hithpalp. ^arn nh 
became confused, bewildered, per- 
plexed. Derivatives: "?i3^a, rr^s^, 

|^3, n^3"73, ^30 . cp. ^D, ^D ' . 

]^a"rBm.n. MH confuser, trouble-maker. 
[Formed from ^3 (see tti), with 
agential suff. p.] 

n^aVaf.n. nh great confusion. [Formed 
from "73^3 (see tti) with subst. suff. 

J^aVam.n. nh Arrhenaterum (botany). 
[Formed from oi3"7-) with agential suff. 


J^a to restrain oneself. [ Base of uncertain 
origin and meaning; usually rendered 
by 'to restrain oneself. Most scholars 
connect it with Arab, balija (=he 
gleamed, smiled), however, the verb 
v\-z\ could hardly have this meaning in 
the verses in which it occurs in the Bible 
(Ps. 39:14. Job 9:17 and 10:20).] 
— Hiph. r^ri tr. v. he restrained 
himself. — Hoph. l^n pbh was 
perplexed, was confused. Derivatives: 

M^m.n.MH phlegm. [Arab, balgham, 
from Late L. phlegma, from Gk. 
phlegma ( = inflammation), from 
phlegein ( = 10 burn, scorch, kindle), 
from IE base *bhleg-, *bhelg~ ( = to 
burn, be hot).) Derivative: 'J?^ 3 - 

Vp^Badj.MH phlegmatic, phlegmatical. 
[Formed from 0^3 with adj. suff. '(J.) 

Jj^} m.n. fw (slang) confusion, disorder, 
tumult. [From Persian balachane 
( = temporary stage or platform for folk 
entertainment on market days or fairs), 
from bald ( = above). I 

rrfa f.n. fw ballad. [Fren. ballade, from 
balade, from balada (lit.: 'dance', later 
used in the sense of 'dancing song'), 
from balar (=to dance), from L. 
balldre. See "73". I 

yfft m.n. I courier. 2 NH postman. 
[From Gk. beledarios, L. vereddrius 
(- courier, postboy); of uncertain 
etymology, cp."Hrt.| Derivative irm^a. 

nn^Vaf.n. NH errand, mission. [Formed 
frorm^a with suff. run.] 

n^a to be worn out, to become old. 
[BAram. and Aram. x^a, ^a, Syr. x^a, 
'^3. Arab, baliya, Ethiop. balya ( = was 
worn out). Akka. balu (-to be worn 
out, to decay). Related to the bases ^a, 
^33. cp. ^3.1 — Qal n^3 tr. v. was worn 
out, became old. — Niph.n^aj pbh was 
worn out. — Pi. n^3 1 he destroyed; 
2 pbh he outlived; 3NH he wore out, 
consumed, wasted (time). — Pu. rtya_ 
NH 1 was consumed, was wasted (said 
of time); 2 was outlived. — Hith. n^snri 
1 pbh was destroyed; 2NH was worn 
out. Derivatives: "73. , xV3. 'X^a, rvlx^a, 
cx^a, nba, D-xl^a, o^fta. ^a. -^3, rrtba. 
n^a. n^a, rVjj3, n^a. "rhz. rr^afl, niVann. 

nVato be frightened, be terrified. 
[Metathesis of ^na. cp.nn^a.] — Pi. aV? 
he frightened, terrified (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring Ez. 
4:4intheformD , rr>32p). 

rr^adj. worn out. [Fromrr?a.l 
nVaf.n.PBH mixture. [Formed from ^Va 
with first suff. n^.j 

nnVaf.n. catastrophe, disaster, night- 
mare. [Metathesis ofn'jra; seen^a.) 

iVam.n. 1 (in the Bible) prob. a poll tax. 

2NH excise. [Of unknown origin.) 
Q'KftSm.n. pi. [A secondary form of 

D'3l^3 (q.v.).l 
imVb 1 m.n. PBH I acorn. 2 gland. I Related 

to Aram.-Syr. xy^a (^oak; acorn). 

Arab, ballui ( - oak; acorn) is an Aram. 

loan word.) 
0lVa"m.n.PBH stud, tooth (of a key). 

ntpVjf.n.NH gland. [Formed from U1V3 

with first suff. ny. I 
'iVaadj. NH worn out, ragged. I Properly 

pass. part. ofn^a.) 
'I'ram.n.NH 1 wearing out. 2 pastime. 

I Verbal n. ofn^3, Pi. ofn>3 (^ was worn 


D'M^a m.n. pi. worn out clothes, rags. 

[FromnVa. cp. Syr. x$a (of s.m.).| 
V1V9 adj. mixed, mingled. [Pass. part, of 

0^9 adj. 1 pbh closed (said of the mouth 

or the nose). 2NH compressed; 

comprehensive. [Pass. part, of 0^3; see 

ota. I 
|lVa m.n. fw balloon. [ Fren. ballon, from 

It. pallone, which is formed from palla 

( = a ball), a word of Teutonic origin; 

see 'ball' (a round body), and '-oon' in 

my cedel . The b in Fren. ballon (from 

It. pallone) is due to the influence of 

Fren. bailed ball).] 

'J^jfrs adj. fw blond. [Fren. blondin, 
from blond ( = fair of complexion, 
blond), which, together with It. biondo, 
Sp. biondo. Old Provencal blon, is of 
Teutonic origin, cp. Old Eng. blonden- 
feax, blanden-fea.x ( = gray-haired), 
from blondan, blandan ( = to mix). For 
theending see adj. suff. 'U. I 

01^5 adj. pbh I dirty. 2 mixed. [Of uncer- 
tain origin.) 

jnVaadj.PBH 1 swallowed, absorbed. 
2 hidden, concealed. [Pass. part, of y^a. 

rwVa f.n. 1 PBH whirlpool. 2 NH sink hole 
(topography). [Properly subst. use of 
thef. ofyiVa.) 

«]ftam.n.FW bluff. [Eng. blitff, from 
bluff (v.), which derives from Ger. 
vorbliiffen ( = to baffle), prob. of 
imitative origin.) Derivative:^. 

fj^Bm.n.NH the act of bluffing; bluff. 
[ Verbal n. of i>? ( = he bluffed); see ^3 .] 

j?lVam.n. FW block. [Eng. block, from 
blok, from Fren. bloc (- block; mass), 
from Dutch bloc ( = trunk of a tree), 
which is related to Ger. bloh, bloch. 
Block (= block), and cogn. with Old I. 
blog ( = fragment), cp. nijTfts . ] 

rnjlVa f.n.FW blockade. [Eng. blockade, 
from the verb block, from Fren. blo- 
quer ( = to block), from bloc. See j?1^3. 
For the ending see first suff. '-ade' in 
my cedel. ) 

nniVaf.n. pbh hair on the front of the 
head, forelock, tuft, crest. [Of uncer- 
tain origin. See Aram. xgnlVa.l De- 
rivative :jrvn1^3. 

jnnlVam.n.NH one having forelocks; 
tufted, crested. [Formed from nnft? 
with agential suff. J ;. I 

Uft^adj. mh searched. I Pass. part, of 
tt^a. Seettfo.J 

U^Va m.n. NH search, investigation, de- 
tection. [Verbal n. of li'Va, Pi. ofsto.l 

nlVaf.n. NH climacteric. [From nVa; 


borrowed from Gen. 18:12.1 
Itttaf.n. NH wearing out. deterioration. 



[Formed from n^ (sec nba) with suff. 


nVa to flicker. [Of uncertain etymology.] 

— Hiph. n^n pbh flickered. Deriv- 
ative: nn^n. 

wVato protrude, project; to be con- 
spicuous. [Aram.-Syr. u^3 ( = it pro- 
truded), Syr. K^a.l — Qal a"?3 intr. v. 
i pbh it protruded, projected; 2 was 
conspicuous. — Hiph. u^an NH ' he 
brought into relief, embossed; 2 he 
made conspicuous, emphasized. 

— Hoph. uban NH was brought into 
relief, was made conspicuous. — Hith. 
v\inn PBH i was conspicuous; 2 was 
prominent, distinguished himself. 
Derivatives: U>13, 01V3", u"?3, nyVx 
mo'^a, ni^an. rnu\?3nri, u"?30. u-ban. 

wVfim.n. NH projection, bulge. [From 

W^Bm.n. FW ballet. [Fren., from It. 
balleto, dimin. olballo ( = dance), from 
Vulgate L. balldre, from Gk. ballixein 
( = to dance), which prob. derives from 
ballein (=to throw). See n^npipVa ano " 

ng'OOnoVa f.n. FW literature, fiction. 
[From Fren. belles-lettres (-Yn.: 'fine 
letters'), from 6e//es, pi. of 6e//e. f. of 
6ea« ( = fine, beautiful), and let ires, pi. 
of /e« re ( = letter).] 

'Va adv. without, excluding, except for. 
[Orig. a m.n. meaning 'wearing out. 
destruction, decay, nought'. From r\bi. 
cp. Syr. ^a, Akka. balu ( = without), 
Arab, bilan ( = deterioration, decay), 
cp. also "73, , n'?3 ) and the first element in 

rrVaf.n.NH of the s.m. as n$a (q.v.). 
[Formed fromnba with first cp. 

n'Vaf.n. MH wearing out, wear and tear, 
deterioration. [Verbal n. ofn^. For the 
ending see first suff. rig. cp. alson^a .1 

jl'Va m.n. NH wearing out, deterioration. 
[Formed from nba with suff. ]\o. \ 

nw'Vsf-n.MH protrusion, projection, 
bulge, embossment. [Verbal n. of t^a 
(see uVa). For the ending see first suff. 

rnwVaf.n.NH protrusion, projection. 
[ Formed from i^a with suff. run . | 

V»Vam.n. 1 mixed fodder. 2NH mixture, 
medley, mishmash; potpourri. [From 
V?a. cp. Syr. V?a ( = mixed fodder), 
Akka. ballu {- mixture). Arab. bulla h 
(-moisture of fresh pasture). I 

■^Va f.n. PBH mixing; mixture, medley. 
[Verbal n. of V?3. SeeVra and first suff. 


iDj'Va 1 f.n. nothingness (a hapax lego- 
menon in the Bible, occurring Job 

26:7). [ Compounded of' 1 ?-!^ without), 
and n$ ( = something), hence lit. 
meaning 'without anything'.] 

njj'''? 2 " f\n- MH restraining, stoppage, 
checking; restraint. [Verbal n. of 0^3. 
Seeoba and first suff. ng.] 

n^OO'V? f-n- fw ballistics. [From Gk. 
ballein ( = to throw), which stands in 
gradational relationship to bole, bobs 
(= a throw), belos ( = bolt; arrow, dart); 
lit.: 'something thrown'), from IE base 
*g^l-, whence also Old I. apa-gurya 
(= swinging), Avestic ni-jrd'<re ( = they 
are being hurled down), cp. rnip^a. cp. 
also "73", nj-n^a. n^a^n, ^an^, or^agia, 
^13DT?. *ajy. ^1359. n ^ 31 " 1 ?- ^aiti? .] 

rntpo'Va f.n. fw (pi. nlxnop-'Va) catapult 
[L. ballistra, a collateral form of bal- 
lista (=a large military engine; lit.: 'a 
throwing machine'), from Gk. ballein 
( = to throw). Seen^p^Va •] 

yV^adj.NH swallowable. [Coined from 
s? 1 ^ according to the pattern ^y^, which 
is used in NH to form adjectives 
denoting capability or fitness.] 

ny^af.n. pbh I swallowing. 2 absorp- 
tion. 3 gluttony. I Verbal n. of ir?3. See 
rii and first suff. ng.] 

^y'Va m.n. worthlessness. wickedness. 
[Prob. a compound of ^3 ( = with- 
out) and ^ ( = use, worth; see by), 
hence lit. meaning 'usefulness', 
'worthlessness'. According to Hupfeld 
by^a is a compound of ^a ( = without) 
and a derivative of nby (=to go up), 
hence properly means 'he that allows 
no rise'. The word by! 1 ?? was dis- 
similated in Syriac into nK ,! ?3 .] 

n^'Vaf.n.NH search, investigation, de- 
tection. I Verbal n. of Vby (- to search). 
See ©ba and first suff. ng. | 

n'Vaf.n.NH debris, detritus (geology). 
[Formed from n"?3 ( = was worn out). See 
n"73 and suff. n 1 ^. I 

Wato confuse. [Syr. b>3 ( = he confused, 
soaked, steeped in water, confounded); 
Arab, bdlla (-he moistened with 
water), balal ( = moisture), Akka 
baldlu ( = to sprinkle with, to mix), billu 
(-mixture), Tigre balla ( = he mixed), 
cp. Phoen.V?a.a kind of offering (prob. 
meaning lit. 'mixed offering'). Related 
10 the bases nba and bai. cp. baba.] 

— Qal V?a l he mixed, mingled; 2 he 
confused, confounded. — Niph. V?3} 
pbh was mixed. — Pol. *?>1a NH he 
mixed, assimilated. — Hithpol. ^lann 
1 was mixed; 2 was assimilated. 

— Hoph. V?an pbh was mixed. — Pilp. 
(see baba). Derivatives: n^a, ^ba, b^a. 
mb'rtann, V?ao, b>lani?, bVsgn, possibly 
also^ba^.cp.V'Van. cp. also^n 1 . 

!f*|||f.O. FW balalaika. [From Russ. 

balalaika, which, according to Erich 
Bernckcr is related to Russ. balabolit 
( = to chatter, babble), from the IE 
imitative base *balb-, whence also L. 
balbus ( - stammering). ] 

oVato hold in, curb. [Prob. related to 
Aram.-Syr. 0^3 ( = he muzzled, 
checked), perhaps also to Arab. 
'ablama (-he held his tongue, was 
silent).] — Qal oVa. tr. v. he held in, cur- 
bed, restrained, stopped, muzzled, 
checked (a hapax legomenon in the 
Bible, occurring Ps. 32:4). — Niph. 
□^33 MH was curbed, was stopped, was 
restrained. — Pi. 0V3 MH he restrained, 
stopped. — Pu. d^ pbh was shrunk, 
stopped, was restrained. — Nith. o^n? 
MH was stopped, was restrained. 
— Hiph. D^an pbh he stopped, he 
restrained, he compressed. Deriva- 
tives: Q^a, q^3, D^g, n^Va". nw^ri, 

D^B m.n. NH brake. [Fromoba.] 

oVjm.n.NH 1 buffer. 2 back (football). 
[Lit.: 'one who stops something'. 
Formed from oba according to the 
patter ntyg. | 

DinVa, o^a^ia m.n. pbh ravenous hun- 
ger, bulimia. [Gk. boulimos (lit.: 'ox 
hunger'), from bous ( = ox), and limos 
(-hunger), for whose etymology see 
myCEDEL s.v. 'bulimia'.] 

caVs abbr. NH unclassified. [Formed 
from the initials of Jjoa v^?.) 

)Va m.n. pbh bath attendant. [Hebraiza- 
tion of Gk. balaneus ( = baihman). from 
balaneion ( = bath), which is of un- 
certain origin, cp. DnjVa . | Derivatives: 
rnjV3,n 1 ^3. 

niaVaf.n. NH the trade of a bath 
attendant. [Formed from 1^3 with suff. 

Nib} f.n. pbh bath towel. [Formed from 

onj 1 ?? m.n. pi. bathing apparel. [A loan 
word from L. balnedria. properly 
subst. use of the neuter pi. of the adj. 
balnedrius {- pertaining to a bath), 
from balneum ( = bath). from Gk. 
balaneion. ScQ]\~i .\ 

oVa to tend (sycamore trees), [cp. Arab. 
bdlas (a kind of a fig), Ethiop. (Tigre) 
balas (=fig). Egypt, nbs ^sycamore- 
fig) is a Sem. loan word.] — Qalo"?3 tr. 
v. he tended sycamore trees (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring 
Amos 7:1). 

D^J, l1»9^8 m.n. pbh balsam. [A loan 
word from Gk. ba Isainon (- balsam), 
which itself is a loan word from Heb. 
Dty3 (q.v.).] 

yVa to swallow. [Related to Aram.-Syr. 
y^a, Mand. y"?a, Arab, bala'a, bali'a. 



Ethiop. bala'a ( = he swallowed).] 

— Qal y^3 i he swallowed devoured, 

ate up; 2 he absorbed. — Niph. yty 

l nh was swallowed up. was devoured; 

2PBH was absorbed; 3MH was 

assimilated (grammar). —Pi. #3 he 

destroyed. — Pu. y*3 was destroyed. 

— Hith. yVsnr 1 'was destroyed; 2NH 

was assimilated (grammar). — Hiph. 

y>?ri I pbh he caused to swallow; 2 MH 

he assimilated (grammar). — Hoph. 

y^n 1PBH was swallowed, was 

devoured; 2 pbh was absorbed; 3MH 

was syncopated, was assimilated 

(grammar). Derivatives: ^3. J$& W% 

ny^?, rV|. *r>?- tf?* *#?*• ro^ 3 * 

yVam.n. i swallowing, a thing swal- 
lowed. 2 confusion, corruption. [From 

y^? m.n. PBH glutton. [Formed fromsba 
after the pattern ty9 serving to form 
nomina opificum.] 

t^a to make exclusive. [Back formation 
from iy/?3.| —Pi. ^3 tr. v. NH he 
made exclusive. — Pu. 1^3 NH was 
made exclusive. Derivative:™^. 

'TsVa prep, without, except, apart from. 
[Compounded of "?3 ( = not), and 13J. t? 
(=as far as. up to), cp. Syr. iy^3 
( = without), which is the exact 
equivalent of Heb. 1^3. Derivatives: 
ts'?3, , 7? , i , 3. , l? , ?30.] 

nyVaadj. exclusive. [Formed from'ilfts 
( = without), with suff. 'Q.j Derivative: 

mnyVaf.n. NH exclusiveness, exclu- 
sivity. [Formed from '7^3 with suff. 

TlsVa m.n. nh the act of making exclu- 
sive. [Verbal n. of i? 1 ??. See ^3. 1 

T?Vaadv. MH in a foreign language. 
[Formed from ty"? ( = a foreign 
language), with pref. ::3.[ 

jyVaadj.& m.n. MH glutton, gourmand. 
[Formed from »V? (see y"?3) with suff. 
j:;.l Derivative: mjy^s. 

nuy^Sf.n. NH gluttony, gourmandize- 
ment. [Formed from ]y^3 with suff. 

^Vato bluff. [Denominated from^:?.! 
— Pi. «iV? tr. v. NH he bluffed (slang). 
Derivatives: 1^3, 1^3. 

IBVjm.n. nh bluffer (slang). [Formed 
from 1^3. Pi. of 'fil, with agential suff. 
j.. on the analogy of 13^3 ( = liar). J 

pVato destroy, to lay waste, [cp. Arab. 
balaqa (-he opened vehemently), 
balluqa h (-a desert), OSArab. blq 
( opening).| — Qal p^3 he laid waste, 
destroyed (in the Bible occurring only 
Is. 24:1). —Pi. p>3 MH he split, he 

destroyed. — Pu. p^ was split, was 
destroyed (in the Bible occurring only 
Nah. 2:11). —Hiph. p^n MH he 
destroyed. — Hoph. p^j mh was 
destroyed. Derivative :p^}i?. 

njxrJJ^Jf.n.FW Balkanization. [Eng., 
coined by the English journalist James 
Louis Garvin (1868-1947) in allusion 
to the political condition in the Balkans 
in 1912-13.1 

nrnVaf.n. fw ballerina. [IL ballerina, 
from ballare{= to dance), from Vulgate 

tt^a to search, examine, investigate, 
detect [Aram.tfV?- cp. the related base 
efts". | — Qal 1^3 tr. v. PBH he searched, 
he examined. — Niph. tt^3? NH was 
searched, was examined, was inves- 
tigated. Derivatives: a^3, n«^3, #1^3, 

tfV? m.n. 1 PBH investigator, excise-man. 
2NH detective. [Formed from tfVa 
according to the pattern ^9. which 
serves to form nomina opificum. I 
Derivatives :n?C^3, , ^3. 

niltfV?f.n. nh detection. [Formed from 
a^3 withsuff.n^J.) 

'tfVaadj. NH detective (adj.). [Formed 

Jljftam.n.NH I polyglot. 2 philologist, 
linguist. [ Based on the interpretation of 
the names ^3 ,■•3719 (Ez. 2:2) as 
'Mordecai who knew seventy lang- 
uages'. J^S was folk-etymologically 
regarded as contracted from j1^ Vyg 
( = a man of the tongue). See Jltf^.l 
Derivatives: n»^ l 73. ,, }^3. 

n»^V3 f.n. NH philology, linguistics. 

[ Formed from j^s with suff. rn ; : . | 
'Stt^VS adj.NH philological, linguistic. 

[Formed from]^ with suff. v. I 

n#V?f.n. 1PBH a foraging band. 2NH 
secret police. [Formed from ^3 after 
the pattern n^g. which serves to form 
collective nouns. I 

il'll^MH combining form meaning 
'un-\ 'in-', 'a-', as in ^jD-nVa ( = un- 
limited). [ From 'r^a ( - except). I 

"•n^aprep. &conj. not. except, without. 
[Formed from n^a, properly a f.n. in 
the c. st. derived from rr?3 ( = to be worn 
out), with suff. 'J. See "?3' and' 1 ??-! 

05, on^pron. in them (m.). [Inflected 
personal pron., formed from r:q with 
suff. og,resp. dhcj.I 

nix^jf.n. nh office of the stage man- 
ager. [Formed from 'x;p3 with suff. 

"•NttSm.n. stage-director. [Coined by A. 
Shlonsky (1900-1973) from nij? 
( = high place), after the pattern "7^9 
serving to form nomina opificum. 

However, this is a wrong formation, 
because it is based on the supposition 
that the n. nija derives from base nna, 
while apparently it derives from base 
D13 (q.v.).| Derivatives :niK!j3, , i»3. 
Diaoam.n.NH humming. [Verbal n. of 

D303 . I 

pia»JJ m.n.FW bamboo. I Malay bambti. 

cp. 'bamboo' in my cf.del. | 
oaaato hum. |Of imitative origin. I 

— Pilp. 0303 intr. v. NH he hummed. 

Derivative: "^ 13393. 
^saaag adj.NH humming. [Formed from 

D3D3 with Suff.' .!.[ 

na^f.n. 1 high place. 2NH stage. 3NH 
pulpit. [Apparently from base ma. 
Related to Moabite noa, Aram. Nnpa 
( - high place). Ugar. bmt ( = back, of a 
person or animal). Arab. buhma h 
( = rock), Akka. 6awm( = slope of a hill, 
back). These words possibly derive 
from base Di3. 1 Derivative: 'Kiss. 

naa, naa adv. wherein, by what means. 
[Formed from pref. :;a and nij 
( = what).] 

1»8prep. in (poetically). [Formed from 
3 and to. alteration of n;j ( = what), 
used plconastically. cp. 1D3. 1D^>. cp. also 

'iSSm.n.NH stage directing. [Back 
formation fronvxps. cp. Di'3 .1 

Viaam.n.FW bemol. flat (music). iFren. 
bemol, from be ( = the letter b). and mol 
( = soft), from L. mollis. See 'meal' (ed- 
ible grain) in my CF.DEL. | 

sniuaa adv. pbh please! [ Aram., formed 
fromNmu!j( = request), with pref. ;a.[ 

njaa f.n. Hibiscus esculentus (a veg- 
etable). I Arab. bamiya h . As proved by 
the long a in Arabic, the usual spelling 
rPD3 is erroneous.! 

Dlj?»a adv.MH instead of, in place of. 

[Formed from Dlpp. c. st. of Dlpij 

(-place) with pref. ia.l 

I'noa poetic c. st. pi. ofnaa. 
]? m.n. 1 son; offspring. 2 branch, shoot. 

3 inhabitant of. 4 worthy of, deserving. 

[Related to Moabite, Phoen., OSArab. 

13, Ugar. bn, Arab. ibn. Akka. bin 

(= son), BAram. and Aram. -Syr. T3 (pi. 

P53), Mchri ber ( = son). All these words 

prob. derive from rua 1 ( = to build). The 

change of n to r in Aram.. Syr. and 

Mehri is difficult to explain; it may be 

due to regressive dissimilation, cp.nsa". 

cp. also 13 and rq.l Derivatives: mnja, 

; ]]3 a rare c. st. form of p ( son), as in 

|irj3 y^lrr ( Joshua, the son of Nun). 

ntorrp (deserving to be beaten). ■]? 

7\\-$ ( in a night), yjyp ( at once. 




D1K3B m.n. nh internationalization. 

[ Verbal n. of Dxp. SeeDioa.] 

rUKJpf.n.NH (the craft of) building. 
[Formed from'KJS with suff. ma I 

^KJBm.n. PBH builder, constructor. 
[Nomen opificis, formed from rua (= to 
build), after the pattern "7579 . ] 

DN33to internationalize. [Coined by Y. 
Avineri from f3 ( = between) and d'k 
( = nation).l —Pi. oxp tr. v. NH he 
internationalized. — Pu. Dxp NH was 
internationalized. Derivative: CHKJ3. 

tynjs. m.n. fw bandit. [Fren., from It 
bandito. properly p. part, of bandire 
(=to banish).] 

rua 1 to build. [Moabite rua, Phoen. p, 
Aram.-Syr. xp, Arab, band(y), 
OSArab. ""sa, rua, 13a, Ugar. bny, Akka 
&an« ( = to build, to create, to bring 
forth).] — Qal np tr. v. he built, 
constructed, established. — Niph. npa, 
was built, was constructed. — Pi. np 
ipbh he built, constructed: 2NH he 
reconstructed. — Pu. np PBH was built, 
was reconstructed. — Nith. njanj pbh 
(of s.m.). Derivatives: njla 1 , njta", --Kja, 
*«3. '«a, rrp, n;p, pp. ""an, nj?9, piag, 
rvpn. cp.p andng. 

nj3"to become a mother of a child. 
[Denominated from p ( = son). Arab. 
tabannd(y) ( = he adopted).] — Niph. f. 
nnp^ she became mother of a child, got 
a child (said a childless woman) (Gen. 

mniBf.n. nh relation of a child to his 
father, filiation, sonhood. [Formed 
from p (= son), with suff. run, on the 
analogy of mngx {- fatherhood), from 
ax (= father), cp.rwp.] 

UBpron. in us. [Inflected personal pron. 
Formed from pref. 33 and suff. ua .] 

^3$ adj. constructed. [Pass. part, ofnp 
( = he built): see ma 1 .] 

'W? m.n. nh construction, reconstruc- 
tion. [Verbal n. ofnp ( = he built, he 
constructed). Pi. of ma'.] 

rfjjjpl.ofng 1 . 

1ta?m.n.FW (pi. nlxVip) banjo. (Eng. 
banjo, from earlier banjore, banjer, 
banshaw, Negro alterations of Eng. 
bandore, from Portuguese bandurra, 
from L. pandura, from Gk. pandoura 
(=a musical instrument of three 
strings). See 'pandore' and 'banjo' in 


H??m.n.FW benzine. [From Benzin, a 
name coined by the German chemist 
Eilhardt Mitscherlich in 1833; so called 
by him because he obtained it through 
the distillation of benzoic acid with 
lime. The adj. benzoic derives from 

benzoin, from Fren. benjoin, from Sp. 
benjiu, which is shortened from lo- 
benjui (the first syllable having been 
mistaken for the definite article), from 
Arab. lubdnjawf( = frankincense from 
Java). For the etymology of Arab. 
lubdnseen}ty .] 

rna f.n. building (a hapax legomenon in 
the Bible, occurring Ezek. 41:13). 
[Formed from np (see ma') with first] 

nj33 f.n. NH building, construction. [Ver- 
bal n. of np ( = he built). See ma' and 
first suff. no.] 

nr» f.n. NH filitation, sonhood. 
[ Formed from p ( = son) with suff. m □. 

]1lD '», ]1l» '3BPBH 'flocks of sheep' or 
'troops of soldiers' (occurring in the 
Mishnah, in the phrase rnate D^ly np "73 
j1-i!j ua? v\y), 'all mankind pass before 
him jno ^aa' — either 'like troops of 
soldiers' or 'like flocks of sheep'). [ , 3aa 
jvid is prob. metanalysis for jiiouaa 
( = r1i9«a?), which is formed from the 
prefixes 33 (=like, as), as (=in), and 
jVi^u. from Late Gk. noumeron, from 
L. numerus ( = troop, band); properly: 
'a certain number of soldiers'. Hence 
jVipuas means 'as in a troop of 
soldiers'. Through the slight change of 
the first 1 into \ rnnuaa was folk- 
etymologically interpreted in the 
Talmud as a Hebrew phrase consisting 
of two nouns, the first of which is ""p? 
( = 'like the children of, or 'like the 
young of, on the analogy of phrases 
like dik ""p,, 'the children of man, 
mankind'), and jno, the second part, 
was connected with Aram. xpBN, 
( = lamb), whence piD ua means 'flocks 
of sheep'.] 

]U? m.n. (pi. D^p, also nlrp) 1 building, 
edifice, construction (in both senses 
'the act of construction' and 'some- 
thing constructed'). 2MH conjugation 
(grammar). [Formed from nja' (=he 
built) with suff. jg. cp. Aram, and 
B Aram. x^p , Syr. X3^p ( = building). ] 

^38. adj. banal. [Fren. banal, from earlier 
ban ( = proclamation), from Frankish 
*ban, which is related to Ger. ban 
{- commandment or prohibition under 
threat of punishment, jurisdiction), 
which derives from IE base *bha- (=to 
speak, tell, say). See 'ban' (edict) in my 

m»Vj$f-n.FW banality. [Formed from 
■•Vp with suff. run.] 

njJB. f.n. fw banana. [Sp. and Portuguese 
banana, from earlier Congolese 
banam. ] 

psa m.n. fw bank. [Fren. banque, from 

It. banca (orig.: 'bench, table, counter', 
scil. of a money changer), which is of 
Teutonic origin. See 'bench' in my 
CEDEL.] Derivatives: mxj?p, --xpp, 
, Si?P- 
mxj^jf.n.FW banking. [Formed from 

'KJSJm.n. fw banker. [Formed frompp 
with suff. ■•KQ.] 

'KjMJadj.FW pertaining to a bank, 
banking (adj.), bank (adj.). [Formed 
from p}^ with suff. '□ . ] 

0(733} m.n. fw banquet. [Fren. banquet, 
from It. banchetto, dimin. of banca 
(= bench). See 'bench' in my CEDEL 
and cp. pp.] 

013^3? m.n. FW banknote. [Eng. bank- 
note. For the first element of this 
compound see p^. The second element 
derives from Middle Eng. note, from 
Fren. note, from L. nota ( = mark, sign, 
note; character, letter), cp. rlngls .] 

Ollj73a m.n. fw bankruptcy. [It. baca- 
rotta (lit.: 'a broken bench'), from 
banca (= bench; see p}^), and rotta f. p. 
part, of rompere (- to break); so called 
from the habit of breaking the bench of 
a bankrupt.] 

05 m.n. fw bass, basso (music). [It 
basso, from Late L. bassus (= thick, fat, 
stumpy, low), of uncertain origin, cp. 

W08. adj. NH 1 fragrant, pleasant. 
2 drunk, intoxicated. [Pass. parL of 093. 
See QD3 and cp. o^top . ] 

WBam.n.MH perfuming. [Verbal n. of 

093 (=he perfumed), Pi. of ooa. cp. 

JtBSm.n.FW bassoon. [Fren. basson, 

from It. bassone, augment, of basso. 

See 03.] 

0*08 m.n. MH foundation, establishment, 
consolidation. [Verbal n. of 053, Pi. of 
ooa 1 .] 

^V^? FW ' T^?? PBH basilica [Gk. 
basilike (lit.: 'royal colonnade 7 ), f. of 
basilikos (= kingly, royal), from 
bas ileus (= king), which is of uncertain 
origin. It is perhaps a loan word from a 
language of Asia Minor; cp. Lydian 
battos( = king).] 

0*9$ adj. NH fragrant; aromatic; 
pleasant. [From ooa. cp. JAram. K^pg 
(of s.m.). cp. also a^.] Derivative: 

K??V?B m.n. PBH tasty (lit.: 'spiced') food. 
[JAram., properly subst. use of the 
pass. part. D93 ( = was pleasant). See 

m&'paf.n.NH pleasantness, fragrance. 
[ Formed froma-03 with suff. ma.] 

O'psjm.n.PBH basis, base, foundation. 



IGk. basis ( = a stepping, step, pedestal, 
foot. base), from the stem of baino ( = I 
go), which prob. stands for baru'o, from 
bamio. from IE base m g»em ( = to go, to 
come), cp. np'3. cp. also the second 
clement in 0998. oalij??. trai*?. 
x^atn?. ^$" K ' ^>*???V-I Derivatives: 
"•p'93, 003 ". 
nD^pSf.n.MH trampling. [Verbal n. of 
093. SeeDD3' and first suff.n^.] 
'9'OBadj. NH basic, fundamental. 
[Formed from cos. with sufF. ^.] 
rn'P'O? f.n.NH basicity. [Formed from 
'D'oa with suff. m^. I 
ooato perfume, to flavor. [A secondary 
form of dot. I — Qal 053 pbh was 
fragrant; was pleasant. — Pi. 003 PBH 
1 made fragrant, pleasant; 2 he spiced 
perfumed, flavored. — Pu. 093 PBH 
(only in the pan.; see 0950). — Nith. 
DBjnn pbh he became drunk, became 
intoxicated. Derivatives: 093, opa, nobs, 
d*d3, trpa. rHDognri, dd^d. cp. xp'pa. 
DOB m.n. PBH perfume, scent, fragrance. 
[ From DD3. A secondary form ofDfra . | 
DOB m.n. PBH spicer. perfumer. [A 
nomen opificis formed from 093 ( = he 
spiced, perfumed). Pi. ofooa, according 
to the pattern ^9. cp. 0^3 • 1 
]DD3 m.n. PBH scent, fragrance, balm. 

[From Dei. 1 
nobBf.n.NH aroma. [Formed from DD3 
with suff. re. ] 

00a 1 to trample, tread. [Back formation 
from opl3. Pol. of 013. but mistaken for 
the part, of a verb 053 . | — Qal 093 tr. v. 
to trample, to tread. Derivative: np'93. 

003" to base, establish. [Denominated 
from o'03 (= base).) — Pi. 053 tr. v. PBH 
he based, founded, established, 
strengthened, consolidated. — Pu. 093 
pbh was based, was founded, was 
established, was strengthened, was 
consolidated. — Hith. 09311:1 pbh (of 
s.m.). Derivatives: ows.moosnn, 09313. 

103 to be half-ripe; to despise, spurn. 
[Aram. 193 ( = he despised, scorned). 
Arab, bdsara {-\\t scowled, frowned). 
All these meanings developed from the 
orig. meaning of this base, 'to be hard, 
taut or rigid'.l —Qal 193 pbh he 
despised, spurned. — Pi. 193 pbh (of 
s.m.). Derivatives: 192,^193. 

i?B m.n. 1 unripe fruit; sour grapes. 2 nh 
immaturity, crudity. [Related to Aram. 
xi03. Syr. XH93 ( = grapes not yet 
ripened), Arab, busr ( = dates beginning 
to ripen). I Derivatives: nnps, ^93. 

Jil^B m.n. nh contempt, scorn. [Formed 
from -103 with pa. suff. forming 
abstract nouns.] 

nnpsf.n. nh unripeness; immaturity. 
[Formed from nps {- unripe fruit), with 
suff. ma) 

ntpjadj.NH unripe; immature. [Formed 
from nps with suff. ""q . I 

jnojlm.n. pbh garden. [Aram, Kjnpw, 
from Pers. bostdn ( = garden; lit.: 'place 
of fragrance*), from bo ( = smell, odor, 
fragrance), and -start, a suff. denoting 
place. See 'Hindustani' in my CEDEL 
and cp. 'bostangi' ibid.) Derivative: 

'Kjnp^ m.n. mh gardener. [Formed from 
jnp-i with suff. 'Nc I 

snay? m.n. NH bubble, pustule, vesicle. 

snayam.n. pbh bubbling. [Verbal n. of 

- 1 1 - ^ 

y3y? ; see yaya and cp. ywy 9 . ] 
"H ava 1 prep, for the sake of, because of, 

on account of; in order to. 2conj. in 

order that. [Formed from pref. na and 

■nay,". J 
yayato bubble. [Of imitative origin, cp. 

Syr. nrpylayj ( = water bubbles), Akka. 

bubu'tu (= pustule), which are also 

imitative. Base of ny«y3lj. cp.nya'. cp. 

also »d»d.] — Pilp. y3y3 tr. & intr. v. 

pbh 1 it bubbled; 2 it gushed out; 3 he 

struggled (in the river). — Hithpalp. 

ysysnri mh it bubbled. Derivatives: 

yiays, yiay3. 

xi?iy?adv.MH quickly, soon, speedily. 
[ Aram. -Syr. ^3. Formed from 33 
( = in) and 1 ???, K&y, ( = speed), which is 
related to Arab, 'ajila ( = he hurried, 
hastened), 'ajala ( = haste). ] 

tyato be far away. [Base of iya, i¥3- 
Related to Ugar. b'd { = behind), Arab. 
ba'uda, ba'ida ( = was far away, was 
distant), ba'id (=far away), bd'da 
( = after in time), SArab. "rca ( = behind, 
after). Syr.T??8 ( = he drove, or sent, far 
away; he was afar, went afar), Ethiop. 
bd'ed, Tigre be'ed{ = another). | 

ty?, iy? prep, for the sake of, for the 
benefit of. [Properly a noun denoting 
distance, as in -"? i¥39 ( = behind; lit.: 
from out of the distance of). SeeTOS . 1 

nya 1 to bubble. [Together with yaya ( = to 
bubble), and Arab, bagd(y) ( = swelled 

— said of a wound), ofimitativeorigin.l 

— Qal nj3 it bubbled. — Niph. nya) it 
swelled. — Hiph. nh it caused bubbles, 
caused blisters. Derivative: n^p 1 . 

nya "to seek; to ask questions. [BAram. 
nya. K?3 ( = he sought, required), 
Aram.-Syr. ny? ( = he sought, desired; 
prayed, inquired). Nab., Palm.. 
Samaritan. Mand. K?a (of s.m.), Ugar. 
bgy ( = to require, desire), Arab. 
baghd(y) ( = he sought), Akka. ba'u, 
buhhu ( = to seek). Several scholars 

identify nya 1 and n»3" by assuming that 
the orig. meaning of this base was 'to 
swell', whence developed the meanings 
'to bubble' on the one hand, and 'to 
swell with desire' on the other.l — Qal 
HV3 tr. v. he sought, asked, inquired. 

— Niph. ny3} was searched out. was 
uncovered. — Hiph. nysn nh he 
uncovered. Derivatives: rrya, 7^3, 
■^7,n^3K.;iy39 ll .cp.'y373. 

Tiyaprep.& conj. after, yet, while. 
[Formed from pref. aa 1 and "rty {- still, 


Oiyaadj.PBH kicked; trodden. [Pass. 

part. ofo?3. Seeoya.] 
Oiyam.n.PBH kicking. [Verbal n. ofD?3 

( = he kicked strongly). Pi. ofoya .] 

nViya f.n. 1 married woman. 2 pbh one no 
longer a virgin, [f. pass. part. 0^3. See 

"Nya m.n. pbh removal, destruction. 
[Verbal n. ofiy? ( = he removed), Pi. of 
nys ". I 

mya m.n. fright, terror (in the Bible 
occurring only Ps. 88:17 and Job 6:4, 
in the pi.). [Verbal n. of ny3 ( = he 
frightened, terrified). Pi. of nys . ] 

Ty'a m.n. 1 pbh 'boaz' — name of the left- 
hand of the two bronze pillars in front 
of the Temple. 2 nh title given to land- 
owner. [From pn iy'3. In the second 
sense, after iya of 'Megilath Ruth'.] 

nwyaf.n.NH landlordism. [Formed 
from iya (sense 2), suff. '^ and suff. 

oyato stamp, to kick, to despise. 
[JAram.-Syr. oya ( = he stamped, 
kicked, despised).] —Qal d?3 intr. v. 
pbh he stamped, he kicked, trampled 
down, despised. — Niph. oy?) mh was 
kicked down, was trampled down. 

— Pi. o?3 PBH 1 he kicked strongly, 
kicked out; 2 he despised. — Pil. (see 
ooya). Derivatives: oyj, npy^, jpys, 0W3. 
dws, np'y?. 

tjyjjm.n. mh kick. [Fromoys.] 

noyaf.n.NH kick. [Formed from oys 

T T ( 

with first suff. ng.] 

oioya m.n. nh a feeble kick. [ Verbal n. of 

opys. Seeooys.] 

ooyato kick feebly. [Pi'lel of oys.l 

— Pil. opy3 tr. v. nh he kicked feebly. 

(VttO I'oya because of, due to. through 
the fault of. [From 'pjr (q.v.) and pref. 
U3( = in).] 

j^yjadj.&m.n. 1 adj. accustomed to 
kick; kicker. 2 n. kicker. [Formed from 
oy? (see oy3) with agential suff.] v. I 

n$3 f.n. MH problem. [From Aram.K;y3 
{- question), from xys (=he asked). 



which is related to Heb. nya ( = he 

asked). See run" and cp. rryax .] 

Derivatives :'n;y3, nurrys. 
n^ya f.n. pbh kicking, kick. [Verbal n. of 

oya. See ova and first suff-ny.] 
nV'Sa f.n. pbh cohabitation, sexual inter- 

T * I 

course. [Verbal n. of "?y3. See Vya and 

first suff.rt.1.] 
D'sa adv. with strength. [SeeD'y . 1 
Jjyam.n. nh problemist, problematist 

(e.g. in chess). [Formed from nya (see 

nya") with agential suff. |? . ] 
]>»3adv. MH clearly, obviously (lit.: 

"with the eye'). [Formed fromj?y (= eye) 

withpref. aa( = in).] 
T?Bm.n. cattle, beasts. [Related to 

Aram. -Syr. Kyya, JAram., Syr., 

Mand.. OSArab. -»ya ( = cattle, beasts). 

Arab, ba'fr (= camel), Ethiop. ba'rdwi 

(=ox), are prob. loan words from Heb. 

Tys.] Derivative: nya". 
T»aadj.NH inflammable, combustible. 

[Coined fromny? ( = it burned; seeds') 

after the pattern "ry?, which is used in 

NH to form adjectives denoting 

capability or fitness.) 
nyyaf.n.MH burning. [Verbal n. of 15??. 

Seeiya 1 and first suff. rig.] 
nn'Saf.n.MH fright, terror. [Verbal n. of 

n?5 ( = he was frightened, was terrified). 

See nya and first suff. n^.] 

"•rpyaadj. nh problematical. [Formed 
from rrys (= problem) with suff. 'P.] 
Derivative: nvrrya. 

ni'JVya f.n.NH problematicalness. 

[Formed from Ti^a with suff. m o . | 

niuvya f.n.NH problematics. [Formed 
fromn^ys with suff. m:~ .] 

Vya to rule over, own, possess; to marry; 
to cohabit with. [JAram. ■??•>, Syr. "rya 
(= he owned; he married), OSArab. "rya 
(=to rule over, to own), Arab, ba'ala 
{- he owned, possessed, esp. a wife or a 
concubine), Akka. belu ( = to own; to 
rule over); according to Gerber 
denominated from "rya.] — Qal "rya tr. 
v. 1 he owned, ruled over; 2 he married; 
3 he had sexual intercourse with. 
— Niph. n'jyaj 1 was taken to wife, was 
married; 2 pbh she had sexual inter- 
course. — Hith. n^yann pbh she 
became married. Derivatives: "?ya, 
rtyya, n'rya. byla. 

^?J m.n. 1 owner, master. 2 husband. 
3 Baal, name of the chief god of the 
Canaanites. 4 PBH soil watered by rain. 
[Prob. derived from "?ya. Related to 
Phoen. "?ya. Palm. "?ya, Aram. -Syr. 
K^ya, Ugar. b'l, Akka. belu, Arab, ba'l, 
Ethiop. bd'el (- lord, owner).] Deriv- 
atives: n^y,3, n^y.a, 1^3. cp. o'Vys. 

, >?» , ??Jr TPa- 1 ??} adj. NH 1 landlordish. 
2 bourgeois, provincial. [Formed from 

•?y3 (= owner), n?3 ( = house), and adj. 
n^ya f.n. (used only in the c. st. n'pys) 
mistress, proprietress, [f. ofrya .] 

rnVyj f.n.NH ownership, proprietorship. 
[Formed from"?y3 with ] 

V»Vy? adv. clearly, expressly, obviously. 
[After V'Vy.s in Ps. 12:7, where the 
meaning is uncertain. See V^y, .] 

mV'Vya. adv. pbh clearly, expressly, ob- 
viously. [Formed from V^y.s with suff. 


D'V?? f-n. pi. owner. [Formally pi. of "?ys 
(= owner), but construed as a singular.] 

1rn»-Vya adv. PBH against his will. [See 
rn'3,"?? andpref. Q3.] 

NJ^yaadv. in a general way, uninten- 
tionally, merely. [Aram., lit.: 'in the 
world', corresponding to Heb. D^ly?. 
See K^y. and pref. as.] 

]V?? m.n. NH an avid or eager person. 
[Formed from ^ys ( = owner), with 
agential suff. ]□; perhaps a blend of ^ya 
and jy^a (=swallower). fty.a, a Heb. 
loan word in Yiddish, was reborrowed 
into Heb.] Derivative: nu^ya. 

ms^yjf.n. NH avidity, eagerness. 
I Formed from ftya with suff. ma . ] 

HD'Vya adv. pbh orally. [See n?, 

pya m.n. pbh the white metal, babbit 
metal. [From JAram. xyy,?, which is a 
metathesized var. of xyay, this latter 
being dissimilated from xyax (of s.m.). 
Seefajj .] Derivative: fya. 

fyato babbit [Denominated from f?3 .] 
— Pi. fya NH he babbited. — Pu. fS? 
NH was babbited. 

D^?aadv.NH actually, as a matter of 
fact. [Formed from oy% (= substance, 
essence), with pref. as.) 

pD'pyjadv.MH circuitously, in a round- 
about way. [See Tps, andpref. as.] 

nya 1 to burn, to consume. [JAram. nya 
( = it burned, was consumed), Ugar. b'r 
(=to burn). Barth connects this base 
with Arab, bagara ( = he felt an un- 
quenchable thirst), waghara ( = it 
glowed), cp. iy3".] — Qal nys intr. v. it 
burned, blazed; it was consumed. 

— Niph. nysj MH it was lighted. — Pi. 
iy? he kindled, lighted. — Pu. nya was 
kindled, was lighted (in the Bible 
occurring only in the part.; see nya!?' ). 

— Hiph. "pysn 1 he caused fire to burn; 
2 mh it burned, was kindled, was set on 
fire. — Hoph. nyan pbh was kindled, 
was set on fire. Derivatives: nyla", 
rnya, vys. rrrys, nysrj, rnysri 1 , nysg. 

nya "to remove, destroy. [Ugar. 6V( = to 
remove). Prob. derived from nya 1 

through enlargement of meaning.] 

— Pi. nya he removed, cleared, 
destroyed. — Pu. nya pbh was 
removed, was cleared, was destroyed. 

— Nith. nygn) pbh (of s.m.). — Hiph. 
n'yan he removed, cleared, destroyed. 
Derivatives: nwa, nnyan" , nyao. 

nya 1 " to become brutish. [Denominated 
from T-ya.] — Qal nya he was brutish, 
was stupid. — Niph. nya? he became 
brutish, became stupid. Derivatives: 

nyaadj. foolish, stupid, ignorant [Prob. 
denominated from n'ya ( = cattle).] 
Derivative :nnya. 

rnya f.n. burning, fire, conflagration (a 
hapax legomenon in the Bit e, occur- 
ring Ex. 22:5). [Formed fn nnya 1 with 
first suff. n v.] 

nnya f.n.NH stupidity, ignorance. 
[Formed from nya with suff. ma.] 

"s^ya, "ijnya adv. nh approximately, 
roughly, about. [Formed from ^ny 
( = value, estimation) with pref. aa.] 

nyato frighten, terrify. [JAram. nay 
(=was timid, was anxious), Syr. nna 
( = was formidable, assaulted suddenly, 
terrified), JAram. nns, Syr. nna ( = he 
terrified), Arab, baghata ( = it came or 
happened suddenly).] — Niph. nyaj 
was frightened, was terrified. — Pi. nya 
he frightened, terrified. — Nith. nyanj 
pbh was frightened, was terrified. 
— Hiph. nTan pbh he frightened, 
terrified. — Hoph. nyan nh was 
frightened, was terrified. Derivatives: 
ny?, nnya, mya. nrrya, niny,a, nnyarj, 

nyam.n. imh fright, terror. 2NH 
-phobia. [From nya.] 

nnya f.n. sudden fear, terror, dismay. 
[Formed from nya with first] 

mnyaf.n.MH fright, terror. [From 
Aram. xrnny,a, from nya. See nya and 

'39B prep, in front of, in the presence of, 
before. [Lit.: 'in the face of. It is 
formed from c. st. of d'^ and pref. □?. 

D'JDaadv.PBH inside, within. [Formed 
froma , '}?(= inside) and pref. oa.] 

Vybaadv.NH actually. [Formed from 
"?yi(=deed, action) with pref. na.] 

tfnpaadv.PBH explicitly, clearly. 

[Formed from #ns ( = explanationX 

withpref. 03. 1 
o^D? adv. nh particularly, especially. 

[Formed from on? ( = detail, particular) 

withpref. as.] 
T'Bm.n. mud, mire, silt (a hapax 

legomenon in the Bible, occurring Jer. 

38:22). [Derived from fxa( = to exude). 



Related to Akka. bassu. bdsu ( = sand). 
Aram. xx« (^mud), Arab. badda h 
I -oozy place), and to Heb. nxg (q.v.).l 
Derivatives:^, nxa. 'X3. r»3«?- 
j'WXSm.n. nh breaking out (of sweat), 
bursting forth, seeping. I Verbal n. of 
f3X3- Sec]'3S3.1 
paxa to squeeze out, exude. I Pilp. of fX3. 
For other Pilp. forms derived 
from ys verbs cp. t3t3 and verbs there 
referred to. cp. also »d»d ( = to bubble; 
to pierce, to penetrate).! — Pilp. f 3 ? 3 
ir. v. PBH it broke out (said of a sweat), 
burst forth, oozed, 
nxsf.n. swamp, marsh. [Related toys, 
and to JAram. xxa ( = swamp, marsh), 
cp. pyla . I Derivatives : n-X3. 'JX3 ■ 
nsaf.n. nh sludge. (Formed from fa 

with suff. rv.l 
S5S3 m.n. l PBH compromise. 2NH 
achievement, realization, performance. 
[Verbal n. of y»a. Pi. ofsxa'.l De- 
rivative: '?«?. 
"2HX3adj. pertaining to achievement or 
performance. [Formed from yix? with 
"UX3 1 adj. fortified. [Pass. pan. ofiX}. See 

-1X3'". I 

"US3"adj.PBH gathered (said of grapes). 
I Pass. part, ofixs. See ixa 1 .] 

•HSSm.n.PBH inh fortifying. 2nh 
fortification, stronghold. [Verbal n. of 
ixa ( = he fortified). Pi. ofixa 1 ". 1 

xnisa adv. pbh in company, together. 
[Formed from urn? ( = society, com- 
pany), with pref. 32. 1 

'S3adj. nh swampy, marshy. [Formed 
from }'3 with sufT.'z.] 

T'SSm.n.NH gathering of onions. 
I Formed from 7$a ( = onion), on the 
analogy of words like Txp ( = har- 
vesting, harvest). Txa ( = vintage), etc. I 

DiV'xa m.n. F\v bacillus. [Late L. ba- 
cillus (-a little staff), dimin. of 
baculum ( r stick, staff), which is cogn. 
with Gk. baktron ( = staff), bakterion 
( = a little staff). See nnops.] 

nsnssf.n.MH cutting, slicing (of bread). 
[Verbal n. of yxa. See yxa and first suff. 

;r»X3adj.NH doughlike. [From px? 
( = dough). | 

njrxaf.n.NH swelling, rising. I Verbal n. 

of???. Seepxa and first suff. n:.: . | 
I'S^ m.n. vintage. [From ixa 1 . | 
HTsaf.n.PBH vintaging. [Verbal n. of 

i*?. See nxa ' and first suff.n;.! 
n'xaf.n.PBH a small boat (used in 

shallow water). I Formed froma^a with 

suff.rr...cp.n , xia.| 
7X$m.n. onion (a hapax legomenon in 

the Bible, occurring Num. 11:5 in the 
pi.). [Related to Aram, jc^xw andxfts. 
Syr. x^xa. Arab, basal, Ethiop. basal, 
and prob. also to Akka. bisru{ = onion). 
These words prob. mean lit. 'peeling 
(plant)" and are related to Arab, basala. 
Ethiop. basala ( = he stripped the bark 
ofT). cp. tore.l Derivatives: bxa. ^3. 

Vxato grow like a bulb. [Denominated 
from ^X3.| —Pi. b»3 intr. v. 1 MH he 
grew like a bulb; 2 tr. v. nh he flavored 
with onions. — Pu. tya, NH was 
flavored with onions. — Hiph. "rxan 
MH it grew like a bulb. Derivative: ^V39- 

n'Vxjf.n.NH chive. [Formed from bys 
with suff. nv;:. I 

^X^xaPBH,Vx^X3NHm.n. Ismail on- 
ion, shallot. 2 small bulb, bulblet. 
[Formed from ^X3 ( = onion), through 
reduplication of the second and third 
radical of the stem. I 

'3X3 adj. NH swampy, marshy. [Formed 
from nxa with suff. , ?.-.l Derivative: 

n'JSaf.n. nh sandpiper. I Properly subst. 

use of the f. of '?¥? and lit. meaning "a 

marshy (bird)'.] 
VX3 1 to cut off, to tear. [JAram. yx? (= he 

broke bread), Ugar. bs' ( = to tear). 

Arab, bada'a ( = he cut to pieces), 

OSArab. yx3 (= to kill). I — Qal y*3 l he 

cut off, broke; 2 PBH he broke (bread); 

3 PBH he arbitrated, compromised. 

— Pi. yxa i he achieved, accomplished 
completed, realized; 2 he cut off; 3 PBH 
he arbitrated, compromised. — Pu.yx^ 
MH was achieved, was accomplished, 
was completed. — Hith. yxann NH (of 
s.m.). Derivatives: snx?. ny'xa, yx?. 
ruyxsnn. y?3ia. yxa?, yxa.0. nyxa&. 

yX3" to be greedy. [Denominated from 
yxa.l —Qal yx? intr. v. was greedy. 

— Pi. y?a he gained by violence, 

yxam.n. gain (esp. unjust gain). [From 
yxa 1 . hence lit. meaning 'cutting off. 
For sense development cp. Gk. kerdos 
( - gain, profit, advantage), from keirein 
( = to cut short). I Derivative: yxa". 

D*yxapl. tantum pbh shallow water. [Of 
uncertain origin. It is perhaps related to 
nx? ( = swamp, marsh). I 

psato squeeze out. exude. [Related to 
Arab, bassa ( = it squeezed out, 
exuded).) —Qal pxs intr. v. PBH it 
squeezed out, exuded. — Pilp. (see 

pxato swell, [cp. Arab. basqa h ( = an 
elevated region covered with volcanic 
stones): cp. the place name npxa, Jos. 
15:39. Kin. II 22:1. 1 —Qal pxs it 
swelled, became swollen. — Hith. 

pxanr: nh it became swollen. 
Derivatives: p'X3. PX3. npxj, nipxann, 

px$ m.n. dough. [Lit.: 'that which 
swells". Frompxa. cp. rftpx. cp. also the 
second element in pxan.i Derivative: 

'jTXSadj.NH doughy, pasty. [Formed 
from pX3 with adj. suff. 'a. 1 Derivative: 


nvpxaf.n. NH pastiness. [Formed from 
7X3 withsuff.n^. | 

npxjf.n.NH edema (disease). [Formed 
frompxa according to the pattern nVyg, 
serving to form names of diseases. See 
noix and cp. words there referred to.] 

"ixa 1 to gather (grapes). [Aram. -Syr. ixa 
(=he gathered grapes). Akka. basdru 
( = to cut into pieces), PN bussruni 
( = cripple). I —Qal ixs he gathered 
(grapes). — Niph. 1X3) pbh lwas 
gathered (said of grapes); 2 was cut off. 
was destroyed. Derivatives: ixla, nxa", 
i-X3, nyxa. nixaij. 

nx3"to lessen, to humble. [JAram. and 
Syr. ixa, Mand. 1X3 ( = he took away, 
subtracted, lessened). Barth connects 
this base with Arab, barada (-were 
few).] — Qal 1X3 tr. v. he humbled (a 
hapax legomenon in the Bible, occur- 
ring Ps. 76:13). Derivative: nixj. 

nxa 1 " to make inaccessible (esp. by 
fortifying), [cp. Arab, bazira ( = was 
inaccessible).] — Niph. ixa: was made 
inaccessible, was made impossible. 
— Pi. ixa he made inaccessible (by for- 
tifying), fortified. — Pu. ix? pbh i was 
fortified; 2 was enclosed. — Hith. 
ixsnn I pbh was set apart; 2 nh he en- 
closed himself; 3NH he strengthened 
himself. Derivatives: nxs', nxa, ixa". 
nixa, flix?'. lux?", nxan, nnxsnrs. 


"saa 1 m.n. ore (a hapax legomenon in the 
Bible, occurring Job 22:24). [Of un- 
certain etymology.] 

"1X3" m.n. strength. [This meaning is 
based on T^ 3 - a hapax legomenon in 
the Bible, occurring Job 22:25. and 
usually rendered 'thy strength". De- 
rived from ixa '".I 

n^xaf.n. sheepfold (a hapax legomenon 
in the Bible, occurring Micah 2:12). 
[Formed fromixa 1 " with first suff. n;:. | 

Jlixa 1 m.n. fortress, stronghold (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring 
Zech. 9 : 1 2 in the form JlixaV). [ Formed 
from ixa" 1 with suff. TV.'. I 

inxa"m.n.PBH drought. [Formed from 
1X3" with suff. TV ;. Related tonixa . I 

rns? f.n. drought, scarcity. [Formed 
fromixa" with suff. nj. I 



'n^Sadj.NH swampy, marshy. iFormed 
from nya ( = swamp, marsh), with suff. 


pa m.n. FW bey. I Turkish beg. cp. 'beg 
(n.), and 'bey' in my CEDEL .] 

spa to become an expert. [Back for- 
mation from x-'pa ( = expert).] — Hith. 
xpann NH he became an expert, became 

piap?m.n. bottle. [Of imitative origin, 
cp. Syr. KJ13J? ( = narrow-necked jug). 
Arab. baqbaqa h (- gurgling noise), 
which are also imitative, cp.piapa. cp. 
also-uxny 1 .] 

j?l2|?3m.n. NH gurgling sound, gurgle. 
[Verbal n. of papa; see papa. I 

jlpiap? m.n. NH l a small bottle. 2 Rapis- 
trum (botany); so called because its 
fruit resembles a tiny bottle. [Formed 
from pupa with dimin. suff.|1o.] 

njpiapaf.n.NH bottle holder. [Formed 
from piapa with suff. n^p . ] 

papa to gurgle. [Denominated from 
pupa. | — Pilp. papa intr. v. mh it gur- 

ngSPBH, paMH gnat. [Aram. xpa, Syr. 
xpa. Related to Arab, baqq, baqqa h 
(-bedbug, chinch).] 

?ipaadj.PBH split, cleft. [Pass. part, of 


sipam.n. pbh splitting. [Verbal n.ofypa, 
Pi.of ypa.] 

pipa.adj.MH empty. [Pass. part. ofpps. 
Seeppa.l Derivativeimp'pa. 

"llpam.n.PBH l visit, call. 2 visitation. 
3 examination, investigation. [Verbal n. 
of -ig? ( = he visited). Pi. ofipa 1 . ) 

ttftpam.n.NH demand. [Verbal n. oftfpa 
( = he sought). Pi. offfpa.] 

nncpj f.n. fw bacterium. [Modern L. 
bacterium, coined by the German 
naturalist Christian Gottfried Ehren- 
berg in 1838 from Gk. bakterion (=a 
little staff), which is related to baktron 
(- staff), whence also L. baculum 
(-rod, stick, staff), cp. oib'va. cp. also 

n^iVi'nyps f.n. fw bacteriology. [Com- 
pounded of bakterion (see nn^pa) and 

""I??' N'p^adj.PBH expert, learned, 
skilled. [Related to Aram. -Syr. xpa 
( = he searched, proved, examined). 
Arab, baqd (-he observed.] Deriv- 
atives: mx'pa, xpa.cp. vpa". 

xjpa, K>p_5, rrpa, rrpa. f.n. pbh vetch. 
IGk. bikion, from L. vicia ( = vetch), 
which prob. derives from IE *wei-q-, 
enlargement of base *wei- ( = to bend, 
to twist), whence L. viere ( = to bend, to 

twist), vitio ( = vine). See 'withy' in my 
CEDEL and cp. 'vetch' ibid.] 

niN'pa f.n. MH expertness. skill, profi- 
ciency. [Formed from ■•pa with suff. 
mu . The word nwpa was coined by 
Rashi (1040-1105).]' 

Jfpam.n. breach, fissure, gap. I From 


yps 1 adj. NH cleavable. [Coined from 
ypa (see ypa), according to the pattern 
■779, which is used in NH to form 
adjectives denoting capability or fit- 
ness.] Derivative: mvpa. 

srj?3" adj. pbh expert, learned, skilled. [A 
secondary form of K'P 3 - F° r tne 
interchangeability of x and v see the 
introductory entry to letter x . ] 

ny^pa f.n. pbh cleaving, splitting; fissure. 

[Verbal n. of ypa; see spa and first suff. 

my'j?af.n.NH cleavability. [Formed 

fromrpa 1 with] 

mp'paf.n. NH emptiness. [Formed from 1 -:.] 

nV|3m.n.FW codfish. [Sp. bacalao, 
from L. baculum ( = a stick, a staff). See 

u ,l ?i??m.n.FW bakelite. [Named after its 
inventor, the Dutchman Leo Hendrik 
Baekeland. For the ending see subst. 
suff. '-ite' in my CEDEL . | 

ypa to cleave, break open. [Aram. spa. 
J Aram, and Syr. yps (=it burst, 
exploded), Ugar. bq' ( = to cleave, to 
split), Arab, faqa'a ( = he knocked out, 
it burst, exploded), baqi'a (= differing 
from), ba'aqa, ba'aja ( = it cleft, split), 
Ethiop. 'abaqawa (=he opened wide 
his mouth), cp. the related base yps.] 

— Qal ypa. 1 tr. v. he cleft, split, broke, 
opened; 2 tr. v. he cut a way through; 
3 intr. v. it burst through. — Niph. ypaj 
1 was cleft, was split, was rent; 2 was 
hatched; 3 was broken into. — Pi. ypa 
1 he cleft, cut through, broke open;-2 he 
tore to pieces. — Pu. yp^ 1 was split, 
was burst, was cut through. — Hith. 
ypann was cleft, was rent, was burst. 

— Hiph. ypan 1 he took by storm, took 
by assault, broke through, forced his 
way. — Hoph. ypan was taken by- 
storm, was broken through. Deriv- 
atives: yips, yipa, rpa'. yp 3 - n *ri? 3 - 
ypa 1 , ypa", nypa, nypan, mypan, 
niypann, ypap, yp^^. 

ypa/ m.n. MH split, rift, crevice; fraction, 
fragment, part. | From ypa. cp. ypa.] 

ypa" m.n. pbh 'Bekah' — half a shekel 
(in ancient times). [Lit.: 'fragment, 
part'. See ypa'.] 

nypam.n. breach, cleaving, valley. 
I Prob. not derived from ypa {- cleft, 

broke open). Related to Aram, xypa, 
Syr. xnyps. Arab. buq'a>> ( = valley, 
plain), cp.n^ypa. cp. alsonnpa.] 

rpypaf.n.NH vallecula (anatomy). [Lit.: 
'a little valley*. Formed from nypa with 
dimin. suff. n'u, as loan translation of 
Medical L. valleculla ( - little valley). ) 

nypaf.n.PBH piece of wood, splinter. 
I From ypa with suff.nj.] 

ppato be empty. (Arab, baqqa (-he 
cleft, split), Syr., prob. also Aram. -Syr. 
p'pa ( = rotten), Syr. pa (=was worm- 
eaten, decayed), cp. the related base 
pia.] — Qal ppa he emptied, destroyed, 
laid waste. — Niph. paj was emptied, 
was destroyed, was laid waste. — Pol. 
ppia he emptied, destroyed, laid waste. 
— Hithpol. pplann nh was destroyed, 
was laid waste, emptied. Derivatives: 
ppia, pip^, nppg, mppiann . 

npjpaf.n. NH fruit disease (causing 
premature dropping of unripe fruit). 
[Formed from ppa, according to the 
pattern n"?yg serving to form names of 
diseases. See na"ix and cp. words there 
referred to.] 

"lpa 1 to cleave, split. [Arab, baqara ( = he 
cleft, split), BAram. npa (=he exam- 
ined, investigated), Aram. -Syr. npa (of 
s.m.), Ethiop. baqala (-he examined, 
he punished). From the orig. meaning 
prob. developed the meaning 'to break 
forth' (said of the dawn and of light), 'to 
examine thoroughly, scrutinize', cp. 
Nab. xipaa, the title of a priest.] — Pi. 
npa 1 he sought, examined; 2 he dis- 
tinguished, differentiated: 3 visited, at- 
tended; 4NH he criticized, reviewed, 
censured. — Pu. "ij?^ 1 PBH was inquired 
into, was examined; 2 NH was criticized, 
was reviewed, was censured. — Nith. 
npanj 1 pbh was inquired into, was ex- 
amined; 2NH was visited. Derivatives: 
npa, -upa. -ij?3". nnpa. jnpa, nnpa, ipso, 

"ip3" to abandon. [A collateral form of 
h,?d.] — Hiph. Tpan pbh he aban- 
doned. — Hoph. npan pbh was aban- 

ip;3 m.n. morning. [Prob. from ipa 1 ( = to 
cleave, split), and properly denoting the 
breaking through (of daylight). It is 
also possible that ipa is related to Arab. 
bukra h (= morning) and derives from 


"ijBm.n. cattle, herd, oxen. [Related to 
Arab, baqar, baqaraK Aram. -Syr. 
xnpa, xrnpa ( = herd). These words prob. 
derive from npa ( = to split, to plow), and 
lit. mean 'the plowing animal'. J De- 
ri vatives:ipi3, -ipa', nnpa, npa. 

1J5 1 m.n. pbh cowherd. [Nomen opificis 



formed from 1^3 ( = herd) according to 
the pattern ^g. | 

ljJ8"m.n.NH critic, reviewer. [Nomen 
opiflcis formed from ip? ( = he 
reviewed). Pi. of ipa, according to the 
pattern "7^3 . | 

rnj8 f.n. l examination (a hapax lego- 
menon in the Bible, occurring Ezek. 
34:12). 2NH control, check. | Properly 
subst use of the inf. of ip3 (-he 
examined), Pi. of ipa 1 . For the ending 
see first suff. ng. Other such Pi. 
infinitives provided with the f. suff. ng 

3lij?3adv. shortly, soon. [Formed from 
3li£( = near) with pref. 33.] 

anj?Sadv. mh nearly, approximately. 
[Formed from 3np. ( = nearness) with 
pref. 33.] 

nnj?5f.n. pbh i cattle yard. 2 herd of 
cattle. [Formed from ")j?a with suff. 

njaadj.MH of cattle, bovine. [Formed 
from i£3 with suff. , a.] 

n.j?Bm.n.NH criticizer; censorious per- 
son. [ Formed from ip3, Pi- of ip3'), with 
agential suff. jg.] Derivatives: mi^i 

n«"jif? f.n. NH criticism. [Formed from 

|ij?3 with suff. nin.] 
'31J5 adj. NH criticizing; censorious. 

[ Formed from ]ip3 with suff. 'S . ] 

rn {?a f.n. l inquiry, investigation (a ha- 
pax legomenon in the Bible, occurring 
Lev. 19:20). 2NH criticism, review. 
3NH censorship. [Formed fromip3. Pi. 
of ip3', with suff. ng.] Derivatives: 

'rnjBadj.NH critical, censorious. 

[ Formed from nij?3 with adj. suff. 'a .] 
nwnjsf.n. nh criticism, censorious- 

ness. [Formed from TiTg? with suff. 


JFnjS m.n. NH critic. [Formed fromnip3 
with suff. ]g.) 

#pato ask, to quest, to search. [Phoen. 
pp3, Ugar. bqt_. Gesenius and several 
other scholars connect this base with 
Aram. -Syr. tfna, Mand. #33 (=he 
strived, agitated), Arab, bahata ( = he 
searched, examined. See Era.] — Pi. 
#P3 l he searched, sought; 2 he begged, 
prayed; 3 he intended, aimed to. — Pu. 
#23 was sought, was searched. — Nith. 
#P3n; he was asked, was summoned. 
Derivatives: #ip3, n#£3, |i$>p3. m#p3nn, 

mtfj?? f.n. l request, entreaty. 2 wish, 
desire. [Prob. subst. use of the inf. of 
#73 (- he prayed, requested), Pi.of#p3. 
For the ending sec first suff. nu For 

other such Pi. infinitives see n^a and 
cp. words there referred to. I 

#^j?B. m.n. fw 'baksheesh' (a gratuity; a 
tip). [Persian bakshish ( = lit.: 'gift'), a 
derivative of the verb bakhshidan {- to 
give), from IE base *bhag- (=to 
distribute, share out).] 

I^jfj m.n. nh an importunate person. 
[Formed from #p3. Pi. of ©pa, with 
agential suff.|g.] Derivative: ^©ps. 

'jIjtySadj.NH importunate. [Formed 
from jtf ps with suff. ■'O . \ 

nnp, a f.n. pbh hut, cottage. [JAram. xr#3 
( = valley, hole; hovel, hut), contraction 
of xni!p3 ( = valley), which is related to 

I? 1 m.n. (pi. D , 33) son [Borrowed from 
Aram, for ]3 (q.v.). cp. first element in 


1?", "IB. m.n. threshed grain or corn. 
[From ma 1 ( = to purify, select), cp. 
Arab, burr, Soqotri bor ( = wheat), 
Mahri ber, Harsusi berr (=corn, 
maize, wheat).] 

18'" adj. pure, clean. [Akka. barr 
( = pure), Arab, barr (=just, pious, 
innocent), Ugar. br ( = clean, pure). 
Related to na 1 .] 

"I3 1V , IB m.n. open field (a hapax lego- 
menon in the Bible, occurring Job 
39:4). [cp. BAram. X33. JAram. K73, 13 
( = open field), Syr. X33 ( = open field), 
Aram. -Syr. na ( = to lie uncultivated), 
Arab, barr ( = open country, inland, 
continent), Akka. barru, bdru ( = open 

15' m.n. PBH exterior, outside. [Either a 
loan word from Aram. 13. X33 
{- outside), or a semantic development 
from i3' v (=open field), under the 
Aramaic influence. See "TI3 1 ( = to set 
apart, separate, select), cp. xn^3, first 
element in 013 and second element in 

na^adv. pbh outside of (used only in the 
phrase p 13, 'outside of, except', and 
mh |}2? 13, 'excluding us'). [Frorm3 v .l 

ia v "m.n. FW bar. [Eng. bar, from bar 
( = rod), from Middle Eng. barre, from 
Fren. barre, from Late L. barra, which 
is perhaps a loan word from ancient 
Germanic languages. The Germanic 
word goes back to IE *bhoros 
( = segment, cut wood, plank, board), 
whence L. for us ( = the gangway of a 
ship). Second.] 

13' m.n. cleanness, purity. [From 13'". 
Seena 1 .] 

13" m.n. lye, alkali, potash. [From ma 1 , 
hence of same origin asia 1 . cp. n^ia . ] 

KlBm.n. son. [Aram, and Syr. emphatic 
slate ofi3'( = son).] 

K13 1 to create, [cp. Aram., Syr. X33 ( = to 
create), OS Arab. ( = to found, build), 
N13D ( = building, structure), Mahri bere 
( = to bear a child). Arab, bar a a ( = to 
create) is an Aram, loan word. I — Qal 
n^3 he created, shaped. — Niph. X735 
was created. 

ma" to be fat. [Arab, bari'a ( = to recover 
from disease), JAram. K^, "•13 ( = to get 
well, strong), cp. the related base kid" .] 
— Hiph. K-nyn 1 he made fat; 2 pbh he 
recovered (from illness), recuperated; 
3 pbh he became fat; 4MH he made 
healthy. Derivatives: na, wy^, nixna, 

K13 1 " to cut down (a forest). [Arab, bard 
( = he hewed with an axe).] — Pi. kis he 
cut down (a forest). — Pu. N}a nh was 
cut down, was cleared (said of a forest). 
Derivative: xng. 

rvtfKlB'adv. ipbh Genesis — name of 
the first book of the Pentateuch. 2 In the 
beginning. [Formed from n^xi ( = be- 
ginning) with pref. na .] 

n'tflOB" m.n. NH primeval period, crea- 
tion. [Nominalization of the adv. 
n^xi? (- in the beginning).] 

VP^Kna adj. nh primeval, primordial. 
[Formed from rvipina" with adj. suff. 

"NB1B m.n. t an identified bird in the 
Bible (a hapax legomenon occurring 
Kin. II 5:3), usually rendered by 
'fattened fowl*. 2NH swan. lOf un- 
certain origin, cp. Arab, 'abu burbur' 
(- cuckoo).] 

-nana m.n. nh prattle, babble. [Verbal n. 

Of 1373, Pi. Of 1313. 1 

'aiBPBH son of Rabbi... [From JAram. 
■•31?, which is a contraction of ^ 13 
( = son of Rabbi), and of '3"J '3 ( = from 
the house of the rabbi). See 13', 's and 

lanato babble, to prattle. [Of imitative 

origin.] —Pi. 1313 NH he babbled. 

prattled. Derivative:nai3. 
ijna m.n. pbh barbarian. [Gk. barbaros 

{- non-Greek, foreign, barbarous), 

from IE base *barb- ( = to stammer. 

stutter, unintelligible).] Derivative: 

nana adj. pbh barbarian (adj.). [ Formed 
from 1313 with suff. , 0.] Derivatives: 

nin373.°r'i l3 ?3- 

mnaijf.n. NH barbarity, barbarism. 
[Formed from^is with suff. ma.] 

DrHfijm.n.FW barbarism. [Formed 
from "• 1313 with suff. nyo.] 

Jl'am.n. nh screw. [Coined by Eliezer 
ben Yehudah (1858-1922) as a loan 
word from Arab, burgiyy, which itself 
is a loan word from Turkish burgu (of 
s.m.).] Derivatives: Jia, T?3' ^W' ^d 
second element in Jiap. 



ana to screw. iDenominated from ana.] 

— Qal ana tr. v. nh he screwed. 

— Niph. ana? nh was screwed. — Pi. 
anaNH he unscrewed. — Pa nil nh was 
unscrewed. — Hith. anann nh was 
screwed. — Hiph. anan nh he screwed. 

— Hoph. anan NH was screwed. 
Derivatives: a^an, nankin, rnanann, a:)39, 
ana^, anb;?, na,n35, ansn, na/i3n, an3B. 

^an^, ^1*75 rn.n. NH wheat groats. 
[Loan from Arab, burgul.) 

una adv. NH in quarrel, not on speaking 
terms. [Semantic development from 
Biblical Heb. Tjna (formed from T$n, 
'anger' with pref. aa, 'in'). This se- 
mantic change occurred in Yiddish, 
where raha was used as a loan word, and 
then reborrowed by NH.] Derivative: 

ma to not be on speaking terms with 
(slang). [Back formation from ta/ia.] 

— Hith. inann nh he was not on 
speaking terms. 

'JTDadj.NH spiral. [Formed from ana 
with suff. ">□.] Derivative:™'^. 

rwrijjf.n.NH spirality. [Formed from 
'jna with suff. ma.] 

|na m.n. pbh turret, military post, inn 
for travelers. [Loan from Aram, jnn, 
xjania, from Gk. pyrgos (=tower) 

— whence L. burgus ( = castle, fort), 

— which was borrowed from some 
other IE language, perhaps Pelasgian, 
and related to Ger. burg ( = city, tower), 
and Eng. borough. See 'borough' in my 
CEDEL.] Derivative:'^?/. 

una to become bourgeois. [Denom- 
inated from 'jna/'-l — Hith. Jinann nh 
he became bourgeois. Derivative: 


nwnjj f.n. nh bourgeoisie. [Formed 1 with suff. ma. | 

'Jfnaj m.n. pbh innkeeper, host. [ Formed 
fromjn? with suff. ''U.] 

wa/'adj. &n. nh bourgeois. [Fren. 
bourgeois, from bourg ( = a small town), 
hence properly meaning 'inhabitant of 
a bourg'). Bourg, burg, is of Teutonic 
origin. See 'borough' in my CEDEL and 
cp. ]n?. ""i^na/ 1 was influenced in form 
by^na 1 .] Derivative: ]nn. 

"na'to be cold; to hail. [Arab, baruda, 
barada (= was cold), Akka. barrddu 
( = to be vexatious); base of TT3 .] — Qal 
"na it hailed (a hapax legomenon in the 
Bible, occurring Is. 32:19). —Niph. 
T333 mh was covered with hail. 

— Hiph. nnan nh it covered with hail. 

— Hoph.Tjan nh it showered like hail. 

"na"to be spotted. ISyr. icna, Arab. 
'arbadu (= speckled); base of "ha. Gk. 
pardos, pardalis (- panther) are prob. 

Sem. loan words and lit. denote 'the 
spotted animal', cp.o^na.] 

"nj mji. hail, hailstone. [From ma', cp. 
Aram.-Syr. and Mand. xyja, Arab. 
barad ( = hail), OS Arab. ana ( = hail).] 

nna. adj. spotted, speckled. [ From-na n .] 
oVriJm.n.PBH panther. [Borrowed 

from Gk. pardalis ( = panther), which 

itself is prob. a Sem. loan word. See 

-na 11 .] 
DT15 nxn. I pbh a kind of garment. 2 nh 

hood, cowl. [Of uncertain origin.l 

Derivative: crn^z?. 

pTl}m.n.FW (vulg.) 'snafu', confusion, 
turmoil. [Turkish, originally meaning 

ma 1 to recover, restore, eat bread. 
[Arab, bari'a (=he became free from 
disease, he recovered from illness), Ak- 
ka. baru (=to eat one's fill), whence 
ushtabarri (=to be satiated), whence 
prob. Syr. nanpx (=he ate, fed on).] 

— Qal rrja he ate, fed. — Hiph. rrjan 
I he gave to eat, fed; 2 he served a 
mourner with food after the funeral. 

— Hoph. rrjan nh he was fed. 
Derivatives: nna, nna, nna, n$narj, 
nnan, perhaps also rrna. 

ma" to choose. [Prob. a secondary form 
of via.] — Qal n^a he chose (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring Sam. 
I 17:8). Possible derivative: nna. 

f »nna m.n. fw Brahman, Brahmin. [Old 
I. brahman (neuter) (- prayer, the 
universal soul; the Absolute), Brahman 
(m.) (= the chief god of Hindu religion). 
Of uncertain origin; possibly related to 
Old I. brhdnt- ( = high), from IE base 
*bhergh- {- high). See 'borough' in my 


WlSm.n. pbh creature. [Subst. use of 
the pass. part, of Nna. See Nna'. ] 

Nina m.n. nh cutting down a forest 
[Verbal n. ofxna. Seexna 1 ".] 

^njlna m.n. FW barograph. [Com- 
pounded of Gk. baras ( = weight), and 
-graphos, from the stem of graphein 
(= to write). Gk. baros derives from IE 
base *g»er- (= heavy), whence also L. 
gravis (= heavy, weighty). For the 
etymology of Gk. graphein see *Qi. cp. 
'tyna. cp. also npfo^a and the first 
element inn^ijlna.) 

"Una. m.n. NH gunpowder, explosion. 
[Arab, bdrud ( = saltpeter; gunpow- 

tnjjm.n. nh tapping. [Verbal n. of na 
( = he tapped), Pi. of na .] 

rjnjm.n. NH drake, duck. [Contraction 
of i}8 na, from Aram. xrj« na ( = drake, 
duck; lit.: 'son of a gander'). See na 
(=son), and tjs.] Derivatives: njng, 

[Hl"?3.n;rn3.m? 3 - 

rmnjf.n. nh duck. [Formed from rrja 
with first suff.ny. | 

]1nn}m.n. nh duckling. [Formed from 
n/13 with dimin. suff.rla.] 

rPTyijf.n.NH duck roost. [Formed from 
jyja with suff.ny.] 

innjm.n. nh duckbill. [Formed from 
rrg with suff. ]y.] 

tons m.n. FW brutto. lit. brutto, from 
Vul. L. bruttus (= raw), from L. brutus. 
SecVv 1 " 13 -1 

"•VwnBadj.FW brutal. [From L. brutus 
(= heavy, dull, stupid). Seetona .] 

"ipna adj. blessed. [Pass. part. Qalofyia". 

Dlna 1 mji. colored cloth (a hapax lego- 
menon in the Bible, occurring Ezek. 
27:24 in the pi. □"•pna). [Prob. a loan 
word from Akka. birmu, burrumu 
(= many-colored cloth), whence prob. 
also Arab, barim (- string twisted of 
white and black strands), mubran 
(= many-colored stuff).] 

Dlna" m.n. FW bromine (chemistry). 
iFren. brome (= bromine), coined by its 
discoverer, the French chemist A ntoine 
Jerome Balard (1802-76) from Gk. 
bramos (= noisome smell), identical 
with bromos (=any loud noise), which 
is related to bremein ( = to clash, roar), 
bronte (= thunder), from *brem-, a 
variant of IE base *bhrem, whence L. 
fremere{ = to roar, resound, murmur).] 

nuoin|m.n. FW barometer. [Com- 
pounded of Gk. baros {- weight), and 
me iron (= measure). See inalna and 

|1na m.n. FW baron. [Old Fren. and Fren. 
baron, oblique case of ber, from L. 
bard, genitive baronis, which is of 
Teutonic origin, cp. Ger. baro (=man; 
properly 'warrior'). All these words 
prob. derive from IE base m bher- (=to 
bear, carry). SeennlDjx, and cp. win a .] 

nrjInaf.n.FW bronze. [Fren. bronze, 

Tl t 

from It. bronzo, bronzino, ultimately 
from Pers. birinj.] 

W Via adj. FW brunette. [Fren. brunei 
( = brownish), dimin. ofbrun ( = brown), 
of Teutonic origin, enlarged with n 
from IE base *bher-( = shining brown), 
cp. 'brown' in my CEDEL. For the 
ending '-et' see suff. '-et' ibid.] 

031*1$ m.n. FW baronet. [Fren. baronet, 
formed from baron (see fins) with 
dimin. suff. -et (see suff. '-et' in my 


njT3lnjjf.n. fw Veronica, a genus of 
plants. [Prob. named after St. 
Veronica, a name derived from Gk. 
Berenike, var. of pherenike (=lit.: 
'bringer of victory'), from pherein (- to 


bring), and vike ( = victory). For the first 
clement seennlD^. The second element 
is prob. related to Gk. veikos ( = quarrel, 
strife), veikein ( = to quarrel with). See 
•Berenice' and Veronica' in my 


onj'Mlifrn.n.FW bronchitis. [Medical 
L "bronchitis, coined by Charles 
Bedham in 1808 from bronchus 
( = windpipe), from Gk. bronchos, and 
suff. -Ms. Gk. bronchos is prob. related 
to bronchothos{= throat).] 

pia. adj.NH overflowing. [Pass. part, of 
ps. Seeps. 1 

vnam.n.PBH overflowing, surplus. 
[Verbal n. of n3 (=»* overflowed), Pi. 

sh$m.n.FW [Fren. baroque, not from 
Portuguese barroco (irregularly 
shaped pearl), as generally assumed, 
but from the name of the founder of the 
baroque style, Federigo Barocci 

•in? 1 adj. l chosen. 2 clear, distinct, evi- 
dent, certain. [Pass. part, of -qa. See 
nns/'adj. sharpened. [Pass. part. Qal of 


■una m.n. imh clarification. 2PBH ex- 
amination. 3PBH consideration. [Ver- 
bal n. of ms, Pi. of ma 1 .] 
tfham.n. cypress. [A loan word from 
Akka. burd'su, whence also Aram. 
xrma. xnina, Syr. xrm?. Gk. brathy 
and L. brat us (= a kind of cypress), are 
Sem. loan words, cp. nVia .] 
Ufll? m.n. NH brushing up. [Verbal n. of 
sh3(= he brushed up), Pi. of sha .] 
rrin$m.n. food, nourishment (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring Urn. 

mi$ f.n. food (a hapax legomenon in the 
Bible, occurring Ps. 69:22). IFormed 
from ma 1 with suff.mD.] 
rrtns m.n. cypress (a hapax legomenon in 
the Bible, occurring Cant 1:17). [An 
Aram. var. ofsflia.l 
nam.n.NH tap, faucet, bung. [From 
J Aram. KT73 (= bung hole, bung), from 
rj?(= he bored, perforated.] Derivative: 

nato drill, bore; to open the tap. 
[Denominated fromna .) — Qaloa NH 
he opened the tap, tapped. — Pi. H3 NH 
he drilled, bored; he opened the tap, 
tapped. — Pu. n'a mh it was drilled, 
bored, opened (said of a tap). 
Derivatives:nvn3', njmrj, r)39. rftQ • 
ana to couple. IFormed from hi 13, hi 1? 
( = mate).] — Pi. an? nh he coupled, 
hna m.n. NH ironing, coating with iron; 
shoeing. I Verbal n. ofVna. See Vis .] 

Vnjm.n. iron. I A loan word from Hitt 
barziilu. whence also Akka. parzillu, 
Moab. and Phoen. "?na, Ugar. brsel, 
Aram, and BAram. Vng (-iron). Arab. 
firzil is an Aram, loan word. L.ferrum 
( = iron) is a Sem. loan word. According 
to my opinion the loss of the Sem. 
ending -el, resp. -illu, is prob. due to its 
having been mistaken for the L. dimin. 
suff. -ellus, -illus, and consequently 
dropped, cp. 'brass' and 'farrier' in my 
CEDEL.l Derivatives: "?ro. ]1Vt73. ^T? 3 < 

rtr?*- , 

Vtnato coat with iron. [Denominated 

from "rna.l -Pi- *73 NH he ironed ' 
coated with iron, he shod. — Pu.^r?? 
NH was ironed, was coated with iron, 
was shod. Derivative: 1 ?^. cp.Vno. 

flVnjf.n.NH Sideritis (botany). 
[Formed from "?n3 ( = iron), with suff. 
po on the analogy of the scientific 
name Sideritis, from Gk. sideros 
(=iron). cp. the Eng. name ironwort.} 

^175 adj.NH of iron: ferrous. [Formed 
from^na with suff. *3.] 

iVnjm.n.NH ironbender. [Formed from 
-7,73 with agential suff-lv-l Derivative: 

n^njf.n.NH ironbending. IFormed 
from 1^73 with suff. ma.) 

wnam.n.FW bresent, tarpaulin, tilt, 
'ling., from Dutch bresent (of s.m.).] 

ma' to go through, flee. [Ugar. brh (= to 
flee), Arab, bariha (=he went away, 
withdrew, fled), cp. mo".] -Qal rna 
ihe fled; 2PBH he eloped. — Hiph. 
msn 1 he caused to flee; 2 pbh he fled 

across the frontier, he smuggled. 
— Hoph. man 1 pbh was made to flee, 
was driven away; 2NH was smuggled. 
Derivatives: 11773. rjna'. nms. nnns, 
ma" to bolt, to fasten with a bolt 
[Denominated from nna (=bar, bolt).! 
— Qal ma it went through (said of a 
bolt). - Hiph. nnan he bolted, fastened 
with a bolt. - Hoph. m?n NH was 
bolted, was fastened with a bolt, 
irria. m n. 1 mh bankrupt. 2 nh runaway, 
deserter. IFormed from m3 with 
agential suff.p -1 Derivative: nugja. 
nurnjf.n.NH 1 desertion. 2 escapism. 

IFormed from 1073 with suff. ma .] 
tfrnam.n.NH a kind of gnat, Lepto 
conops. I From Arab, bargash. which is 
related to Heb.^vng( = flea).] 
onam.n.FW beret. [Fren. beret, occa- 
sionally written also berret, from Old 
Gascon berret <= cap), from Late L. 
birrus, also birrum (= a large cloak 
with a hood). See 0-33.] 
na adv. pbh surely, certainly. [Prob. 
shortened from k ,- ?3-1 


■n!n m.n. pbh 1 health, strength. 2 sound- 
ness. [From urn".] 

icn^adj. ifat. 2 pbh healthy, sound. 
IFromma 11 .! Derivative :nwna. 

HKnaf.n. 1 creation. 2MH the universe. 
(Formally, verbal n. of X73; see ma 1 . 
For the ending see first suff. n;;. cp. 


mKn^f.n.MH health. IFormed fromtrns 

njrnjjm.n.FW beri-beri. [From inten- 
sifying reduplication of Singhalese beri 
(- weakness).] 
niyna f .n. fw brigade. iFren. brigade. 
from brigare (=to fight), from briga 
( = strife), which is of Gaulish origin, cp. 
•brigand' in my CEDEL. cp. also 
THJ/iam.n.FW brigadier. IFren. brig- 
adier, from brigade (seeTR-n?).] 
'TTHBm.n.FW bridge (the game). I First 
mentioned as 'biritch', or 'Russian 
Whist'; of unknown origin.l 
ma f.n. food given to a sick person. 
[Formed from ma with first suff. rig. 
cp. Lihyanite br'l ( = recovery). 1 
rpiaf.n. pbh 1 creation. 2 creature. [A 

secondary form of n$na .1 
■»:av»-njsee- , :;?v>. 

ttf nam.n.NH ephemerid, May fly. 
[Compounded of 13 (=son), and dV 
( = day).l 
|1n5m.n.FW barium — a metallic ele- 
ment (chemistry). [Modern L. barium, 
from Gk. barys (= heavy), which is 
related to baros ( = weight). See mill} . ] 
jVnarrtn.PBH terrorist, bully, hooligan. 
I Of uncertain origin; possibly related to 
Akka. bardnu (= violent, impertinent, 
rebellious), a derivative of base baru.\ 
Derivatives:p3. ™1 , 73'' , } v, !3. 
nitfnaf.n.NH terrorism, hooliganism. 

IFormed from ^73 with suff. rw::.] 
■»:1'na f.n. NH terroristic. [Formed from 

]Yn3 with suff.'' a.| 

nvnaf.n. pbh health. [JAram., corre- 
sponding to Heb. win? .] 
nna" f.n. NH tapping. I Verbal n. ofna. 

T * t 

Seena and first suff.n;;.] 
nna" f.n. fw breeze. I Fren. brise, prob. 

T * 1 

from Sp. brisa{- north-east wind). ) 
rrn$' m.n. pbh runaway, fugitive (a 
hapax legomenon in the Bible, occur- 
ringls. 15:5). I From rra'.] 

nna" m.n. a noun of uncertain origin 
and meaning, occurring Is. 27:1 and 
Job 26:13 in the phrase rrnstfrt}, which 
is usually rendered by 'the slant ser- 
pent', [cp. Ugar. Itn btn brh, cor- 
responding to ryja tfrnjrn 1 ?; (Ugar. btn 
corresponds to Heb. jng ). ] 



rTHSm.n. bar, bolt, spear, [cp. Akka. 
buruhu ( = spearshaft, spear).| Deriva- 
tive: ma". 

nnnaf.n. 1 flight, desertion. 2NH bank- 
ruptcy. [Verbal n. ofnna. See ma 'and 
first suff. rv.] 

jlon^m.n.FW baritone. [Gk. baryionos 
(- heavy-toned, low-toned), com- 
pounded of barys {- heavy), and tonos 
( = tone). See pjlna and no . I 

nynsadj.FW British. [Eng. British,ftom 
Brettisc, Bryiiisc, from Bret, pi. Bret- 
las, which is of Celtic origin. For the 
ending see suff. 1 p.] 

Tp"?8adj. blessed. iBAram., pass. part. 

pa, hence equivalent to Heb. ^na 

nana f.n. PBH i kneeling. 2 brood. 3 

branch. I Verbal n. of pa ( = he knelt). 

See pa 1 and first] 
^Sm.n.FW Braille. [Coined after the 

1 - 1 

name of the inventor, L. Braille 
D^HSm.n.FW beryllium (chemistry). 
[Modern L. beryllium, from L. beryl- 
lus, from Gk. beryllos; so called 
because it was first obtained through 
isolation from beryl (by the French 
chemist Nicolas-Louis-Vauquelin in 

jnato terrorize. [Denominated from 
jlna.] — Pi. yna tr. v. nh he terrorized. 
— Hith. Tpann NH he became a 

rnjna f.n. fw barricade. [Fren., from 
barriquer (=to barricade), from 
barrique ( = a large barrel), from baril 
( = barrel). Barricade orig. meant 'an 
obstruction made with barrels'.] 

rnnaf.n.PBH selecting, selection, 
choice. [Verbal n. ofnn^. See via 1 and 
first suff. rig.] 


nnnaf.n. IPBH cleanness, purity. 2NH 
clearness. 3 evidence. I Formed from 
"una'( = purified; clear), with suff. mo.] 

nnam.n. (pi. nlnna) covenant, treaty, 
alliance. [Of uncertain etymology. 
Meyer derives it from ma 1 ( = to eat 
bread); it would have been so called 
because in ancient times it was 
customary for those concluding a 
treaty or alliance to partake of a meal. 
Several scholars, with less probability, 
derive the noun nna from rna" (=to 

rvH'af.n. 1 lye. 2NH soap. [Formed from 
nna 1 ( = to purify ), with suff. n^o. c p. na" . ] 

K 0!^$ f-n. 'Baraitha* — Tanaitic sayings 
not incorporated in the Mishnah of 
Rabbi Judah Hannasi. [J Aram., short 
for xijpa xn^no ( = the external Mish- 

nah), whence later the Heb. loan 
translation njlSTj nj^p. xnpa is f. of 
nxna, rrna {- outside, external), which 
derives from T3 ( = outside). Seei3 % .] 

pa 1 to kneel. [Denominated from pa^ 
(=knee). cp. BAram. ps (= kneeling), 
Syr. i|T3, Arab, and Ethiop. bdraka, 
OS Arab, pa (= he knelt), which are all 
denominated from the respective 
noun.] — Qal pa he knelt, bent the 
knee. — Hiph. "span he caused to kneel. 

— Hoph. pan MH was made to kneel. 
Derivatives: nana, nanan, pa^. 

•pa" to bless. [Phoen. pa ( = to bless), 
Aram. p^, Syr. pa ( = he blessed), 
Ugar. brk (=to bless), Arab, bdraka 
( = he blessed), Akka. kardbu ( = to bless 

— a metathesis form), Ethiop. mekrdb 
(- temple). M.H. Goshen, referring to 
the fact that parallelism of the bases 
brk '■> mrr is well established in Ugaritic 
and that mrr very prob. means 'to 
strengthen', suggests that the orig. 
meaning of pa was 'to be strong', 
whence developed the meaning 'to 
bless'.] — Qal (occurs only in the pass, 
part, ^na, q.v.). — Niph. pa? he 
blessed himself, wished himself a 
blessing. — Pi. pa ihe blessed; 2 he 
greeted; 3 (euphemistically) he cursed. 

— Pu. pa was blessed. — Hith. pann 
1 he blessed himself; 2 (pi.) they blessed 
each other. Derivatives: ^na. 71513, 

pa m.n. (dual D^na) knee. [cp. BAram. 
pa, Aram, xa^ia, Syr. and Mand. xana, 
Ethiop. berk, Ugar. dual brkm, Mahri 
bark, Akka. birku, burku (=knee); cp. 
also metathesized forms BAram. 
na^nx, Aram, xnaa™, Arab. rukba h 
( = k nee). See na^nx and cp. pax . ] 

na^am.n. 1 blessing, benediction. 2 con- 
gratulation. 3 gift, present. 4 (euphemis- 
tically) blasphemy. [Formed from pa" 
with first suff. ng. cp. JAram. xana, 
xnana, Syr. xnania, Mand. braka, 
Arab. baraka h , Ethiop. barakat 
( = blessing), Egypt, brk ( = gift).] 

nana f.n. pond, pool. [Together with 
Arab. birka h ( = pond), Ugar. brky 
( = puddle, pool), OS Arab, nana 
(-cistern), Egypt, brkt — of unknown 
origin, cp.n^naj .] Derivative: rrana. 

rpanaf.n. NH Anas plastyrhyncha (zo- 
ology). [Formed from nana with suff. 

D^aadv. pbh but, however. [Aram, and 
BAram. contraction of x$ na ( = lit.: 
'except what'). Seena vi (^except) and 

]jD _ n?MH 1 adv. except for us. 2n. dead, . 
deceased (euphemistically). I Aram., 
compounded ofia(= except for)andiJJ? 
(-us). I 

]na m.n. fw 'Bren' (a kind of a machine- 
gun). [Abbr. of Brno (name of the 
town) and Enfield (name of the fac- 

tfnam.n.NH 1 human being. 2 guy, 
fellow. [From Aram. ^ na ( = lit.: 'son 
of man'), from na (= son; see n3'), and 
V\, aphetic fors^x, (= man); seetflix, and 

on? m.n. pbh (pi. ppna) a heavy woolen 
blanket. [Gk. birros {- large cloak with 
a hood), from L. birrus, which is of 
Celtic origin, cp. ona . ] 

Ona to bray (said of a donkey). [Of 
uncertain origin; perhaps imitative.] 

— Hiph. opan mh it brayed (said of a 

nona see noma. 

pionam.n. nh tanning. [Verbal n. of 

'Ona m.n. pbh tanner. IGk. byrseus, from 
byrsa (=hide, leather), which is of 
uncertain origin.] 

poiato tan. [Denominated from ■ , P9na > .] 

— Pi. ppna NH he tanned. — Pu. pv}% 
NH was tanned. 

rnNj?onaf.n. NH tanning. iFormed from 
7973 with suff. mc.] 

■7073 1 f.n. pbh tannery. 2 m.n. pi. PBH 
tanner. [In sense 1 from Gk. byrsikos 
( = tanner), from byrsa ( = hide, leather), 
in sense 2 from byrsike ( = tannery), 
from byrsa. Secon^ .] 

ynato overflow. [Prob. a secondary 
form of yns'.l —Qal fna. nh it 
overflowed. — Pi. pa. NH " ne fi Hed to 
overflowing, filled to the brim; 
2 overflowed; was superabundant. 

— Pu. fna PBH was overflowing, was 
superabundant. Derivatives: fna, fna, 

pnato flash (said of lightning). 
[Aram. -Syr. and Mand. pna. Arab. 
baraqa, Ethiop. baraqa ( = it lightened), 
Sokotri brq, Egypt, brq ( = to shine, 
glitter, reflect), OS Arab, pna (= to break 
forth, burst — said of grass), cp. pnax .] 

— Qal pn$ it flashed, sent forth 
lightning. —Hiph. pnsn imh it 
flashed, glowed, glittered; 2NH he 
polished; 3NH he telegraphed, cabled. 

— Hoph. pnan 1 mh was polished; 2NH 
was telegraphed, was cabled. — Hith. 
pnann it flashed, glittered. Derivatives: 
pn?. n-pna, npna, npna, n^nan, ppa 5 , 

|?n|m.n. 1 lightning, flash, glitter. 2NH 
splendor. [From pna, whence also 
JAram.-Syr., Chr.-Pal. and Egypt.- 
Aram. x^na, Mand. xjjna. Ugar. brq, 
Arab, barq, OSArab. pna. Akka. birqu 
( - lightning). Coptic ebrece is a Sem. 
loan word.] Derivative : , 8j?na. 



»Spjm.n.PBH morning star. I From P79. 


nV»5f.n.PBH glaucoma. [Prob. formed 
from pi3 with suff. n-Q . 1 

IJ75 m.n. brier. (Of uncertain origin. 1 

nViijnjf.n. FW barcarole. (It. barca- 
rola' from barcarolo (-gondolier), a 
derivative of barca (-boat), from L. 
bdrca (- a small boat bark), shortened 
from barica, from Gk. baris, from 
Coptic baru (-boat), cp. 'barge' and 
'bark' (sailing ship), in my CEDEL.] 

n;?;jaf.n. a precious stone, usually 
identified with the emerald or with the 
agate. [Lit: 'something flashing', from 
pna. cp. Akka. barraqtu (-emerald), 
which is related to birqu ( = lightning). ] 

nj?n$f.n. secondary form of rtjft? (a 
hapax legomenon in the Bible, occur- 
ring Ezek. 28:13). 

-na'to purify, select, set apart, separate. 
[JAram. Tja, Syr. n3 (=he set apart), 
-p-13. xv-13 (= purified), Ugar. barr (-to 
be pure, be freeX Arab, barra (= to be 
free), OS Arab, vo (-to purify), Akka. 
bardru (=to shine), barm (-purified, 
pure), Ethiop. berur (-silver), cp. rna", 
cp. also -to 1 and v)atf .) — Qal "03 tr. v. 
i he purged, purified, cleansed; 2 he 
chose, selected; 3PBH he examined, 
investigated, tested, proved — Niph. 
"Qi or "na} i he kept purified himself, 
was kept clean, was pure; 2MH was 
separated, was selected, was chosen. 

— Hiph.' ^n the purified, cleansed; 
2PBH he clarified. —Hiph." ina3 MH 
l he purified, cleansed; 2 he made clear, 
clarified. — Hoph. T3}n MH was 
separated, was selected, was chosen. 

— Pi. "03 the purified; 2PBH he 
clarified; 3PBH he selected, chose. 

— Pu. -n'a mh l became clarified; 2 was 
purified; 3 was selected. — Hith. vjari;i 
1 he showed himself pure; 2PBH made 
clear, was clarified. Derivatives: "13". 
13'", n3 ,v , 13\ la', i3", rvn'a, -Qla, ina, 
ins. rnna, nyj}, 71753, ft-ja. nn^rK], 

ma" to sharpen. (Prob. related to Arab. 
bara(y) ( = he sharpened). This base 
occurs only in the form of pass. part. 
Qal -in?, in the phrase -1V13 fn (-a 
sharpened arrow), and in the Hiph. 
imper. pi. v\y) (= sharpen!).! 

rnnaf.n.NH culls, fruit of inferior 
quality. [Formed on the analogy of 
Arabic from -na' with first suff.ns.l 

nyia, rn"naf.n.PBH 1 selection, choice. 

2 possibility of choice; alternative. 

i Formed from ma 1 with first suff. ng. cp. 

nyia.l Derivatives: miyf?,''?}'!?. 
n7?rn.n. nh choosy, fastidious 

[ Formed from vn with agential suff. |Q . 1 

Derivative: nuyis. 
TiWVlJf.n.NH choosing, fastidiousness. 

IFormed fromp-13 with suff. ma.) 
nttTiaf.n.NH selectivity. [Formed from 

^nnaadj.NH selective. [Formed from 

rrna with suff. ">}Q.\ 
tthato brush. [Back formation from 

n^ao (= brush).] — Pi. ^3 tr. v. NH he 

brushed. — Pu. tf-ja NH was brushed. 

Derivatives : tfvg, tfliap, tf }32? . 
Vqtfa prep. PBH for, for the sake of. 

1 From "ra^ (- path) and pref. as (-in), 
hence lit. meaning 'in the path of. J 

DJtfaconj. because (a hapax legomenon 

in the Bible, occurring Gen. 6:3). 

IFormed from pref. 03 (-in), pref. o# 

Vltfa m.n. pbh 1 cooking. 2 ripening. 

[Verbal n. of?#3 (=he cooked), Pi. of 

W'®a adj. NH 1 fragrant 2 perfumed, 

sce'nted. [Pass. part, of D&a. See Dta 

and cp. 0103.] 
MVam.n.NH perfuming. [Verbal n. of 

Di?3 (-he perfumed), Pi. of otoa. cp. 


rntoaf.n. lnews. tidings, good tidings. 

2 reward for good tidings. [Formed 
from iteo with first suff. n?. cp. JAram. 

JT11D3, K^DS, alS0 X}1fr3. XJVjIto? 

(-news, tidings). Syr. xirqo (a 
metathesis form), Ugar. bshrt, Ethiop. 
besrdt (-good news, good tidings), 
Akka. bussurtu (of s.m.). Arab, bushra, 
bishara (of s.m.) are Aram, loan 
words. ] 

^^m.n.NH season of ripening. 
[Formed from tya (see toa) on the 
analogy of nouns as v*? (= harvest 
season), v»3 (=time of vintage).] 
Derivative: m 1 ?*^?. 

rtytf a f.n. NH ripening. [Verbal n. of ^ ; 
see tota and first suff. no .] 

W^af.n.NH ripening. IFormed from 
V-^3 with suff. wo.) 

D'foa. adj. NH fragrant, aromatic; pleas- 
ant. [From otoa. cp. cpa.] Derivative: 

nia'MPaf.n.NH pleasantness. [Formed 
from D'(?3 with suff. m a . cp. mD'p} . ] 

tottto cook. I Aram. to>3 (=it ripened), 
Arab, 'absala (-he cooked unripe 
dates), Ethiop. basala, Akka. bashalu, 
bashlu (=to cook), Sokotri behel( = to 
be cooked), Omanic m<?6s// (= cooking 
dates).] —Qal to>3 lit ripened; 2it 
boiled, cooked. — Pi. ^3 1 it boiled, 
cooked; 2 PBH he caused to ripen. 

— Pu. to??, was boiled, was cooked. 

— Hith. tyann, Nith. tyagj pbh 1 was 

boiled, was cooked; 2 it ripened. 

— Hiph. Vipan 1 tr. v. it caused to ripen; 

2 intr. v. NH it ripened. Derivatives: 

Vutfa, "7^3, n^qn. "7*3- to/a. ™ty?> *faag, 

m"?^3nn, to*?9. toft*?. to*aj?, rttyw, 

V#$adj. 1 boiled, cooked. 2NH ripe, 

mature. [From ton.] Derivative: mVipa. 
Vtpam.n. NH ripeness, maturity. [From 

to/aprep. for the sake of, because of. 

I Formed from to/ and pref. aa ( = in). | 
mtoJaf.n.NH ripeness, maturity. 

I Formed from to>3 with suff. m □. ] 
KJ3^a adv. PBH granted that. [Aram., 

formed from pref. □? ( = in), and x^, 

emphatic st. of oty ( = peace), which is 

related to Heb. alto/ (-peace). See 03 

■»»V#a adv. for whose sake. [Formed 

■ 1 v 1 

from to/3 (-for the sake of), and 'z? 

DtPato have a sweet odor. [Aram.D'pa, 
Syr. 093 (-was sweet, was pleasant), 
Aram. xipos (= sweet), Palm. (Knwn) 
nD^a (-spiced oil), Arab, bashima 
(-was affected with disgust), Akka. 
bashdmu (=to make beautiful), cp. 
oca.] — Qal d'V3 intr. v. nh was 
fragrant, was pleasant. — Pi. 0^3 1 pbh 
he perfumed, spiced; 2NH he made 
pleasant. — Pu. 0&3 1 pbh was spiced, 
was perfumed; 2NH was made 
pleasant; 3MH he became drunk, 
became intoxicated. — Hith. o?3nn 
1PBH he spiced himself, perfumed 
himself; 2 PBH he flavored himself with; 
3 NH he became drunk, became intox- 
icated. — Hiph. o^n NH 1 he spiced, 
perfumed; 2 it gave a pleasant odor. 
Derivatives: otya, otya, 0^3. oi?3' °^3- 
diw3. '•9^3. niD^snri. d^d. n9"^3p. 

DVa, ob|, DU?a m.n. \ balsam tree, Bal- 
samodendron Opolbalsamum. 2 bal- 
sam oil. 3 scent, fragrance. [From Di»3. 
cp. JAram. x?jtyia, xiaoia, Syr. x^u?a, 
Arab, basham (-spice, balsam, per- 
fume). Gk. balsamon (-balsam) — 
whence L. balsamum — is a loan word 
from Heb. 093. cp. opa. cp. also D9V3. 

Di^Sm.n. PBH spicer, perfumer. [Nomen 
opificis formed from 0&3 (=he spiced, 
perfumed), Pi. of o'wa, according to the 
pattern^?. CP.D93J Derivative :nw\y3. 

rn»^5 f.n. NH perfumery. [Formed from 

'»ip$adj. NH having a pleasant odor, 

fragrant. [Formed from D^a with suff. 

'a] Derivative: m*2?ty3. 
m»»ty$f.n. NH fragrance. [Formed from 

■•0^3 with suff.n^o.] 



njtfa. m.n. shame (a hapax legomenon in 
the Bible, occurring Hos. 10:6). [From 

n'J^f.n. NH basalt. [See n^.3. For the 
ending of n'?^ see suff. n'u.] 

Otfa to draw farm-rent (?). [Prob. a loan 
\/ord from Akka. shabdshu, shibsa 
{- to draw farm-rent). Several scholars 
connect oatf with oia (q.v.). | — Po'el 
ourta he drew farm-rent (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring 
Amos 5: 1 1). 

n?#a adv. pbh at the time of, during. 
(Formed fromnytp, c. st. of nyu* (= time, 
hour), with pref. □}.] 

"ijpato bear tidings. [Aram. n\p}, 19?, 
Arab, bashara. Ethiop. basara, Tigre 
bashshara (= he brought a joyful 
message), Ugar. bshr, Akka. bussuru, 
pussuru ( = to bring a joyful message), 
Syr. n?5 (a metathesis form of s.m.).l 
— Pi. ")$? he gladdened with good 
tidings. — Pu. n^ PBH he received 
good news. — Hith. "iftjnn (of s.m.). 
Derivatives: rnVwa, niggD, n^z?. 

"ibam.n. 1 flesh. 2meat. 3 body. 
4 creature. 5MH pulp (of fruit). [Related 
to Aram, xntya, ^9?, Syr. and Mand. 
xnipa, Ugar. bshr, OSArab. nfra 
(='skin\ or 'flesh'), Arab, bashar, 
Ethiop. bsr (=skin), Akka. bishru 
( = blood relation), cp. Egypt, bsz, bsj 
{- flesh), which is a Sem. loan word.] 
Derivatives: nulitpa, 'jnty?, 'nipa, 
mntpa. ^3. 

nwln^af.n.NH meat eating. [Formed 
from -Tipa (= meat) with suff. nul d.] 

'SVVtpa adj. NH meat eater. [Formed from 
n'ya. (= meat), with suff. 'jla.l 

n^aadj. MH fleshly, fleshy. [Formed 
from -tya with suff. -o. 1 

ninjPBf.n. NH fatness, corpulence. 
[Formed from i'yy ( = flesh), with suff. 

'S/Ya^adj. NH fat, corpulent. [Formed 
from ity3 ( = flesh) with suff. -1Q. J 

##3 seetfia. 

nu>B f.n. 1 shame, disgrace. 2 pbh in- 

demnity for having put to shame. 3 PBH 
pudenda. [Formed from ufia with suff. 
ng.cp. rnjtt3.] 

ns'f.n. (pi. rrtJ3) 1 daughter. 2girl, 
maiden, young woman. 3 native, 
inhabitant of. 4 at the age of. 5 worthy 
of, deserving. 6a village or a town 
situated near a large city. [n3 is f. of 13 
( = son), and developed from n}3, from 
orig. n}3. It is related to Ugar. bt, 
J Aram. abs. state ma, emphatic state 
xnna, Syr. emphatic state xnn3, c. st. n3, 
Arab. bint, OSArab. ru3, ro 
(= daughter), Ethiop. bent in benta 'ain 
( = pupil of the eye; cp. J?¥~n3), Akka. 
bintu and buntu (= daughter), cp. the 
first element in the private name»3E/"n3 

n5"f.n. 'bath' — a liquid measure equal 
to one nsj'x. [Together with JAram. xrg, 
xna (of s.m.), of uncertain origin, cp. 
rg" 1 . Gk. batos{- a liquid measure), is a 
Heb. loan word.] 

na "' m.n. pbh in the phrase nnx naa ( - at 
once, simultaneously). [Of uncertain 
origin. According to Levy, identical 
with ns", and lit. meaning 'with one 

nna, nna f.n. 1 wasteland. 2NH land 
covered with undergrowth. 

^n^m.n. NH a chaste young man 
(slang). [Back formation from rrjw3 . ] 

n^naf.n. 1 virgin. 2 pbh Virgo (as- 
tronomy). 3 pbh either of the two posts 
supporting the beam. [Lit.: 'separated, 
severed' (see "?na). Related to 
Aram. -Syr. x^na (= chaste young 
man), xn^na ( = virgin), Ugar. bill 
(- virgin; mostly used as the epithet of 
the goddess Anat), Arab, batul, batfl 
( = virgin), Akka. batulu, batul, batfl 
(- chaste young man).] Derivatives: 
■^n?, D'^na. 

^ina adj. NH 1 virginal, maidenly, 
chaste. 2 innocent. [Back formation 
from rtyna. For the ending see suff. ""a.] 
Derivative: m^w?. 

m»VinB f.n. NH 1 maidenliness. 2 inno- 
cence. [Formed from 'Vins with suff. 

D^namn. 1 virginity, maidenhood, 
chastity. 2 proof of virginity. [From 
■?na. cp. Syr. xni^na ( = virginity, 

pina m.n. NH a cutting off, piercing. 
[Verbal n. of pna, Pi. of pna .] 

"Una m.n. NH cutting up, cutting into 
pieces. [Verbal n. of nn3, Pi. of nna . | 

"Una adj. NH cut up, cut into pieces. 
[ Pass. part, of nns. See nna . ] 

nvna f.n. NH cutting into two. [Verbal n. 

of nns. Seenna and first suff. ng.] 
^nato separate. [Base of n^na and 

D'^na. cp. Arab, batala ( = he cut off, 

severed), cp. also Via.] 

pna to cut off. [Akka. batdqu ( = to 
cleave), butuqtu ( = tear, rent, bursting 
of a dike), Arab, and Ethiop. bat(t)ala 
( = he cut off), cp. pna'. For the 
interchangeably of the consonants 1 
and n see the introductory entry to 
letter n.] — Pi. pna tr. v. he cut off, 
pierced through (a hapax legomenon in 
the Bible, occurring Ezek. 16:40). 
— Pu. pn3_ NH was cut off, was pierced 
through. Derivatives: pina, pn^zp. 

nna to cut off. [Arab, batara, also 
malar a, Ethiop. matara ( = he cut off), 
Akka. mubattiru ( = name of an 
insect).] — Qal nna he cut into two, 
divided (a hapax legomenon in the 
Bible, occurring Gen. 15:10). — Niph. 
nna? MH was cut into two. — Pi. nro he 
cut into two, divided. — Pu. nna_ NH 
was cut into two, was divided. 
Derivatives: nina, Tina, nn'na, nna, 
jlnna, nnap, nnajp. 
nna prep, pbh after. [Aram, and Syr. 

contraction of nnx3 ( = lit. : 'in the place 

of). See 03 and nnx and cp. xnna.J 
nna m.n. piece, part. [From nna ( = lit.: 

'something cut off').] 
KnnBPBH the last. [From nn? ( = after), 

hence lit. meaning 'that which comes 

Jinna m.n. (pi. crjlnna, also nWina) deep 

valley, deep ravine (a hapax legomenon 

in the Bible, occurring Sam. II 2:29). 

(Formed from nna with suff. ria.] 


5 The third letter of the Hebrew alphabet. 
Its name is "Gimer; so called in allusion 
to the ancient Heb. form of this letter, 
representing the neck of a ^ ( = camel). 
In pbh it has the numerical value three. 
a alternates with 3 and with p; cp. e.g. pa 
and pa; m ( = cup) and Arab. qub'a>< 
( = calyx); Efij, Aram.-Syr. xtpna 
( = heap) and Arab, kadis (of s.m.); fiju 
( = pit) and Aram, xyois. Wp (of s.m.); 
nn?a. ( = brimstone), Aram. xnn;?, Syr. 
xgyns, and Arab, kibrii (of s.m.); rrauT 
and Aram. xn'?«i; n^ao and sate, salj? 
( = helmet); Jia and -po; nao and nso; bn 

MS, nxa adj. l proud, haughty. 2NH 
boastful, arrogant. 3NH conceited. 
[From nxa.] 

niuto be proud, to rise up. be high. 
[Aram, nxa ( = was proud), Syr. and 
Mand. 'xanx ( = was boastful, was 
proud), cp. Egypt g'y (-to be high).] 
— Qal njja. i rose up; 2 grew up; 3 was 
exalted. — Pi. nxa PBH he exalted, 
glorified. — Nith. ngari; PBH l he prided 
himself, boasted; 2 he exalted. — Hiph. 
nxan NH he raised, lifted. Derivatives: 
nx?, nxa, nix,?, fix|, jix^, mxa, p'xa, jrnxj, 

nxa f.n. pride, haughtiness, (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring Pr. 
8:13). [Properly subst. use of the f. of 
the adj. nxa (q.v.). cp. rnx.j.] 


rpsiaixa see n'snaix'a. 

niKJ f.n. l pride, haughtiness. 2 majesty, 
glory. [ Formed from nxa with first suff. 
7Q. cp. JAram. xmx'?, xnva, Syr. xrnj, 
xma, and Mand. xnvxa. xnra ( = pride), 
cp. alsonja".] 

Viks adj. [Pass. part, ofrxj. See^xa'.] 


, ai ! rtxasee'aV7lx ,, a. 


D'V^kj m.n. pi. redemption (a hapax lego- 
menon in the Bible, occurring Is. 63:4 
in the phrase ^ixj njc\ 'my year of 
redemption"). [From?xj' .i 

T^KJ'm.n. i glory, majesty, exaltation. 
2 pride, haughtiness. 3 rising of the 
water, tide. [Formed from nxa with suff. 
p:i. cp. Ugar. gvn ( = pride, haugh- 

pKJ 1 ' adj. i mh 'Gaon' (title of the heads 
of the academies of Sura and 
Pumbedita). 2mh title of distinction for 

rabbis. 3 nh genius. [Prob. from the ab- 
breviation of 3'pi?; fix* ( = the pride of 
Jacob), or ^xii?: pxa ( = the pride of 
Israel).! Derivatives: malxa.'pxa. 

]1KJ adj. nh proud, haughty, boastful. 
[Formed from n)x,a. with agential suff. 
p. cp.jnjxi.] 

nwiKJ f.n. l mh the 'gaonate'. 2 NH genius. 
[Formed from pxa/ 1 with suff. m::. cp. 

'3iKJ adj. NH I 'gaonic'. 2 of a genius, in- 
genious. [Formed from px$" with suff. 

ni»JiKJif.n. NH ingeniousness. [Formed 
from 'jlxa with suff. m~. cp. malxa . I 

mxa f.n. i majesty, glory, excellence. 
2 pride, haughtiness. 3 rising, swelling. 
[ Formed from nxa with suff. m~. cp. Syr. 
xnrxa. ( = magnificence, luxury, pride). ] 

jnixaadj. mh haughty, boastful, con- 
ceited. [Formed from nijta. with agential 
suff. p. cp. nSi-1 Derivatives: nunigi. 

nHrnxa f.n. nh haughtiness, boastful- 
ness, conceit. [Formed from jrnxa. with 
suff. ma.) 

rsnixaadj.NH haughty, boastful, con- 
ceited. [Formed from jrnxa. with suff. 

|VKJ adj. haughty, boastful, arrogant (a 
hapax legomenon in the Bible, occur- 
ring Ps. 122:4). [From nxa.] Derivative: 

'S^Kiadj.NH proud, haughty, arrogant. 
[ Formed from p'lja with sufT. •>£. .] 

ni'KJ m.n. valleys, [pi. of x";a. .] 

^Kl' to redeem. [Aram. ?xa (=he 
redeemed), and Samaritan ^xa (-to 
redeem) are Hebraisms.] — Qal'rxa, l he 
redeemed, delivered; 2 he acted as 
kinsman. — Niph. 'jxaj l he redeemed 
himself; 2 was redeemed, was delivered. 
Derivatives: ^x^, o^xa, nV^a, bxla, 
n^x.jn 1 . 

Vkj" to defile, pollute. [ A secondary form 
of bvi.} — Qal b$i he defiled, polluted. 

— Niph. "jxaj, >?xa} was defiled, was 
polluted. — Pi. 'rxa he defiled, polluted. 

— Pu. "?xa was defiled, was polluted. 

— Hith. b-xann he defiled himself. 

— Hiph. V'xan he defiled. Derivatives: 
^xa, m^n, n^ann, "?xaa. 

^K^m.n.MH redeemer, savior. [A sec- 
ondary form of "7x1a.] 

"?KJm.n. defilement, pollution (a hapax 

legomenon in the Bible, occurring Neh. 
13:29 in the form '>.{caj. [ From "?xa".] 
nV^a f.n. l redemption, deliverance. 
2 right of redemption. 3 price of redemp- 
tion. 4 kin, kindred. [Formed from bm' 
with first suff. ng.] 

aa 1 m.n. pit, cistern. [Related to BAram. 
3a and 31a, emphatic st. xa^ ( = pit, 
cistern), JAram.-Syr. x^ia, Ethiop. geb 
(^well, pit, cistern), Akka. gubbu (of 
s.m.). Arab, jubb (of s.m.) is prob. an 
Aram, loan word.] 

3a "m.n. board, plank (a hapax lego- 
menon in the Bible, occurring Kin. I 6 :9 
in the pi.). [ Perhaps related to 3? . ] 

3a 1 " m.n. locust (a hapax legomenon in 
the Bible, occurring Is. 33:4 in the pi.). 
[Related to 31a.] 

aJm.n. l back. 2 mound, hillock. 3 vault. 
[The literal meaning of 3a. is 'something 
curved'. It derives from 33a. cp. 3a.". n^j. 
cp. also ia and the second element in 
3ao#.] Derivative: ""^a". 

32 m.n. PBH pit, den. [BAram., related to 

Kaam.n. pit, cistern. [Related to Arab. 
jab ( = pit, cistern), and to 3a 1 , 3a. '3a .] 

mxaaf.n. pbh office of the "gabbai". 
treasurership, collectorship. [Formed 
from 'xg? with suff. m ..] 

'Kas, ■»?» m.n. pbh gabbai, i.e. head or 
treasurer of a synagogue (lit.: "collector 
of dues'). [Nomen opificis formed from 
naa( = to collect).] 

33a 1 to vault, raise, lift (whence 3j, n^j). 
2 to rake, heap, gather, collect. [Prob. 
related to 33p". cp. 173a. [ — Qal 33 a, pbh 
he raked, heaped, gathered, collected. 
— Niph. 33aj mh was heaped, was 
gathered, was collected. — Pi. 33a pbh 
he heaped, gathered, collected. — Pu. 
33^ mh was heaped, was gathered, was 
collected. Derivatives: naaa, 7333, n33|, 
313$, 3i3|. pnsa. m33ann, 3330. 3330. 3la$. 

a^a m.n. nh iheap, pile. 2 idle talk, 
verbosity. [From Aram. X33a; seen33a.] 

n33af.n. ipbh stubble, straw, rakings. 
2NH rubbish. [Formed from 33a with 

]3aam.n. nh a loquacious person. 
[ Formed from 33a with agential suff. ] , . I 
Derivative: 'jjaj. 

'353a adj. nh loquacious. [Formed from 
133* with suff. \.;. I 

nasi f.n. nh 1a heaping, gathering. 



2 loquacity; worthless talk, trash. 
[Fromaaa. Sec 331 and suff. ng.J 

naaf.n. eyebrow. [Related to 3a. cp. Arab. 

jubba h ( = bone surrounding the cavity 

of the eye), jabin ( = forehead, brow), 

aalto collect. [Aram. -Syr. xsa, Arab. 

jaba ( = he collected taxes). I — Qal nai. 

pbh he collected (taxes or dues). 

— Niph. rpaj pbh was collected. 

— Hiph. nsin pbh he made collect. 
Derivatives: 'xs?, 'isa, M3J, n»3a, ]V3a, 
naU. xjpu, nsao, n'aj?. 

aalto be high. [Aram. n3i( = was high), 
Akka. gabdni (= heights), Arab. jabha h 
(- forehead), jdbaha ( = he confronted, 
faced).] —Qal ?ga lwas high, was tall, 
was lofty: 2was exalted; 3 was haughty. 

— Niph. naa? MH he rose. — Hiph. rraari 
he made high, raised lifted. — Hoph. 
nain pbh was made high, was raised, 
was lifted. — Hith. naann pbh he lifted 
himself, exalted himself. Derivatives: 
aba, na'a. nra?, jna?, nrrsa, nnain, mnsann, 
naip.riaig. cp. naa. 

aaa, niaaadj. i high, tall, lofty. 2 exalted. 

3 proud, haughty. 4 pbh the Most High, 

the Divine. [From naa. The orig. form is 

aaa m.n. 1 height, altitude. 2exaltness. 

3 pride, haughtiness. 4 NH point of 

culmination. [Fromnai.l 
nnaaf.n. pride, haughtiness. [Formed;:.] 
]na?adj. 1 pbh haughty. 2NH tall. 

[Formed from aaa with suff. j:;.] 
mjaaa f.n. nh haughtiness. [ Formed from 


aiaam.n. nh heaping, gathering. [Verbal 
n. ofaaa.Seeaai.] 

n'niaa adj. pbh tall (f.). [f. formed from 

ttiaa m.n. fw gavotte (a lively dance). 
[Fren. gavotte, from gavoto, from gavot 
( = inhabitant of the Alps), hence gavoto, 
lit. means 'dance of the inhabitants of 
the Alps'.] 

'laj adj. pbh collected. [Pass. part, of naa. 

Wm.11. pbh collection. [From nai.] 

,! ">?"m.n. nh backing. [Formed from 3* 
and wrong grammatically.] 

^31 m.n. (p|. D'Vi3i, also nV^aj) 1 border, 
frontier, boundary, limit. 2 territory, 
district, province. [Related to Phoen. 
and OAram. "731, OSArab. n^aa, Punic 
gubulim (= border, territory). Arab. 
jubal ( = mountain); orig. 'mountain 
ride' serving as boundary line between 
two plains), cp. the first element in 
WVaa-l Derivatives: n^aa, >*aa, taa'. 

■??a$adj. mh kneaded. [Pass. part, of Vaa: 
sec "73a" 1 . 1 

^BJ m.n. pbh kneading, mixing. [Verbal 
n. of?3j. Pi. of?3i'".] 

nViaaf.n. 1 border, boundary. 2territory. 
3 bordering (of a field). (Formed from 
"?i3Jwith first suff. ng.] 

^aaadj. nh borderline. [Formed from 
"?i3Jwith adj. suff. -"g. I 

Jiaa 1 m.n. NH humping. [Verbal n. of pa, 
see |3J '. ] 

Jiaa" cheese making. [Verbal n. of pa; see 

]1aasee|1a , j. 

"riaa adj. 1 mighty, courageous, valiant, 
heroic. 2 warrior, hero. 3nh central 
character (in a novel or a drama). [ From 
131. cp. BAram. laa. JAram. -13?, xiaa, 
Syr. las, Kia? ( = hero). Arab, jabdr 
{ = omnipotent, giant, colossus, tyrant), 
is prob. a Syr. loan word] Derivative: 

rniaa f.n. strength, valor, might, courage, 
heroism. [Formed from 131 with suff. 
na cp. Samaritan gebera (of s.m.), 
JAram. xniisa, Syr. xnnsa ( = vigor, 
force, manhood). Arab, jabarut (- om- 
nipotence, might, tyranny).] 

niaaadj. NH heroic(al). [Formed from 
H31 with suff. 'u.l 

mntaaf.n. NH heroism. [Formed from aj 

tfiaam.n. NH 1 crystallization. 2consoI- 
idation. 3 stabilization. [Verbal n. of 
tfaa ( - he crystallized). Pi. of #31. ] 

tfiaa m.n. pbh gravel stone. [Prob. from 
tfaa ( - he filled with stones); seecm .] 

naa adj. 1 bald on the forehead (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring Lev. 
13:4). 2 PBH giant (cp. ri9a). [Together 
with Syr. xn3i ( = bald on the forehead), 
possibly related to Arab, jabha* 
( = forehead), 'ajbah ( = having a high 
forehead), hence related to 331 ( = to be 
high). Derivatives: nai, |naj, nnaa. 

naa to pluck hair on the forehead. 
[Denominated from naj.] — Pi. na? pbh 
he plucked hair on the forehead. 

jnaam.n. nh one bald on the forehead. 
[ Formed from n •>? with agential suff. ]:;: . I 

nnja m.n. 1 baldness on the forehead (cp. 
nni?, 'baldness on the back of the 
head'). 2 bareness (in the front of a gar- 
ment). [Formed from naa with suff. no. 
cp. Syr. xninaa (= baldness on the 
forepart of the head).] 


■>aa m.n. pbh pit, cistern. [Related to X3a .1 

■•aaadj. nh of the back, dorsal. [Formed 

from ai with suff. 'J. 1 
n»aaf.n. mh collection. I Verbal n. ofnaa 

( = he collected); see naa and first suff. 


aivaaf.n. pbh protuberance; hunch. 
[Properly verbal n. ofnaa; see naa. For 
the ending see first suff. n ;. [ 

iVaam.n. nh collection. [Formed from 
nai with suff. Tin.] 

nvaa f.n. pbh office of the 'gabbai', 
treasurership, collectorship. [A col- 
lateral form ofnixsa.] 

73a m.n. pbh eyebrow. [Related to 
Aram.-Syr. x^aa ( = eyebrow), Arab. 
jabin (= forehead, brow; facade, front; 
face), and to pi (n.) and naa.] 

nraaf.n. cheese, curd (a hapax lego- 
menon in the Bible, occurring Job 
10:10). [Related to Aram, xja^, Syr. 
xnaa, Arab, jubn, Ethiop. gebn 
( = cheese). Akka. gubnatu is an Aram, 
loan word.] Derivatives: pi", p?, "•rai, 

"•raa adj. nh cheesy, cheeselike. [Formed 
from n^aa with suff. ■• ; . ] 

Vaa m.n. 1 cup, goblet. 2 cup of gold (on 
the candlestick). 3 nh cup of a flower, 
calyx. [Related to nya^ ( = cup).] 
Derivatives: jlyaa, Taa. 

Jlyaam.n. nh a small cup; calycle. 
[Formed from yai with dimin. suff.|1r.] 
Derivative: n-tfsraa. 

n ,, 3iy , 3a f.n. Fritillaria (botany). [Formed 

from j\ raj with suff. n- ; . ] 
""V'aaadj. NH cup-shaped. [Formed from 

yaa with suff. -c.) 

T»aa m.n. 1 master, lord. 2 NH a rich man. 
[ From lai . ] Derivatives : mvaa. -ipi . 

nTaa f.n. 1 lady, queen, queen mother. 
2 NH a rich woman, (f. of ipa.] 

rpunj7lT3a f.n. NH plutocracy. [A hybrid 
coined from ipa and Gk. -kratia 
( = rule of); see rroipc] 

niTaaf.n. richness, wealth. [Formed 
from via with suff. m □. cp. ni'ipa. ] 

n^aa adj. mh rich, wealthy. [Formed 
from ipa with suff. -a.] Derivative: 

ni»l»aaf.n. the way of rich people. 
[ Formed from -npa with suff. ni a.] 

tt^aa m.n. crystal (a hapax legomenon in 
the Bible, occurring Job 28:18). 
[According to several scholars, iden- 
tical with tfpa^x (q.v.). cp. 0-93. 1 
Derivatives: p'3i, '•tt'-aa, tfittpa, n-??^3a. 

■•^aa adj. nh crystal-like, crystalline. 
[ Formed from tf-ai with suff. ^ . ] 

ni'^aa f.n. NH crystallization. [Formed 
from^aa with suff. nv :.l 

Vaa'to bound, border. [Denominated 
from ^aa.] —Qal ^ > he drew a 
boundary line, set a limit; 2 it bounded, 
bordered, was the border of: 3 it 



bordered upon, adjoined. — Niph. Vjj) 
MH was bounded, was bordered, was 
confined. — Hiph. "?'3}ri I he set bounds 
about: 2 he limited, restricted; 3NH he 
set. fixed, appointed (the time); 4MH he 
defined. — Hoph. ^ iwas bordered; 
2NH was limited, was restricted: 3NH 
was set, was appointed (said of time). 
Derivatives: V-un, nftjn, Vlaa©. "r^O- 

?3J»to twist, wind. [Base of ni!?3? and 

^3J'" to knead, mix. [ Aram.-Syr. "73* ( = he 
formed, fashioned, molded, kneaded, 
mixed, created), Arab.jabalaiot s.m.).| 

— Qal ^aj PBH he kneaded, mixed. 

— Niph. "73J3 MH was kneaded, was 
mixed. —Pi. "?3? PBH he kneaded, 
mixed. — Pu. ty PBH was kneaded, was 
mixed. — Nith. Vajrij PBH was kneaded, 
was mixed. Derivatives: Via?, ^3$, V3*. 

Vaam.n.PBH kneader. [Nomen opificum 
formed from "72? ( = he kneaded). Pi. of 
'733'". after the pattern "7^9 • I 

Vaa. m.n. PBH border. (Related to^sj.] 

v 1 

^Vaim.n. pbh lump of dough, roll of 
dough. (A dimin. formed from ^u" 1 
through reduplication of the third 

n^aif.n. twisting, wreathed work. 
[Formed from "731" with suff.m::.] 

n^aaf.n. IPBH balcony. 2NH protu- 
berance. [Prob. related to bnsi 
( = boundary).] 

|3Jm.n. MH cheese maker. [Nomen 
opificis formed from nj'3? ( = cheese), 
after the pattern ^9.] 

]3i m.n. humpbacked, hunchback gib- 
bous (a hapax legomenon in the Bible, 
occurring Lev. 21:20). [Lit.: 'curved'. 
Related to r»a| (= eyebrow); see a?. For 
the form see naa.] 

pa 1 to hump, hunch (the back). [Denom- 
inated from |3» ( = humpbacked). ] — Pi. 
J3? NH he humped, hunched (the back). 

— Pu. |3^ NH became hunchbacked. 

— Hith. pinn NH (of s.m.). Derivatives: 

]3l" to make cheese. [Back formation 
from nj'3? (= cheese).] — Pi. |3? PBH he 
made cheese, curdled. — Hith. ]3?nn 
MH was made into cheese, was curdled. 
Derivatives : n)3Jn. n«^inn" , |3?2? . ] 




nwa* f.n. mh gibbosity. [Formed from ft? 
(n.). with suff. m ..] 

pa|(also spelt, less exactly, p33|) m.n. 
1 peak, rounded summit. 2MH hump, 
hunchback. I Formed from the stem of 

jaj (adj.), through reduplication of the 
third radical.] Derivatives: pox M??*. 
paato hunch. [Back formation of fi^j -1 

— Pi. P3> he hunched. — Pu. |}3$ NH 
(see 133JJ?). — Hith. P3jnn nh became 

'J^aj (also spelt, less exactly, p«3j) adj. 
MH 1 having peaks, convex. 2 hunch- 
backed. [Formed from fai with adj. 
suff. '•a] 

m»l^3| (also spelt less exactly wjm?}) f.n. 
nh convexity. [Formed from 'i^ with 

03 J m.n. gypsum. [From mh crop} 
(= mortar, plaster, gypsum), which, 
together with Arab, jibs prob. derives 
from Akka. £assu, whence also Syr. x?g, 
whence Arab, jass.jiss.juss. qass, qiss 
{ = gypsum). Gk. gypsos ( = chalk), is of 
Sem. origin.] Derivatives: 03X 033, 'O^l. 
n^3*. oay?. 

031 to plaster. [Denominated from 03$.] 

— Pi. 03? NH he plastered. — Pu. 03? NH 
was plastered. Derivative: 0339. 

03»m.n. nh plasteur. [Nomen opificum 
formed from 031 ( = gypsum) after the 
'OSJadj. NH containing gypsum. 

[Formed from 03? with adj. suff.T...] 
rv?D3af.n. NH Gypsophila (botany). 

[Formed from 03* with suff. n^.l 
231 to be high, project. [Base of n?3J. 
n?3Jg, ^a». Related to base 33a .] 
yajfm.n. NH hill, height. [A secondary 
form of n^a (in the Bible sga. is a place 
nyaaf.n. hill, height. [Formed from ysa 
with first suff. nr;. cp. »3> cp. also 
JAram. *W}h Ugar. gb'( = h\\\), Akka. 
gab'dni( = heights).] Derivative:nj>3*. 
Vlyaa, Vyaj m.n. stalk, stem (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring Ex. 
9:31). [Formed from »33 with affixed "7. 
cp. JAram. x^y3? ( = stalk, stem). 
Properly a dimin. n.] Derivative:'^?;!*- 
'Vlsaaadj.NH stalk-shaped, stalklike. 

[ Formed from !?1»3> with adj. suff. ^ . ] 
nisaa f.n. nh hillock. [Formed from nya* 

with dimin. suff. rob.] 
131 to be strong, overpower. [JAram.- 
Syr. and Mand. 13? ( = was strong), 
OAram. iaa (=to be strong), Arab. 
'ajbara ( = he compelled, forced, over- 
powered), jabr ( = constraint), jabar- 
riyya* ( = overbearing behavior), 
Ethiop. gabara (=he acted), Akka. 
gabdru, gapdru ( = to overpower).] 
— Qal 13* 1 was strong, was mighty; 
2 he conquered, overpowered; 3 grew 
mighty; increased. — Pi- ">3» he 
strengthened . — Pu. 13? PBH was 
strengthened. —Hith. i3*nn 1 he 

prevailed; 2 he behaved himself proud- 
ly; 3 pbh he strengthened himself. 
— Hiph. -P3jri 1 he strengthened, con- 
firmed; 2MH he gathered strength, 
strengthened himself. — Hoph. lain mh 
was strengthened. Derivatives: 13*', 
-13? ". "to*, n;uaa, v?a, nn;i, ]n;j, jrnaa, 
i3an, n^jn, nn3jnn, 1329, 13^, lain, 

"I3J 1 m.n. 1 man, male. 2 warrior, hero. 
[From naa. cp. Aram, and BAram. 131, 
emphatic st. 1031, xnsia ( = man), 
Samaritan gebar, gdbar, Arab, jabr 
( = a strong young man), Ethiop. gabr 
( = worker, slave), Akka. gapru 
(-strong). Derivatives: nnsj.-'-ia?. 

"i3J"m.n. pbh cock, rooster. [From 13^'. 

m31 m.n. PBH man. [Aram. See naa.] 

"lansam.n. nh (colloq. "1373?) young 
braggart, teenager playing 'the man'. 
[Formed from n3a by reduplication of 
the second syllable.] 

| ,r n?J m.n. fw gaberdine. (Sp. gabar- 
dina, whence also Fren. gabardine 
( = lit.: 'pilgrim's frock'), from Ger. 
wallevart, Wallfahrt ( = pilgrimage), 
which is compounded of wallen ( = to 
roam, wander), and van ( = journey).] 

nnaaf.n. NH manhood, manliness, 
virility. [Formed from "13a; with suff. 

nai adj. NH manly, virile. [Formed from 
13)' with adj. suff.' :.] Derivative :ni»n3j. 

TWiaj f.n. NH manhood, manliness, 
virility. [Formed from n;} with suff. 

nnaa adv. pbh like a cock. [Formed from 

■ E * 

-13a 11 with adv. suff.nv^.] 
■"jnSladj. MH manly, manlike. [Formed 

from 13?' with suff. ^v-] 
rnaif.n. ilady, queen. 2MH mistress. 

3 nh Madam, Mrs. [ A collateral form of 

jrnaiPBH 1 adj. manly, strong. 2n. 

strong, brave. [Formed from 13$' with 

suff. io^-l Derivative :nurjnaa. 
mimsa f.n. manliness, strength. [Formed 

T t ^ I 

from jrnsi with suff. ni".J 
tf3J to fill with stones; to consolidate; to 
crystallize. [JAram. tf3*( = he heaped), 
Akka. gapshu (= thick, dense, massive), 
whence tf'sa, ( = crystal). In some 
meanings base tfaa is denominated from 
ff'3*. Related totfaa.l — Qal #3* pbh he 
filled with stones. —Pi. tfa* nh 1 he 
crystallized; 2 he consolidated, con- 
densed; 3 he stabilized. — Pu. 03; NH 
iwas crystallized; 2 was consolidated; 
3 was stabilized. —Hith. mm nh 
1 was crystallized; 2 was consolidated, 
was condensed; 3 was stabilized. 



Derivatives: tfna, tfisa, n^itfaj, 

ttfttfajm.n.MH tuber, tubercle; protu- 
berance. IProb. back formation from 

'ttWaaadj.NH tuberal, tubercular, 
warty. [Formed from ufttfaa. with suff. 
':.:.] Derivative: ru'pitfa?. 

ru»2fttfaaf.n. nh wartiness. [Formed 
from-^^a? with suff. mn.l 

n'tfitfaaf.n. pbh heap, hillock, mound. 
[Dimin. formed from tfaa. ( = he filled 
with stones), through reduplication of 
the third radical. For the ending see 
dimin. suff. rv,:. cp. tftfaa . I 

tf(23J to hill, mound. [Denominated from 
rvJiWa?.! —Pi. tftfaa nh he hilled, 
mounded. — Pu. ##33 nh was hilled, 
was mounded. — Hith. tftfaanri became 
mounded. Derivative :tf^p. 

nnaaf.n. NH tube. [From Aram. xnaia, 

* 1 % T L ' 

which is prob. related to BAram. aa, 
emphatic st. xsa^ ( = pit, cistern). See 23 . 1 

Jinaam.n. nh bunting (kind of birds). 
[Coined by Mendele Mocher Sepharim 
(c. 1836-1917) from a? (-back) and 

suff.jl ;.| 

aam.n. (pi. nlaa, also D'aj) roof. [Together 
with Ugar. gg, of unknown etymology.! 
Derivatives :rljj, jja, prob. alsorvw- 

]iaa m.n. nh a small roof; awning. 
[ Formed from a* with dimin. suff. jl a.] 

rvaa, rm^a f.n. ipbh tub. 2NH pail, 
bucket. [Prob. lit. meaning 'a vaulted 
vessel*, and formed from aa. ( = roof), 
with dimin. suff. rv:;. I 

jaam.n. NH roofer, roofmaker. [Nomen 
opificis formed from a*, according to 
pattern ^9 . | 

la'm.n. coriander. [Related to Punic 

i>" m.n. 1 good fortune, luck. 2 name of 
the god fortune (occurring often in 
Phoen. and Aram, inscriptions and as 
an element in many Phoen. and Aram, 
private names). 3MH attribute of the 
planet Jupiter. [Related to JAram.-Syr. 
K "?*' Egypt.-Aram.. Nab. and Palm, xia, 
Arab, jadd (=good fortune, luck), cp. 

*"■. m.n. pbh wormwood. [Together with 
Aram, ktj (of s.m.), of uncertain origin.) 

N*S m.n. pbh good fortune, luck. [ JAram. 

H*7f m - n -NH cherry. [Back formation 

from rrjir^ . | 

rvnvnf.n. ipbh melilote (botany). 2MH 
cherry. [Of uncertain origin. According 
to Low, the correct form is mini and 
refers to the Syr. name of the melilote, 
xrnrii. This latter word is possibly 
related to in a.] 

Tta' to cut. [ BAram. na, JAram. -na, Syr. 
Ta ( = he cut off). Arab, jadda ( = he cut 
ofT; was serious), jaddada (=he 
innovated), Ethiop. gedud (= serious, 
weighty), Akka. gadddu ( = to separate). 
Prob. related to Tip".] — Qal -na, pbh 
l he cut off (esp. the horns of an 
animal); 2 he picked (dates). — Niph. 
-naa pbh i was cut off; 2 was picked. 

— Pi. -na pbh he cut down, destroyed. 

— Hithpol. Trtann he cut himself (as a 
sign of mourning). Derivatives: Tnj, 
■ma ', -nu ", th», mna, thj, mna, nrnlann 1 . 
cp. ht^. cp. also-nj". 

TTJ" to gather in troops or bands. 
[Denominated from -ma 1 .) — Qalna, he 
attacked in bands, fell upon. — Hithpol. 
Triinn he gathered in troops, thronged. 

rna f.n. l bank (of a river). 2 nh rim (of a 
vessel). [Perhaps derived from tu (=to 
cut), and properly denoting a 
precipitous bank. cp. Arab. jidda h , 
judda h (= bank of a river), Aram, rna^ 
( = wall).) 

THa 1 m.n. I marauding band (making 
inroads). 2 troop (a division of the army 
of Israel). 3NH regiment, battalion. 
[From na 1 ( = to cut). [For the sense 
development cp. Eng. section from L. 
secare ( = to cut), division from L. 
dividere ( = to divide), cp. Phoen. Dnax 
( = ring-leader), Ethiop. gedud 

( - robber), Akka. gududu ( = marauding 
troop). Syr. m xiia ( = troop band), 
whence, according to Noldeke. JAram., 
Mand. vra,\, Arab, jund (of s.m.). cp. 
also rrp^.l Derivatives: "na". "Wina, jina, 
nna, nnna '. cp. Ti a. 

■ma 11 m.n. mound (of earth), furrow. 

tha adj. l mh cut off. 2 pbh cut (said of a 
palm tree whose dates have been 
picked. I Pass. part, of t\\ ( = he cut off). 

See na '. ) 

■ma m.n. i pbh a steep embankment. 
2NH abrasia (geology). [From na; for- 
mally verbal n. of "na. Pi. of tu 1 .] 

'hnna m.n. nh member of a regiment. 
[ Formed from ina ' with suff. ""X a. 1 

rnVTJf.n. cut, incision; (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring Jer. 
48:37). [From-ra 1 .] 

nna adj. nh regimental. [Formed from 

■ma 1 with suff. , o.l 
rvrna 1 f.n. PBH ruins of a wall. [Prob. 

dimin. of -ma". 1 

nnn> N f.n. pbh a small band, a small 
caravan. [Dimin. of "ma 1 . 1 

TCVttf.n. nh member of a regiment. 
[Formed from ma 1 with agential suff. 

VVtJadj. i great, large, big. 2 strong. 

3 noble, honored. [From Via 1 , whence 
also Syr. V-ia ( = high — said of a 
mountain), Ugar. gdl ( = great, large). 
According to Barth,"ma, stands for orig. 
gadal; Bauer-Leander, however, sees in 
it a gadul form. I Derivative: i^tj. 

Vnam.n. ipbh growing, growth. 2 pbh 
raising, rearing. 3 pbh plant. 4NH 
tumor. 5 NH development. [Verbal n. of 
"na ( = he caused to grow). Pi. of Via' .] 

DVU adj. pbh cut off, maimed, am- 
putated. I Pass. part, of oia. See ma.] 

ona m.n. nh cutting off, amputation. 

[Verbal n. of oia. Pi. of ma.] 
yi^ia adj. cut (said of a tree), cut off, 

felled, hewed down. [Pass. part, of via; 


yvia m.n. PBH i cutting (of a tree), felling, 
hewing down. 2 piece of a tree cut off. 
[Verbal n. ofyia, Pi. ofyra.] 

*yni adj. pbh disgraceful, shameful. 
[From ma.] 

1fl}m.n. scorn, abuse, reviling. [From 
ma, whence also JAram.-Syr. xm^, 
Mand. gadupa (of s.m.).] 

nsma, nsna scorn, abuse, reviling (in the 
Bible occurring Is. 45:7 and Ezek. 
5:15). [f. formed from ^na. I 

"ma adj. pbh i fenced. 2 restrained. [Pass. 

part. ofmj;seema.] 
ina m.n. pbh i fencing. 2 restraining. 

[ Verbal n. of ma ( = he fenced in). Pi. of 


tfnaadj. pbh brimful, crowded. [Pass, 
part, of tfij. Seeona'.l Derivative :mtfna. 

nam.n. ikid. young goat. 2 pbh 
Capricorn. [Related to Phoen. xta, 
JAram.-Syr. and Mand. xnj. OAram. 
xia.Ugar. gd\\ Arab, jady, Akka. gadu. 
cp. xnj . ] Derivatives : nna, ma. 

Kna m.n. pbh kid. [JAram.; seena.] 

•nna m.n. NH I dates picking. 2 dates- 
picking season. [Verbal n. formed from 

•na 11 .] 

nTHJ f.n. PBH i incision. 2 picking (of 
dates). [Verbal n. of nj. See -na 1 and 
first suff. ng.] 

.THA f.n. kid (f.). [f. formed from na.] 

•ma adj. NH of a kid. [Formed from na 
with suff. --a.] 

Vna m.n. i tassel, fringe. 2 festoon (on 
capitals of columns). [From Via", 
whence also Aram. -Syr. xnVna ( = plait 
or braid of hair), Arab. jadila h ( = braid, 
plait), cp.ftna.] 

rt^ra 1 f.n. pbh growing, growth, increase. 
[Verbal n. of Via, ( = he grew up). See Via 1 
and first suff. n.;. | 

n^"ra"f.n.NH twisting, plaiting. [Verbal 
n. of Via. ( = he twisted, plaited). See Via" 
and first suff. ng.] 



ft*7» m.n. nh Silybum (botany). [Formed 

from V-ia with suff. Jg; so called in 

allusion to the tassel-like thistles.) 
n^HJf.n. MH cutting off, felling, hewing 

down. I Verbal n. of in?- See ra and first 

suff. n.,i.| 
n^nji f.n. nh scorning, abusing, reviling, 

blaspheming. I Verbal n. of it?- See ma 

and first suff. ng. I 
rnnsf.n. inh fencing. 2PBH restraining. 

[Verbal n. of mj. See ma 1 and first suff. 

tfnj'm.n. heap, stack. [From cna 1 . cp. 
JAram.-Syr. x^nj. Samaritan amp. 
Arab, £a<fls ( = heap) is a Syr. loan 
word. I 

C^7J" m.n. mound (on a grave), tomb (a 
hapax legomenon in the Bible, occur- 
ring Job 21:32). [Related to Arab. 
jadath { = tomb).) 

ntfn»f.n. MH heaping, piling, stacking. 

1 Verbal n. of en?. See ena 1 and first suff. 

mcfHJf.n. nh overflowing. [Formed 
from tfna. with suff. mz.) 

Via 1 to be great. [Ugar. gdl ( = great, 
large), Syr. ^tj (- high), Arab, jadala 
{- became strong), Ethiop. gadala 
( = was worth). I — Qal Vtj i he grew up; 

2 became great: 3 became rich; 4 was 
brought up. — Niph. 'nai mh became 
great. — Pi. Vim he caused to grow; 2 he 
made great: 3 he raised, reared; 4 he 
magnified. — Pu. Vt^ was raised, was 
reared. — Hith. ^ann i he magnified 
himself; 2 he praised himself, boasted: 

3 pbh he was reared, grew up. — Hiph. 
Vrin i he made great; 2 he magnified: 
3 he did great things; 4 pbh he grew up, 
came of age. — Hoph. "run mh was 
enlarged. Derivatives: "?1tj, W$, n^na 1 , 
Via 1 . Wi. ruVt?, ]Vji, nVian, rnV^jriri, Via?, 
"?tjs, Vjje, nViai?, nriao. cp. the first 
element imVnao. 

Via" to twist, plait. [JAram.-Syr. and 
Mand. Via ( - he twisted, plaited), Arab. 
jadala (-he twisted firmly), Akka. 
gidlu ( = string of onions). Some 
scholars identify Via 1 and Via". Ac- 
cording to them the phases of the sense 
development of this base would have 
been 'to twist', 'to twist a cord', 'to 
make strong', 'to make large or great'. 
For a similar sense development see 
123' and ms".) —Qal Via. pbh he 
twisted, plaited. — Pi. Via pbh he 
plaited. Derivatives: Vna, nVna", ]Vna, 

Vl|' adj. growing, becoming great, in- 
creasing. [From Via'.) 

Vij"adj.MH twisted, plaited. [From 

Vnm.n. I greatness, magnitude. 2 maj- 

esty, magnificence. I From Via'.] 
V^Jm.n. pbh hairdresser. (Nomen 
opificis formed from Vja ( = he plaited). 
Pi. of Via ", according to the pattern tyg . 1 
^VjJi adj. nh not too large, not too great. 
[Formed on the analogy of P7pv 
( = greenish), D797X ( = reddish), from 
Vti$( = large, great).) 

n^7»f.n. I greatness. 2 great deeds. 3 pbh 
high position, dignity. [Formed from 
Via 1 with first suff. ng. ] 

ruViJ f.n. i mh haughtiness, arrogance. 
2NH greatness, dignity. [Formed from 
the stem ofVtta. ( = great), with 

fyfl m.n. nh haughty, arrogant. [Formed 
from Via. (=was great; see Via'), with 
agential suff.jg.) Derivative: nuVij. 

nH^7»f.n. nh haughtiness, arrogance. 
[ Formed from |Vij with suff. m z.. ] 

ma to cut off, amputate. [Syr. 07a ( = he 
cut down, hewed down), Arab.jadama, 
jadhama ( = he cut off. chopped off). 
Related to Dta . ] — Qal 07$ nh he cut off, 
amputated. — Niph. D3aa nh was cut 
off, was amputated. — Pi. 03a nh he cut 
off, amputated. — Nith. dtjtu. was cut 
off, was amputated. Derivatives: Dia. 
Dn?,Dna,DTa, dIti}". 

071. adj. pbh one whose hand is cut off, 
maimed amputee. [From ma. The 
ground form qittel serves to form adjec- 
tives denoting a bodily or mental 
defect.) Derivative: maia. 

Dna.m.n. nh stump, trunk. [From ma.] 

nwiJ f.n. nh the state of being maimed, 
the state of being amputated. I Formed 
from D^a with suff. mo. ] 

ynam.n. NH 'Gadna' — national pre- 
military cadet corps (in Israel). [Abbr. 
of -i?j"Tjna ( = youth battalions). ] 

■»»37»adj.NH related to, or connected 
with, 'Gadna'. [Formed from vjij with 
suff. v. I 

yra to cut, cut off, cut (hew) down, lop 
off. fell, destroy. [Aram, jtq, Arab. 
jada'a. Closetoyup.) — Qal yja. he cut, 
cut off, cut (hew) down. — Niph. jrjaa 
1 was cut off; 2 was smashed, was 
destroyed. — Pi. yna he cut off, 
smashed. — Pu. 23$ was cut off, was 
smashed. — Nith. y^an} nh was cutoff. 
Derivatives : via, ynj, jna, nfia, jna. 

ana adj. nh dehorned (animal). [From 
jna. For the form qittel see 03a. ] 

«pato revile, blaspheme. [J Aram. 13a 
( = he reviled, blasphemed), Arab. 
jadafa (= he cursed, blasphemed), 
Ethiop. gadafa {- he threw stones; also 
charges, accusation). Theorig. meaning 
of this base was 'to throw at, hurl at'. 
For sense development cp. Gk. diabal- 
lein ( = to throw across; to calumniate, 

slander).) — Pi. 17a he scorned, abused, 
reviled, blasphemed. — Pu. ma^ nh was 
scorned, was abused, was reviled, was 
blasphemed. Derivatives: rp-i}. »]na, 
n^na, n^na. n^-na, 197?, m^o. 

1"JJ m.n. mh long feather (in a bird's 
wing). I From J Aram. X97}. See^jx, and 

]$78 m.n. pbh abuser, reviler, blas- 
phemer. [Formed from 13a (see ma) 
with agential suff. ]g.) Derivative: 

rHjyjg f.n. nh abusing, reviling, blas- 
phemy. [Formed from 197? with suff. 

ma 1 to fence in, enclose. [Prob. 
denominated from m$. cp. J Aram. 17a 
( = he fenced in, enclosed), which is 
prob. denominated from X77}, X77J 
( = enclosing-wall), Arab, jaddara (=he 
enclosed with a wall), which prob. 
derives from jadr.jidr or jiddr ( = wall). ] 

— Qal ma. tr. v. 1 he fenced in, enclosed, 
walled up; 2 nh was fenced in. — Pi. ma 
NH he fenced in, enclosed. — Pu. ma^ 
mh was fenced in, was enclosed. 

— Hith. mann 1 pbh he boasted, was 
presumptuous; 2 pbh he distinguished 
himself; 3NH he restrained himself. 

— Hiph. Tnan mh he defined. — Hoph. 
man MH was defined. Derivatives: rrna, 
nma, mla. nyna, nnian, mmjnn, -rnao, 
ma?a, man. cp. ]1ma. cp. also maa. 

"Ha" to pick (dates). [Another reading for 
-na.) —Qal ma. tr. v. pbh he picked 
(dates). — Pi. ma pbh he cut, stabbed. 

IIJ f.n. (pi. O'mJ. also nlma) fence, hedge, 
enclosure, wall. [Related J Aram, inna., 
K7 , 7a (- fence), Arab, jadr ( = wall of 
enclosure), jadir { = walled place), 
Phoen. place name man and max, 

— whence Gadeira ( = Gades, now 
Cadix) — Berber agadir (^fortress, 
castle), cp. rrrta. nnia . ) 

rmj f.n. 1 fence, hedge, wall. 2 penfold of 
stones. [From ma 1 , whence also J Aram. 
xrrnia (= penfold of stones), Arab. 
jadira *( = of s.m.). cp. nnia . 1 Derivative: 


|ii7» m.n. nh wren (kind of bird). 
[Coined by Mendele Mocher Sepharim 
(c. 1836-1917) prob. as a loan trans- 
lation of Ger. Zaunkonig ( = wren; lit.: 
'king of the hedge'), from m$ ( = hedge), 
with suff. jl a.] 

rmif.n. wall of stones (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring Ezek. 
42:12). [A secondary form of rrrja.) 

tt^TJ' to heap up. [Aram, ttfna, Arab. 
kadasa (= he heaped up).) — Qal atja. 
1 pbh he heaped up, piled up; 2 pbh he 
measured with a large measure; 3NH it 
overflowed. — Niph. o^aa pbh was 



heaped up. was piled up. — Pi. &% nh 
he heaped up, piled up. — Pu. ©^ pbh 
1 was heaped up, was piled up; 2 was 
compressed. — Nith. aftana mh was 
heaped up. was piled up. — Hiph. tf-nan 
PBH he heaped up, piled up. stacked. 
— Hoph. Bfian NH was heaped up. was 
piled up. was stacked. Derivatives :tfna, 


tfi'am.n.PBH overflowing, surplus, 
redundance. [FromcHa'.] 

ixnsm.n. NH hygienist. [Nomen opificis 
coined from run* according to the 
pattern ^9. For the ending see agential 

nna 1 to heal. [Syr. xna ( = he fled, escaped), 
■>njs ( = he set free, delivered — esp. 
from a disease). Arab, tajahjaha 
(= receded, held back), Ethiop. gdhgeha 
(= he set free, delivered.] — Qal nna. he 
healed (a hapax legomenon in the Bible, 
occurring Hos. 5:13). — Hiph. nnan MH 
he healed. Derivatives: 'xna, nna, run*, 

nna M to blind. [Related to nm 1 .1 — Hiph. 
nrtan pbh he blinded. 

nna m to incline (said of a wall). [A 
collateral form ofnru".] — Qalnnaintr. 
v. pbh it inclined. 

nna f.n. healing (a hapax legomenon in 
the Bible, occurring Pr. 17:22). [From 
nna'. cp. nns. Several scholars connect 
nna with Arab. giha\ a collateral form 
of wajh ( = face), and accordingly ren- 
der nn? by 'face'.] 

finj adj. mh 1 cleaned, polished. 
2 pressed, ironed. [Pass. part, of fna. 
See pi 1 .] 

f^njm.n. ipbh polishing. 2MH pressing, 

ironing. [ Verbal n. of fn*. Pi. of f na . ] 
pln*m. n . mh belch, belching. [Verbal n. 

WHif.n.NH hygiene. [Formed from nna 1 

with suff. m 2.] Derivative: 'run?. 
'Pimiadj. nh hygienic. [Formed from 

^V'nif.n. nh carving, engraving. [From 

Aram. ona (= he erased, polished over). 

Seepa 1 and firsi suff. ng.] 

n rr>»f.n. nh belch, belching. [Verbal n. 

of ?% Seepna and first suff. ng.] 
n y?$f.n. nh bending over, crouching. 

Verbal n. of -ina. See -ina and first suff. 


P* 1 to clean, to iron. [JAram. ona (=he 
erased, polished over), Arab, jahasa (of 
s.m.).) — Q a i pn^ | ntr v MH he pressed, 
ironed. — Niph. f nj? 1 PBH was cleaned, 
w as polished; 2MH was pressed, was 
ironed. — Pi. ynj 1 pbh he cleaned, 
Polished; 2MH he pressed, ironed. 

— Pu. fn'a ipbh was cleaned, was 
polished; 2 mh was pressed, was ironed. 

— Hith. f nann (of s.m.). — Hiph. yvun 
MH he cleaned, polished. Derivatives: 

pn$. yw, rm'. y™, yu&. rjJuj. n^nao, 
nx'nan.cp. ntyvta. 

pa" to rejoice. [Prob. related to Arab. 
jahaza (=he looked proudly); properly 
'he had the eyeballs protruded'.] — Qal 
TiK intr. v. pbh he was glad, rejoiced. 
Derivative: fnj". 

pj'm.n. NH tidiness, neatness. [From 

yni" m.n. nh joy. [From pa".] 
pn». m.n. nh ironer. [Nomen opificis 

formed from pa ( = he ironed), Pi. of pa 1 , 

according to the pattern tysj. Seejna and 

cp. words there referred to.] 
nixna f.n. nh ironer's trade. [Formed 

from pa with suff. mo.] 

pmto belch. [Prob. of imitative origin.] 

— Qal pn? nh he belched. — Pi. pna pbh 
he belched. — Hiph. p^nan nh he caused 
to belch. — Hoph. pnan nh he was made 
to belch. Derivatives: pina, nj^na, pn?, 
npnan. cp. pntp. 

pna m.n. nh belch, belching. [Frompna.] 

"ina to bend, bow, stoop. [Related to jna. 
cp. Syr. jna, Mand. and Egypt. -Aram, 
jru (= he bent, bowed stooped).] — Qal 
ina. he bent over, stretched himself, 
crouched (a hapax legomenon in the 
Bible, occurring Kin. II 4:34 in the form 
-ina , i). Derivatives : rrrna. "ina. 

ina m.n. nh bending over, crouching. 

[From ina.] 
H l , ll'm.n. back, body. (Prob. related to 

1J", l|"m.n. inside, interior. [BAram. xu, 

Aram. la. Related to JAram., Syr., 

Mand. xjj, Arab, jaww ( = the interior 

— esp. of a house), jawwan (= inside), 
jiwa (= lowland), and prob. also to jd'a 
( = he came; orig.: 'he entered'), cp. 1aa. 

VsiJm.n. 1 redeemer, deliverer. 2 kins- 
man, relative. [Act. part, of Vxa. See 

ttftmm.n. fw gouache (a method of 
painting with watercolors). [Fren. 
gouache, from It. guazzo, orig. meaning 
'a place where there is water', derived 
from L. aqudtio ( = he act of watering), 
from aqudtus. p. part, of aqudri ( = to 
bring water for drinking), from aqua 
( = water). See 'aquatic' in my CF.DEL. ] 

3U to answer, reply, to react. [Borrowed 
from Aram, aia ( = to answer), which is 
related to Arab, 'ajdba ( = he an- 
swered).! — Hiph. ran nh ihe 
answered, he replied; 2 he reacted. 
Derivatives: ajg. naan. mao. rao, n 3 un. 

31a, 'JCJU, »31» m.n. sing. & pi. locusts. 

[Related to Aram, xsia, pi. ^la, Arab. 

jdbiyy( = locusts).] 
n3la m.n. mh collector (of debts, dues or 

taxes). iSubst. use of the act. part, of 


K}>3ia, n}>3ia f.n. pbh resp. nh collection 
(esp. of debts). (Aram., from K3J ( = he 
collected). See naa.] 

]Va1am.n.FW Gobelin. iFren. Gobelin, 
named after the French dyers Gilles and 
Jenan Gobelin, who established near 
Paris a factory of tapestry (about the 
middle of the fifteenth century).] 


"Tiato fall upon. [Denominated from tvb 
(=troop, band).] — Qal ta. he fell upon, 

Tta m.n. pbh a leathern bottle. [Together 
with Aram. -Syr. XTla (of s.m.), of 
uncertain origin.] 

HV1 m.n. fw judo (a modern form of 
jujitsu). [Japanesey'wdd, fromyw ( - soft), 
and do ( = road, way). ] 

blM m.n. pbh thumb. [A collateral form 

]D"iia m.n. pbh abuser, reviler, blas- 
phemer. [Formed from *pa with agen- 
tial suff. jg.cp. 197a.] 

VTiam.n. fencemaker; builder, mason. 
ISubst. use of the act. part, ofnia. See 

ma 1 .] 

nlvriaf.n. pi. pbh sheep living in folds; 
livestock. [From nria.] 

rni 1 f.n. back, body (a hapax legomenon 
in the Bible, occurring Job 20:25). [f. 
formed from ia'. cp. n^a .] 

rm" f.n. pride (a hapax legomenon in the 
Bible, occurring Job 22:29). [Con- 
traction of ni$j(= pride).] 

]iia m.n. nh coloring, making colorful, 
variegation. [Verbal n. ofjia. Pi. ofna.] 

tttoam.n. NH forming blocks. [Verbal n. 
ofCia, Pi. of da. ] 

TU to pass away, disappear. [Syr. na ( = to 
pass away, disappear). Arab.ydza (= he 
passed by, passed over). OSArab. na 
( = to pass by).] — Qal tj 1 he passed 
away, disappeared; 2 he caused to fly, 
sent flying, brought over. — Niph. rtaj 
he passed away, disappeared. — Hiph. 
ran PBH he sent flying, brought over 
(through the air). Derivatives: nra, njjq. 

nlam.n. shearer. [Subst. use of the act. 

tyjm.n. (pi. o'ty*. also niVjla) 1 young 
bird, chick. 2 young pigeon. 3 PBH a 
delicate child. I Related to JAram. xfrla, 
Syr. (metathesized) x^au, Arab, jauzal 
( = a young pigeon). 1 




itlJm.n. inh cutter (tailoring). 2NH njouf.n. pbh rubber band. [From wi. 

circumciser. (Subst. use of the act. part. For the ending see suff. n»o.) 

of-i!$:see-iTa.| fyjlam.n. pbh i doer. 2 benefactor, 

nchs^xf.n. fw gutta-percha. [Lit.: 'gum [Subst. use of the act. part, of *?Q}; see 

of the gutta-percha tree", from Malay "?Da".) 

getah ( = gum. balsam), and percha. pV»la m.n. pi. pbh reciprocity, [pi. of7S>la, 

name of the tree yielding this gum; act. part, of bai. ] 

influenced in form by L. gutta (=a 

'ttm.n. i nation, people. 2PBH Gentile. 
3NH an irreligious Jew. [Of uncertain 
origin: possibly related to ia. ( = body), 
and properly denoting an ethnic 
'body'. I Derivatives: rrU. nrla. *pa. 

ia m.n. pbh body. [Back formation from 

ninaf.n. fw guava. [From Sp. guayaba 
( = fruit of the guava tree), guayabo 
( - the guava tree), from Topi guajava. ) 

nia f.n. PBH a Gentile woman, [f. of la . 1 

rmaf.n. i body. 2 corpse. [Prob. related to 
ia (= back, body). For the ending see first 
suff. n^:. cp. the related JAram.. 
Samaritan xrna, Syr. x;na, and Mand. 
xm , a(= inward parts).) Derivative:'!}. 

m^af.n. mh state of being a Gentile; 
heathenism. [Formed from ia with suff. 
nu.cp. nvj.l 

"•iaadj. Gentile. [Formed from ia with 
suff. »3. 1 

?iam.n. pbh i unhewn stone. 2 parch- 
ment. [Of uncertain origin.] Derivative: 

"•Wadj.NH parchmentlike. [Formed 
f rom ^a with suff. ^ . I 

nsrnaf.n. pbh dying, death. [Verbal n. of 
via: see yia and first suff. ng. ] 

r6laf.n. i exile, diaspora. 2 (collectively) 

exiles, [f. part, of n'jj; seenba". cp. Arab. 

jalin ( = one emigrating), jdliya* (=a 

company of exiles).) 
nVte m.n. exile. [Subst. use of the part of 

rft\ : see n'tt" and cp. n^la . 1 

VVfam.n. i pbh stone covering the 
entrance of a burial cave. 2MH 
tombstone. I From V?a . 1 

iViam.n. fw golf. [Eng. golf: of uncer- 
tain origin. It derives perhaps from 
Dutch coif, colve, kolf ( = club for 
striking balls).) 

f!?ia see;f f|, 

]ia m.n. pbh color, tint, hue. [From 

Aram, and Syr. xpj. See pa.) 

Derivatives: pa, paij, n'pa, rjap, naiao. cp. 

the second element in ""J^n, ■•jlaoo. njaog. 

'pa:n. cp. alsoxji?. 

pa to color. [Denominated from pa.) 

— Pi. pa NH he colored, made colorful, 
variegated. — Pu. p^ nh was colored, 
was made colorful, was variegated. 

— Hith. pann mh changed color, was 
variegated. — PU. (see pia). Deriv- 
atives: p«, nwjnn, pajD. 

Naiam.n. pbh i color. 2 manner, way. 
[Aram., from PcTs.giin,giine(- color).) 
Derivative: p.|. 

aaiam.n. fw gong. [Malay gong, of 
imitative origin.) 

Vuvam.n. fw jungle. [Hindustani 
jangal ( = desert, forest), from Old I. 
jangalah ( = dry ground, waste land, 
desert), which is of uncertain origin.) 


nVitrta f.n. fw gondola. [It. gondola, 
from gondola ( = to waver, vacillate), 
which is prob. of imitative origin.) 

JV 1 ?™* adv. pbh invertedly (said of 
writing), writing (Hebrew) from left to 
right. [Prob. of Persian origin.) 


JUiam.n. NH tinge. [Formed from pj 
through reduplication of the a.) Deriv- 
atives: pia.'juij. 

JUiam.n. NH tingeing, tinting, variega- 
tion. [Verbal n. of pia.) 

"•awa adj. nh multicolored, variegated. 
[Formed from ppa. with adj. suff. ■•■;.) 
Derivative: ni'jHij. 

m»JUW f.n. nh variety of colors, variega- 
tion. [Formed from ■• a.) 

'3laa NH combining form meaning 
'-colored' (as in 'payi, 'multicolored'). 
I Formed from pa, c. st. of p|, with suff. 

',:.) Derivative: nrjia^. 
ttfya m.n. fw goulash. [Hungarian gulyas n i»j1aa nh combining form meaning 
(hus)(Yn.: -meat of a herdsman'), from '-coloredness' (as in nvjUqn, 'multi- 

gu/ya(= herd). | 

"PlKDUm.n. nh foam rubber. [Com- 
pounded of Dia, a contraction of '$« 
( = rubber), and tir ( = air). ] 

nxpw seenija. 

, 9Hm.n.FW rubber. |L. cummi, gummi, 
from Gk. kommi, ultimately from 
Egypt. kmj-l.\ Derivative: n«pu. 

coloredness, variegation'). [Formed 
from 'pao with suff. ma.) 

n'Siaf.n. nh nuance. [Formed from pa, 
with dimin. suff. n'^.) 

JJiato tinge, tint, variegate. [PH. of pa.) 
— Pil. |jia nh he tinged, tinted, 
variegated. — Pu. ja^ nh was tinged, 
was tinted, was variegated. — Hith. 

piarin nh changed color, was 
variegated. Derivative quia, 
oia to cut, break. I Related to oa: .) — Qal 
0} pbh he cut, broke. — Hiph. cran pbh 
he stirred, mixed. — Hoph. ojin nh 
was stirred, was mixed. Derivative: 

OOlaadj. pbh dying, moribund. [Pass, 
part, of 09$ (=he was dying); see ooa.) 
Derivative: moola. 

moplaf.n. nh state of dying. [Formed 
from opla with suff. nin.) 

via to die, perish. [Arab.yd'a ( = he was 
hungry; he starved), yd';' ( = hungry), 
jit' (= hunger). For sense development 
cp. Old Eng. steorfan. Middle Eng. 
sterven ( = to die), with Eng. starve ( = to 
die from hunger). — Qal jp$ he died, 
expired, perished. — Hiph. y^jn mh he 
caused to die. Derivative: ny^ia. 

tf»1a adj. NH stormy, storming, agitated. 
[ Pres. part, of ffya; see tfya.) 

*pato close, shut. [Aram. «pa. Arab. 
'ajdfa (=he shut). Syr. rpjnx ( = was 
shut). Related to ^sa. cp. n^j. ) — Qal ^ 
pbh he stopped, closed, shut. — Hiph. 
"pan he closed, shut (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring Neh. 
7:3 in the form id^). — Hoph. ^an 
PBH was closed, was shut. Derivatives: 
n^an. «pazj. nyiao, «^id. cp. *#t). 

r\n m.n. pbh (pi. D^ia, also nlsia). i body. 
2 substance, essence. [Related to 
Biblical Heb. n?ia, Aram, x^a ( = body, 
person). Tigre gof ( = body inside). 
Arab, jafa (-was hollow), cp. x$ia. cp. 
also i?".) Derivatives: ^w. n;9«. «p9«, 

KDWm.n. ipbh body. 2 pbh the subject 
dealt with. 3NH proper; the very thing. 
[Aram., emphatic St.. lit. meaning 'the 
body'. Secpa.) 

n$Uf.n. body, corpse (in the Bible oc- 
curring only Chron. I 10:12 in the c. st. 
ngu and in the c. st. pi. nbia). [See *pa 
and cp. Arab.///a*( = corpse).] 

'Dia adj. mh bodily, corporal, physical. 
[Formed from «pa with suff. , ,.l 
Derivative :m*9ia. 

.TJDia f.n. NH undershirt. [Formed from 

<pa with suff. n* j.] 
ni»pwf.n. mh corporeality. [Formed 

from n^w with suff. mc.) 
«p?*a m.n. NH corpuscle. [Dimin. formed 

from «pa through reduplication of the 


J^am.n. pbh script, kind or form of 
letters. [Perhaps borrowed from Gk. 
grapheion ( = writing), from graphein 
( = to write). I 

^Uadj.MH bodily, corporal, physical. 
[Formed from <pa with suff. "•}>,•. I 



Derivative: m'}?'*- 
nw^Hf.n.MH corporeality. [Formed 
from , )9« with suff. mu.) 

W?" sec u^. 

yu adj. pbh of small stature, short. 
[From J Aram, yn, KjfU ( = short; lit.: 
'cut off"), from J Aram, pa ( = to gnaw, 
bite; to bite off; to cut off, be short), 
whence also J Aram, pj (- gnawing, 
biting). See pa .] Derivative: ni»jpa. 

pvam.n. fw cockroach. [Yiddish, from 

TU 1 to sojourn, dwell. [J Aram, na ( - to be 
a stranger, sojourn, dwell), Phoen. -u, 
Ugar. gr ( = a foreign resident, sojourn- 
er). Arab, jdwara (=was the neighbor 
of), giwdr (= neighborhood). The orig. 
meaning of this base prob. was 'to turn 
off, leave the way' whence 'to be a 
stranger, to sojourn'.] — Qal -ij he 
sojourned, dwelled. — Hithpol. "ntonn 
1 he sojourned, dwelled; 2 it burst forth. 
Derivatives : -ia, mvrtanri, ilaij ' , D-ni ao . 

1U" to fear. [A secondary form of -u\] 
— Qal "ij was afraid, feared. 
Derivatives: -1IJ9", niiao, rnuo" . 

■na 1 " to attack. [Arab.y'dra 'al{= he acted 
wrongfully against); possibly related to 
base ma.] — Qal ia he attacked, 
assailed (a hapax legomenon in the 
Bible, occurring Ps. 59:4 in the form 

■M, IN m.n. (pi. Dnw, also Dnia; f. rnu) 
cub, whelp. [Related to Aram, -ua, inia, 
Syr. k;i», Arab, y'arH>, jirw ( = cub, 
whelp), Akka. germ ( = whelp).) 
Derivative :n , ii a. 

■H"l1a adj. fw Gordian. [Lit.: 'pertaining 
to Gordius\ king of Phrygia, or the 
knot tied by him.] 

rnrm f.n. fw 1 guard. 2(fig.) elite, a 
choice part. [Fren. garde ( = watching, 
keeping, custody).] 


nVnia f.n. fw gorilla. [Gk. gorilla, from 
an African word quoted by the Punic 
navigator Hanno in Periplus (about 
470 B.C.E.).] 

n^af.n. pbh a young female cub. [f. 
formed from-ua.] 

Vila m.n. 1 lot. 2 portion. 3 fortune. [The 
orig. meaning of Vjl* prob. was 'a small 
stone, pebble, a small stone for casting 
lots', hence it is related to Arab, jaral, 
jarwal (- stones. pebbles). Gk. 
korallion ( = coral), is prob. formed 
from Heb. "7-5131 with Gk. dimin. suff. 
-ion. cp. Vilp.] Derivatives: "na, '"^a. 

*^» adj. nh fateful, fatal. [Formed from 
VnUwith suff.rj.l Derivative: m'^U. 

W^a f.n. nh fatefulness. [Formed 
from V)1 a with suff. nv^.] 

Dllam.n. 1 pbh cause. 2 nh factor. 3NH 
multiplier (mathematics). [Subst. use 
of the act. part. ofD-ij-.seeoia'.] 

■nlam.n. NH trailer, tugger. [Subst. use 
of the act. part, of -nj; see via 1 , cp. 

nnnla f.n. nh tugboat. [Subst. use of the 
act. part. f. of -nj; see ma 1 , cp. mla .] 

tfia m.n. 1 clod, lump of earth (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring Job. 
7 :5). 2 PBH ball. 3 NH group, block. 4 nh 
bloc. [Related to Aram, k^u ( = clod. 
lump of earth), and according to 
Ruzicka to Aram. xntfaij, Syr. xritfa-ij 
( = clod, lump of earth). Barth connects 
uMa with Arab. juthwa , '( = heap of earth 
or stones).] Derivatives: ^u, tf-'Ufta, 

ttfu to form a block. [Denominated from 
tfia.l — Pi. tfia nh he formed a block. 
— Pu. tfjj a block was formed. 
Derivative: smj. 

'pw adj. j mh compact, massive. 2NH of 

the block. [Formed from tfia with adj. 

tt^tfu m.n. NH grain, particle. [Dimin. 

formed from tfia through reduplication 


'JUftJi adj. nh compact, massive. 

[ Formed from tf ia with suff. ""j ^. 1 
Kjjstfu, njjstf ia see n^gri^. 

Ttfaadj. fw Gothic. [Late L. Gothicus, 
from Gothus ( = Goth), from Gk. 
Foithor, Goithor, Gothoi, from Gut-, 
the first element in Goth, Gut-piuda 
( = the Gothic people). For the ending of 
■•nU see suff. 'p.] 

Tj' m.n. pbh (pi. am) 1 falcon. 2 a kind of 
wasp. [Of uncertain origin.] 

TJ" m.n. fw gas. [The word gas was first 
used in its usual sense by the Belgian 
chemist Van Helmont (1577-1644). 
The word is not his invention, although 
he says that it suggested itself by Gk. 
chaos. The word gas was used by the 
first time by Paracelsus (died in 1541), 
who named the air by it. Derivative: 
mj. cp. the first element in yYui. 

ta m.n. j shearing; the shorn wool; fleece. 
2 mowing, mown grass. [From na.] 

t'Jm.n. fw jazz. [Eng. jazz, an 
American Negro word of African 

l$ta m.n. 1 treasurer. 2 NH cashier. 
[Together with JAram. jo^jj, Syr. 
X53IJ. K^pa ( = treasurer), Mand. 
K-in'TJNa (= high priest), borrowed from 
Pers. ganzabara ( = treasurer), from 
ganj ( - treasure), whence Heb. tjj, 
Aram. tjj. See tja.l Derivative: nn^ia. 

nn^T»f.n.MH treasurership. (Formed 
from i^a with suff. m a . 1 

nn to cut, cut off. [Aram.-Syr. xja (= he 
cut off, deprived of), Syr. 'tj (=he 
bereaved, deprived of), arm?!? ( = a 
childless woman). Arab.jiza*{=ht cut 
into pieces). A secondary form of ttj.) 
Derivative: jvtj. 

n« f.n. 1 shorn wool, fleece. 2 pbh (the 
act of) shearing. [Formed from na with 
first suff. ng, Whence also JAram. v.\\, 
Syr. xma, Mand. xrira ( = shorn wool, 

nijadj. pbh cut, shorn, clipped. [Pass, 
part, of ttj. See na.] 

ma m.n. nh cutting, shearing. [From 

Ti?a m.n. nh aerated soda water, mineral 
water. [Frormj.] 

vrvsmi, nnipnra f.n. (pbh and nh resp.) 
(pi. ni-ipma and nlinomj) balcony, 
porch. [Gk. exostra (- balcony; lit.: 
'something thrust out"), from ex(=out 
of), which is related to L. ex ( = out of), 
and othein (^ to thrust).] 

^tj adj. pbh robbed. [Pass. part. of7Tj. 

pVliam.n. fw [Eng. gasoline, a hybrid 
coined from gas (see tj) and L. oleum 

Dm' m.n. PBH cutting (branches), clip- 
ping, pruning. [Verbal n. of chj, Pi. of 
DTa 1 .] 

DHa"m.n. MH 1 exaggeration. 2 threaten- 
ing, threat. (Verbal n. of wj, Pi. of 

11TJ adj. 1 mh cut. 2 decided, decreed, 
ordered. 3NH derived. [Pass. part, of 
-itj. See-na.] 

"Ma m.n. mh cutting (with scissors or 
clippers). [From-iTa.J 

TTa to cut off, shear. [JAram. na, Syr. tj, 
Arab, jazza (= he cut off, shore), 
Aram, xjj, Syr. xma ( = wool), Akka. 
gizzu sha seni ( = sheep-shearing, 
wool), cp. the related base ma.] — Qal 
na. he cut, shore (sheep). — Niph.' rlaj 
was cut off, was destroyed. — Niph." 
mj was cut off, was shorn, was cupped. 
Derivatives: ttU tj, mj, ma, ma, ttj. nnj, 

TO m.n. pbh shearer. [Nomen opificis 
formed from na( = to shear), according 
to the pattern ^9.] 

mona see moma. 

t 1 in,: tli 1 

nujf.n. nh ringworm. (Formed from TTa 
according to the pattern n^yg serving 
to form names of diseases. See n^s 
and cp. words there referred to.] 

Ml adj. nh gaseous, gassy. [Formed 
from tj with suff. 'a • 1 

Tnj'm.n. pbh piece, fragment. (Aram. 
khj, from ttj ( = he cut). See na . ] 



ftj" adj. nh shcarablc. ICoined from in. 
( he shore; sec in) according to the 
pattern V-y?. which is used in NH to 
form adjectives denoting capability or 
fitness. I 
nrw f.n. pbh cutting, shearing, clipping. 
[Verbal n. of ttj. See m and first suff. 
VTA m.n. PBH log of wood. (From in. I 
via adj. nh that can be cut. ICoined 
from 1TJ ( = he cut; see in), according to 
the pattern to'?, which is used in nh to 
form adjectives denoting capability or 
nVTA f-n. NH cutting, cutting out. I Verbal 

n. of I??. See in and first suff. n^-l 
TNI f.n. hewn stones. I From nn ( = to 


to to rob, to seize, plunder. [Phoen. to, 
J Aram, and Mand. to( = he tore away, 
robbed), Arab, jazala ( = he cut off).] 
— Qal to, he seized by violence, 
plundered, robbed. — Niph. to; was 
taken away, was robbed. Derivatives: 

to m.n. i robbery. 2 the thing robbed. 
[From to.] 

to m.n. NH robbing, robbery. I From to/, 
see to.] 

ntof.n. irobberv. 2 the thing robbed. 
[From to. I 

]Vum.n. PBH robber, brigand. [Formed 
from to with agential suff. ]:,.] 
Derivatives: nuto^ -)^tj. 

nijtof.n. mh robbery. [Formed from 
jto. with;.] 

^toadj. nh like a robber, predatory. 
[ Formed from jto with suff. -,".1 

era 1 to cut down, hew down. [Aram.- 
Syr. dt3 and Dia ( = he cut down, hewed 
down). Ethiop. gazama, ATab.jazama, 
jadhama, jadama ( = he cut off). OS- 
Arab. DfJ and an ( = to cut off, maim). 
cp.Dn" and oil. cp. alsoDDD.] — QalDn, 
NH he cut. clipped, pruned. — Niph. 
DT13 MH was cut off. was clipped, was 
pruned. — Pi. d?j pbh he cut. clipped, 
pruned. — Pu. Dn NH was cut, was 
clipped, was pruned. Derivatives: 
DMi 1 . dtj. nail. prob. also o:a. 

on" to exaggerate; to threaten, [Prob. 
borrowed from JAram. This base is 
prob. identical with an' . The phases of 
sense development prob. are: cut; 'to 
speak in a cutting or sharp manner; to 
exaggerate; to threaten'.] — Pi. on PBH 
i he exaggerated; 2 he threatened. 
— Pu. oy NH was exaggerated. — Hith. 
enrn nh was exaggerated. — Hiph. 
D'un mh i he exaggerated; 2 he 
threatened. — Hoph. Dnn nh was ex- 
aggerated. Derivatives: Din". «o^, jot?. 


Dtj m.n. locusts. [Prob. meaning lit. 

'cutter', and derived from on 1 , cp. 

Akka. kisimmu ( = name of an insect).] 
DTJ m.n. nh trimmed branches. (From 

DTJ'. I 

X)jtj», n»T£f.n. pbh (pi. nlD|j and MKiynJ 
exaggeration. [Aram., from on 1 '.] 

|»« m.n. nh exaggerator. (Formed from 
on" with agential suff. |g.| Derivative: 

niaiwaf.n. nh exaggeration. [Formed 
from t,d*3 with suff . nv^. I 

n»TJ f.n. NH trimmed branches. [Verbal 
n. ofoi?/. see on 1 and suff. nc] 

yratocut, cut off. [Base of y&. cp. Arab. 
jaza'a ( = he cut off). Ethiop. gaze'a 
(-he sawed into two). I 

ytam.n. i trunk, stem of a tree. 2NH 
stock, race. [From yn. cp. Arab.jidh', 
Syr. xym ( = trunk, stump of a tree).] 
Derivatives: "yr?, nuyia. ^yTj. 

"•ytaadj. NH racial, pure-bred. [Formed 
from yn with suff. -:.\ Derivative: 

ni'ywf.n. NH racial purity. [Formed 
from ■'yi? with suff. nc ] 

n»yta f.n. nh racism, racialism. [Formed 
from yn with suff. nug. ] 

■»J»tj adj. NH racial, racist. [Formed from 
yjj with suff. ng.l 

-itato cut; to decree, to decide. 
[Aram.-Syr. -in ( = he cut; he circum- 
cised). Arab, jazara (=he cut off. 
slaughtered), Ethiop. gazara ( = he cir- 
cumcised). Tigre gezrat ( = circum- 
cision), cp. ru.l —Qal -ig >he cut. he 
cut off; 2 he decided, decreed; 3 PBH 
he prohibited; 4MH he derived a word. 
— Niph. "in? l was cut off; was re- 
moved; 2 was divided; 3 was decided, 
was decreed; 4 NH was cut. — Pi. in NH 
he cut. — Pu. ny NH was cut. 
Derivatives: -im, -m?, -ma. v\l ">"]}■ n 7I?' 
-in', in. rqia. Wh ">I?o. "W- ^W- 
Dnno, in?, vnn. cp. the first element in 

Wm.n.NH cutter. [Nomen opificis 
formed from nn (=he cut). Pi. of in, 
according to the pattern b-yg. cp. Arab. 
jazzer ( - butcher). I 

-jt*' m.n. t piece. 2 PBH block. [ From in.] 
lTJ"m.n.MH carrot. [Related to Aram. 
-ill. Arab, jazar ( = carrot), cp. the 
second element in "in/Titf . ] 

H'llft m.n. PBH sentence, [in in H"in is 

c. st. of in. which derives from -in. For 

the second element see n . I 
rnTAf.n. i being cut off (a hapax 

legomenon in the Bible, occurring Lev. 

16:22 in the phrase rnn thk. 'solitary, 

desert land"; lit.: Mand cut off'). 2PBH 
decree, edict. 3 pbh prohibition. 
[Formed from in with first suff. n;,, cp. 
Arab, ardjuzur ( = desert land). ] 

rntftf.n. I figure, cut, shape. 2 carving, 
polishing. 3MH conjugation (gram- 
mar). 4NH sector (geometry). [From 

]1*nam.n. NH etymology. [Coined by 
M.H. Segal (1876-1968) from -in, (= he 
derived; see in) and suff. \\~. ] 

"•Slnta adj. NH etymological. [Formed 
from |1iiJ with suff. \j.) 

inn m.n. nh cutter. [Formed from -vra. 
Pi. of "in, ( = he cut; see in), with 
agential suff. \^.\ 

tfpnta m.n. nh hay cutter. [Com- 
pounded of -ii? ( = he cut; see -in), and tf p 
( = straw).] 

m see nn. 


nm 1 to draw forth (a hapax legomenon in 

the Bible, occurring Ps. 22:10 in the 

suff. part.-na). [Prob. related to nn.] 
am" to incline (said of a wall). [A 

collateral formofnni" 1 .] — Qalnraintr. 

v. it inclined (said of a wall). Derivative: 

n * nJ - 
■sjina m.n. pbh laughter, smile, giggle. 

[Verbal n. of i\n% ( = he laughed). Pi. of 

]ina m.n. i belly (of reptiles). 2NH venter 

(anatomy, zoology). [Prob. derived 

fromjna.] Derivative: ^Inj. 

jina adj. pbh bent, stooped, awry. [Pass. 
part.ofjn|. Seejni.] 

"•llnaadj. mh ventral. [Formed fromjlna, 

with suff. v:.l 
rnnaf.n. mh reclining. [Verbal n. ofrmj. 

Seenna" and first suff. n s ;.] 
nsTia f.n. nh laughter, smile, giggle. 

[Verbal n. of ^\n\- See -\m and first suff. 

arnaf.n. mh bending, stooping. [Verbal 

n.ofjna. Seejnaand first suff. n T .| 

"|nato laugh. [From Aram, ^nj (= he 
laughed), which is related to Heb. pri$ 
(of s.m.). See pnx.] — Qal -]n\ intr. v. 
pbh he laughed, smiled, giggled. — Pi. 
•^nj nh (of s.m.). — Pu. ^ nh was 
laughed at, was made ridiculous. 
Derivatives: ipni, n^na, n;n?. i?nj. ijnao. 

nana f.n. nh farce, burlesque. [Formed 
from Tjnj (see -jm) with first suff. n... .| 

?3nam.n. pbh joker. [Formed from tjhj 
with agential suff. ]/] Derivatives: 

n»Dnaf.n. nh joking. [Formed fromijrjj 

with suff. m::. I 
^sni adj. nh i ridiculous. 2 jocular. 

[ Formed from ^tja with sulT. \...\ 
Vmto burn like coal. [Back formation 



from nbni ( = burning coal). I — Qal bn$ 
intr. v. mh it burned like coal. — Niph. 
^na? mh was kindled. — Hiph. "rrun 
l intr. v. MH it burned like coal; 2tr. v. 
NH he kindled. 

?nam.n. mh burning coal. I Back for- 
mation from nbni.] 

y^nam.n. nh a small coal. I Formed 
fromn^na through reduplication of the 
b.] Derivative: ^Vrta. 

^PlJ adj. nh coal-like; shining. 
[Formed from'rVna. withsuff. v:.| 

n^'Vnjf.n.NH firefly. [Coined by the 
Hebrew poet H.N. Bialik (1873-1934) 
from n^na ( = burning coal), through 
reduplication of the third radical. For 
the ending see suff. rvp. 1 

JV^PU f.n. NH carbuncle (skin infection). 
[ Formed from n^na ( = burning coal), on 
the analogy of Eng. carbuncle, which 
ultimately derives from L. carbunculus 
( = a small coal; a tumor), dimin. of 
carbd(- coal).] 

n^na f.n. (pi. Q^ru) burning coal, ember. 
[Related to Amharic gala ( = it glow- 
ed), Yemenite jaihal, mijhal (=wood 
put under the boiler), and prob. also to 
Akka. guhlu ( = a shining precious 
stone), cp. Arab, jahama (= he kindled, 
set on fire), jahima, jahuma ( = it 
burned), jahim ( = fire, hellfire, hell).] 
Derivatives: bm, bn}. b^bni. rvV ,l ?n?, 
n ,! ?nj. cp.pan?. 

nijna f.n. nh caprice. [From jlDqa. (q.v.).] 
Derivative: jijrjj. 

]ian»m.n. pbh incendiary (this is the 
explanation of the name ona in Gen. 
Rabba). [For another explanation of 
this name see rlnDj. cp. Arab, jahama 
(= he set on fire). J Derivative: nonj. 

JJjna, ">a»naadj. nh capricious. [Formed 
from nijna. with suff. \. f . | 

jnato curve, bend, bow, stoop. [Aram. 
jrjJ, Syr. jna, Egypt. -Aram, and Mand. 
pa (=he bent, bowed, stooped). 
According to Barth related to Arab. 
janaha {- he inclined, leant. ]na is prob. 
the base of rinj. cp. nna .] — Qal jrja. intr. 
v. pbh he bent, stooped. — Hiph. ■prun 
tr. v. he bent, stooped. Derivatives: pnj, 

»S m.n. pbh (pi. D'tpa or r»i?a) i legal docu- 
ment. 2 specifically short for n^x ca. 
( = letter of divorce). [Together with 
JAram. x^a, borrowed from Akka. 
gitiu, which is a Sumerian loan word.] 
toa m.n. fw (pi. rrix^) ghetto. [It., 

perhaps aphetic for borghetto, dimin. 

of borgo ( = a small market town, 

borough), which is of Teutonic origin. 

See 'borough' in my cedel.I 
'J, K'| m. & f.n. (pi. nV^*, also rrtjra) 

valley, vale. I Of unknown etymology, 
cp. the first clement in olarra. . | 
i ] 1K"»» fw geo-. [Gk. geo ( = pertaining to 
the earth), from ge ( = the earth). Of 
unknown origin.! 

lOtr'a-W'Si m.n. fw jiu-jitsu. [Japanese 
ju-jutsu ( = lit.: 'ten tricks'), from ju 
( = ten), and juts ( = trick). | 

f|^alK , a m.n. fw geographer. [Back 
formation from n^^K , j.l 

"•pnaiifa adj. fw geographic(al). [See 
rppTriN'a and adj. suff. Vj.] 

rrsnalioaf.n. fw geography. [Gk. geo- 
graphia ( = description of the earth), 
from geographos (- earth-describing), 
which is compounded of geo (see clx'j) 
and -graphia (see rrspnan.] 

JVpTiN^af.n. fw geodesy (the science of 
determining the shape and size of the 
earth). [Gk. geodaisia ( = division of the 
earth), compounded of geo- (see C\tri) 
and the stem of daiesthai ( = to divide). 

DPDnoiS'a m.n. fw geotropism (ten- 
dency to grow toward the center of the 
earth). [Ger. Geotropismus, coined by 
the German botanist Albert Bernhard 
Frank in 1868 from Gk. geo-, Gk. 
trope ( = a turning) and suff. -ismus. See 
o\k% ■'Bl-ii? and suff. or-p. ] 

aiViioa m.n. fw geologist. (Back for- 
mation from rraVTlN - "?.] 

'jiViN^ adj. fw geologic(al). [Back for- 
mation from rraVrtN-'a. For the ending 
see suff. ""p.] 

rPaiViX , 'af.n. geology. (Modern L. 
geologia ( = the study of the earth), to be 
distinguished from Med. L. geologia, 
which was used in the sense of 'the 
study of earthly things', (esp. applied to 
law). Compounded of geo- and -logia. 
See 3lN'a, and rraV?a . ] 

nwaiK^aadj. fw geometric(al). [Back 
formation from nnijHjIirjL For the 
ending see sulT. \j.\ 

nnuntenf.n.FW geometry. [Gk. geo- 
metria ( = geometry), lit.: 'measurement 
of the earth', from geometres ( = land 
measurer, geometer), which is com- 
pounded of geo- and metrein ( = to 
measure), from metron ( = measure). 
See dIk 11 !! and -109.] 

■ntMJ?1x , >a adj. fw geocentric. [Com- 
pounded from geo- (see alN , a.), kentron 
( = point, prickle, spike, oxgoad) and 
suff. -0. cp. nipj^rj. cp. QpVjtpw and 

Ita'am.n. fw gibbon. (Fren. gibbon a 
name of Indian origin brought to 
Europe by the Marquis Joseph- 
Frangois Dupleix (1697-1763), gover- 
nor general of the French possessions 

in India.) 
Vria"»'a m.n. fw gigolo. [Fren., from 
gigoier( = to move the shanks, to hop), 
from gigue (-shank, fiddle), which is 
of Teutonic origin.] 
rpra see ^aa. 

"VI m.n. 1 sinew, vein. 2 pbh penis. 
[ Related to Aram, xya, Syr. xivl, Akka. 
gidu ( = sinew).] Derivative: tj. 
Tato cut veins. [Denominated from-rj. 
cp. Aram. -Syr. -r»a ( = he cut veins).] 
— Pi. t»a tr. v. pbh he cut veins. — Pu. 
T!? PBH he had his veins cut. 
Derivatives : -n»j, -pan. 

"rxn v a m.n. fw jihad (religious war 
against unbelievers). I Arab, jihdd 
(-contest, war), propel v inf. of 
jdhada ( = he waged war), f 1 ; \ jdhada 
(= he applied himself to).] 

Disrra, Darpam.&f.n. hell. I ig. spelt 
Dian-'a and meaning 'the valley of Hin- 
nom', shortened from Di3n"]3 'a ( = the 
valley of the son of Hinnom), a valley 
south-west and south of the old city of 
Jerusalem where children were 
sacrificed to Moloch; see ■•?. Arab. 
jahannam ( = hell) is borrowed from 
Qjrpa,. Gk. geeina is also a Heb. loan 
word.] Derivative: 'pUrra. 

"•piarraadj.NH hellish, infernal. [Formed 

fromnlarra with suff.-^.] 
TPam.n. nh cutting veins. [Verbal n. of 

Ti, Pi. of tj . ] 

N»a m.n. NH gasification. [Verbal n. of 
T'j, Pi. ofra.] 

O^am.n. nh mobilization, recruitment. 
[ Verbal n. of o*a. Pi. ofo'a.] 

pam.n.NH cutting, milling, engraving. 
[Verbal n. ofy*a, Pi. off a.] 

"ii'»m.n. pbh proselyte. [JAram. Seen?.] 
Derivatives: rni'a, va. 

"Vi s am.n. nh proselytizing. [Verbal n. of 
va. Pi. of-va.] 

rni»af.n. pbh a proselyte woman. If. of 

nva f.n. pbh state of being a Gentile; 
heathenism. I A secondary form of 

]nra adj. pbh haughty, boastful, con- 
ceited. [A secondary form of jmsa. 
(q.v.). cp. fn? 1 *? and jr^j.] Derivative: 

nunya adj. nh haughtiness, boastful- 
ness, conceit. (Aram, xnwrji. Formed 
from ]nyi with suff. ma.] 

pa to gasify. [Denominated from ia.] 
— Pi. i»a nh he gasified. — Pu. t^ nh 
was gasified. Derivative: N»a. 

iramji.FW geyser. [Icelandic Geysir. 
name of a geyser in Iceland, lit. mean- 
ing 'the gusher', from geysa ( = to 



rrato burst forth. [BAram. JC«^9 ( = lhe V 
burst forth). JAram.-Syr. nj, Arab. 
jdha (- it burst forth), cp. nrw and naa .] 
— Qal n\ intr. v. it burst forth. — Hiph. 
n'jn he caused to burst forth. 
Derivatives: nrnj, nnjq. cp. nna 1 . 

nrra f.n. nh bursting forth. I Verbal n. of 
nj. Sec rra and first suff. nj. 1 

virpa adj. pbh red-skinned, red-faced. 
[Of unknown origin.! 

rntf»a f.n. fw guitar. [Sp. guilarra, from 
Arab. qitdraK from Gk. kilhara, from 
PeTs.sihtdr. cp.-i^-] 

Wto rejoice. [Ugar. gl (-to rejoice), 
Arab, yd/a ( = he went round, wandered 
about). Tigre gola (-to dance and 
sing), cp. base V?i.] — Qal ^ he re- 
joiced, was glad. Derivatives: *| , >?". 

V'l' m.n. joy, gladness, exultation. (From 

W" m.n. age (a hapax legomenon in the 
Bible, occurring Dan. 1:10). [Related 
to Samaritan ^a, Arab, jil (-age), 
OS Arab. V-a and x"na ( = altogether). 
Derived from Vu and lit. meaning 
circle.] Derivatives: 'xH" , V" , i- 
'«V»a m.n. NH a person of the same age. 
[From Aram-'K^J ( = of the same age), 
from "r J ( = age). See *a" and suff. ȣ.] 
rnWf.n. fw guild. [Middle Eng. gilde, 
from Old Norse gildi ( = payment, 
contribution, fraternity).] 
nV»af.n. joy, gladness, exultation. [Ver- 
bal n. of "?j (= he rejoiced). See *?*} and 
first suff. np.] 
^a adj. NH pertaining to a certain age. 
[Formed from W with suff. 'p.] 
nroi'W f.n. FW guillotine. [Fren. gw//- 
/orine, named after its inventor the 
physician Joseph-Ignace Guillotin 
(1738-1814). His aim in inventing this 
machine was to make the execution of 
those condemned as swift and painless 
as possible.] 
Vla'a m.n. pbh a kind of muzzle for the 
calf to prevent it from sucking. [Of 
uncertain origin; perhaps derived from 
i ?Di(=to wean).] 
]1a'a m.n. pbh of the same meaning as 
ViD'i (q.v.). [Another reading for 'rtD-'a. 
cp. m1o' , a . ] 
rvsto'af.n. pbh band, chord, strand. [Of 
uncertain origin. Perhaps derives from 
jlo'J and orig. meant 'something 
intertwined, something interlaced'.] 
tcnoij'a f.n. pbh explanation of the sense 
of a word by substituting for it another 
word, so that the numerical value of the 
letters constituting either word is 
identical. [Usually connected with Gk. 
geomelria (= geometry), but prob. a 

metathesis of Gk. grammateia ( = play 
upon letters), from gramma ( = letter; 
lit.: 'that which is written'). See ma.] 
Derivative nooa. 

^$»a f.n. pbh (pi. yityi) 'gimeP, name of 
the third letter of the Hebrew alphabet. 
[Related to ^\ ( = camel); so called in 
allusion to the ancient Hebrew form of 
this letter representing the neck of a 
camel, cp. dj (n.), xi?a ( = gamma).] 

rroaa'a f.n. fw secondary school, high 
school. [Gk. gymnasion ( = gymnastic 
school, school), from gymnazein ( = to 
practice gymnastic exercises; lit.: 'to 
train naked'), from gymnos (= naked); 
so called because the athletes trained 
naked. cp.n^D-"?.] 

n^a^a f.n. fw gymkhana. [A blend of 
Hindustani gend-khdna ( = ball house), 
from gend (-ball), and khdna 
(= house), and Eng. gymnastics, which 
derives from Gk. gymnasticos, from 
gymnazein (see rroiz?""*).] 

T?i3 v a m.n. FW genocide. [Lit.: 'killing a 
tribe 1 . A hybrid coined from Gk. genos 
(-race, tribe), and L. -cfdere, from 
caedere ( = to kill); see ]} and rm;x. The 
correct form would be genticide, in 
which both elements are of Latin 
origin. The word genocide was 
introduced by Raphael Lemkin in his 
"Axes Rule in Occupied Europe" 

rraftlp'jn f.n. fw gynecology. [Com- 
pounded of Gk. gyne (= woman) and 
logia (see n;aV?D). Gk. gyne derives 
from IE *g»und, *g»end (-woman), 
whence also Old I. gna, gand ( = wife of 
a god, goddess), jdnih (-wife), Old 
Eng. cwen (= woman, wife, queen).] 

on m.n. pbh brother-in-law. [Aram.- 
Syr. xo'a, aphetic for x^fl, which is of 
uncertain origin.] Derivative:^'?. 

0?a m.n. pbh army corps, legion. 
iRelated to Aram, xo;a, Syr. ko^j (=a 
troop, a band of robbers), Arab, jaysh 
(= army).] Derivatives ica, o;j. 

D'lto mobilize. [Denominated from o?J. 
cp. Arab, jayyasha ( = he levied troop), 
from jaysh (-army). —Pi. ?.a tr. v. 
pbh he mobilized, recruited, enlisted. 

— Pu. oil NH was m0Dilized > was 
recruited, was enlisted. — Hith. O'ann 
MH he volunteered, enlisted. Deriv- 
atives: CH»a, mo»jnn, oyp, D.'jnp. 

VI m.n. NH mobilizer, recruiting officer. 
[Nomen opificis formed from o?j 
(-army corps), according to the pat- 
tern ^5.] 

K^am.n. pbh side. [Aram. The proper 
spelling is x$? (- Syr. x^aj.l 

n^if.n.MH sister-in-law. [f. formed 
from cj . ] 

9''»m,n.FW jeep. [Eng. jeep, prob. con- 
traction of gee pee, i.e. GP, the initial of 
General Purpose (Car).] 

p ,I ?ns v a m.n. fw 'jiftlik', state domain. 

inD'JKalso jnpj) adj. pbh haughty, 
boastful, conceited. [A secondary form 
of jnva (q.v.).] Derivative: nun!?'?. 

n»ns , a(also nun?*) f.n. nh haughtiness, 
boastfulness, conceit. [Derived from 
jn p* with] 

pa to cut, to mill. [Denominated from 
J Aram. pa. ( = gnawing, biting), part, of 
pi.] — Pi. pj tr. v. nh he cut, milled 
with a cutter, engraved. — Pu. p_£ nh 
was cut, was milled with a cutter, was 
engraved. Derivatives: p»j, pj, n^j. 

Yll m.n. NH cutter, miller, engraver. 
I Nomen opificis formed from pa (- he 
cut, milled with a cutter, engraved), ac- 
cording to the pattern by? .] 

pam.n. NH cutting, milling, engraving. 
[ From pa; see pa.] 

niPa f.n. NH cutter, mill, engraving tool. 
[Formed from pa (see pa) with suff. 

va m.n. i lime (a hapax legomenon in 
the Bible, occurring Is. 27:9). 2NH 
chalk. [Related to BAram. kt* 
(-plaster), JAram. xya (-lime), Syr. 
xin ( - birdlime), OSArab. ova ( = lime), 
Tigre gerger (-chalkstone). All these 
words are ultimately borrowed from 
Akka. kiru (-chalkstone), which itself 
is a loan word from Sumerian gir (of 
s.m.). Arab, jayydr, jir (-lime), are 
Aram, loan words.] Derivatives: -tj, 

■va to convert to Judaism. [Denom- 
inated from iVa.] — Pi. va tr. v. pbh he 
converted to Judaism, proselytized. 

Pu. V£ NH was converted to 

Judaism, was proselytized. — Nith. 
van? PBH he became a Jew, became a 
proselyte. Derivatives: n»a, nnjarn, 

XTam.n. PBH arrow. [JAram. (-Syr. 
X'lxa), borrowed from Gk. gerron 
(-anything made of wicker-work; 
oblong shield; dan, arrow), which is of 
uncertain etymology.] 

9lpoi"va m.n. FW gyroscope. [Eng. gyro- 
scope, compounded of Gk. gyros 
(-circle, ring), and skopion (see 

n*a adj. NH chalky, calcareous. [Formed 
from va with suff. '•Q.] Derivative: 

mn'Jf.n. NH chalkiness. iFormed from 
n->a with suff. mo.] 

mra f.n. NH badger. [Formed from r\ 
with suff. vp.] 


oiai 1 ?* 

n^T'Ji f.n. FW girafTe. [It. giraffa. whence 
also Fren. girqffe, from Arab, zarqfa 1 ', 
which is prob. of African origin.] 

ru^af.n. i pbh approaching. 2NH ap- 
proach to a subject; attitude. [Back 
formation fromtfa:. cp. rnp»i}.] 

nc^a f.n. fw geisha. [Japanese geisha, 
compounded of geisha (-lit.: 'artistic 

^J'm.n. i heap, pile. 2 mound, ruins. 
[From V?i, whence also J Aram, K^a 
(- stone), Syr. n^, often spelt k}k\ 
(= mound), cp. the first element in 

^a»m.n. I wave, billow. 2 fountain, 
spring. 3NH trend, movement. [From 
"^a, whence also J Aram., Syr. k\i, 
Akka. gillu (-wave).] Derivatives:^?, 

Va'"m.n. ipbh revolving door. 2NH 
lever. [From V?a, whence also Aram. 
ni\ (= revolving door).] 

Va m.n. I basin, bowl (a hapax lego- 
menon in the Bible, occurring Zech. 
4:2). 2NH marble (a game for boys). 

'K\l m.n. nh detector. [Formed from n^a 
(=he discovered, uncovered), Pi. of 

'S^m.n. i PBH an uncovered place. 2NH 
decolletage. [From n^a, ( = he dis- 
covered, uncovered). Seen^i.] 

a^a m.n. barber (a hapax legomenon in 
the Bible, occurring Ezek. 5:1). [Prob. 
a loan word from Akka. galldbu 
(= barber), nomen opificis formed from 
galdbu ( = to cut, shear), whence also 
Aram, 3"?a (=he shaved), Aram, a^a, 
Syr. xaVa. (- dagger, razor).] 

jfrlto chatter. [Of uncertain origin. 
Possibly formed from JAram. y}$ 
(-he stammered, stuttered; see aW?), 
through aphaerisis of the b .] — Qal a^| 
intr. v. pbh he chattered. Derivative: 

Vu'w m.n. pbh i rolling, revolving. 2NH 
metamorphosis. 3MH transmigration, 
metempsychosis. [Verbal n. ofra^a; see 
W?i .] Derivatives: bnb%, m^jnri, "^aj?. 

Vah»a to roll. [Pilpel of V$ (- he rolled), cp. 

JAram. ^a, Palpel of b% "^a. (=he 

rolled). For other Pilpel verbs formed 

from »"s verbs see T3T3 and words there 

referred to.] — Pilp. b£>\ tr. v. lhe 

rolled; 2 pbh he brought about, caused; 

3NH it developed; 4NH it underwent a 

metamorphosis. — Pulp, ^j PBH 

I was thrown, was hurled; 2 was rolled. 

— Hithpalp. "^inn, Nithpalp. ^anj 

pbh he rolled himself, was rolled. 

tyl> m.n. (pi. trVi'?!, also o^fy) i wheel. 

cycle. 2NH gear wheel. 3NH pulley. 
[Formed from y?j through 
reduplication of the first two radicals 
and lit. meaning 'something round', 
'something rolled'. BAram. yifraV}(=its 
wheels), JAram. K^a, Syr. N^ra, 
Mand. x'jitj and kVijiki (- wheel), 
JAram. ^)l, Akka. gaggultu 
( = eyeball), all derive from the same 
base. L. girgillus is prob. a Sem. loan 
word. cp. ^J".] Derivatives: n\\b\, 
Xh&l, Q$&h n 1 "?? 1 ^, n^j. 
^a 1 ?? 11 m.n. whirl of chaff. [According to 
some scholars the wheel-shaped dried 
calyx of the thistle Gundelia. From 


nVa^a f.n. NH pulley wheel. [Formed 

from bi)i l with first suff. ng . ] 
flWfam.n. nh a small wheel. [Formed 

from bibi' with dimin. suff. jIg.J 

'VaVa adj. mh wheel-shaped, spherical, 
circular. [Formed from "ra^j 1 with suff. 

D'Va^a m.n. dual roller skates, scooter. 
[ Dual formed from ^a ' . ] 

rvVa'jaf.n. nh skate. [Formed from "?aba/ 
with suff. rru . ] 

jVaVa m.n. nh a person that rolls 
anything, roller. [Formed from "ra^a 
(see W?a) with agential suff. jg .] 

n^af.n. nh pulley block. [Formed 
from bi)¥ with suff. ro .] 

nVa^f.n. i skull. 2head. [From V?a (-to 
round), whence also Aram, xi^u^a, 
Nn^ti ( _ skull), Arab. jalaja h , 
jumjuma\ Akka. gulgullatu, gulgullu 

jaVa m.n. NH a talkative or garrulous 

person; a chatterer. [Formed froma^a. 

(see a 1 ?!) with agential suff. jg.] 

Derivatives: nuabj, "•ja^j. 
n^saVa f.n. NH talkativeness; garrulous- 

ness. [Formed from ja^a with suff. m d.] 

naVaadj.NH talkative; garrulous. 
[ Formed from ]\)i with suff. ■»£ . ] 

*fra ran. skin, hide (a hapax legomenon 
in the Bible, occurring Job 16:15 in the 
form -h 1 ??, 'my skin'). [Related to 
JAram. K^a, Syr. x-fft, Arab, jild, 
Ethiop. and Tigre geled(at), Akka. 
giladu (-skin, hide).] Derivatives: T>a, 
rn'ra, rt^a, n^a, 'j-^j, -nty, prob. also-fta. 

"rVato freeze, congeal, to jell. [Prob. 
denominated from i^a. and orig. mean- 
ing 'it was covered with skin', cp. Arab. 
jalida (-froze, was frozen).] — Qal -r?$ 
intr. v. PBH it froze, was frozen, con- 
gealed. — Hiph. T^irt pbh i it formed a 
crust, formed a scar; 2 it froze, con- 
gealed, jelled. — Hoph. iVaji pbh (of 
s.m.). Derivatives : i^a. " , r^arj, i^ag . 

rrj^af.n. nh sole (of a shoe). [Formed 

from I'ja, with first suff. ny. cp. Aram. 
(n"?a (-skin, leather; leather of the 

fhVa m.n. nh [Formed from -fra. with 

■nVa adj. MH hardened. [Formed frorm^a. 
with suff. 'a.l 

"itoN^a m.n. fw gladiator. [L. gladia- 
tor (-swordsman, fighter), from 
gladius ( - sword), which is of Celtic 
origin and derives from IE *qelad- 
(-to strike, beat). See 'holt' in my 
CEDEL and cp. n^n^a.l 

nVinVaf.n. fw gladiolus. [L. gladiolus 
(=a small sword), dimin. of gladius 
(see -rtoiri^a); so called by Pliny from 
the swordlike leaves.] 

'FlVa adj. NH hard like skin, skinlike. 
[ Formed from ?7a. with suff. ^g . ] 

nVlto uncover; to appear; to emigrate. 
[Phoen. ,l 7j(-to uncover), Aram. -Syr. 
s^a (-he uncovered, revealed, showed, 
made known; he went into exile), Ugar. 
gly (-to betake oneself, go, set, out), 
Arab, jald ( = he unveiled, disclosed, 
removed; he went away, departed), 
Ethiop. tagalgala ( = he was taken into 
exile). Akka. galu ( = to go into exile) is 
an Aram, loan word. cp. y"?a.] — Qal 
n^a. tr. & intr. v. 1 he uncovered, 
revealed, disclosed. 2 he departed. 3 he 
went into exile. — Niph. n^u I was 
uncovered; 2 was disclosed, was dis- 
covered; 3 he appeared. — Pi. n\i lhe 
uncovered; 2 he disclosed, discovered, 
made known, revealed. — Pu. n^ was 
uncovered, was made known, was 
revealed. — Hith. rr^ann, Nith. n^an? 
1 he uncovered himself; 2 discovered 
itself. — Hiph. n^art, n^an he carried 
away into exile. — Hoph. n^an was 
carried away into exile. Derivatives: 
rtya, nbte, , s^a, ^a, -"ft}, ^Va, rriVa, jl^a, 
n^|, rr^an, rn^an, n^arin, n^zp, n^ao, n^aj, 

* 1 - 

rrV^ 1 f.n. 1 bowl-shaped capital of a 
column. 2NH ball-shaped knob of a 
cane. [From V?a. cp. Ugar. gl, Akka. 
gullatu ( = torus, capital of a column).] 

rtoa" f.n. fountain, spring. [FromV?a.] 

jfyalVam.n. fw globulin. [Coined by 
the Swedish chemist Jons Jakob 
Berzelius (1779-1848) from L. 
globulus (=a little ball), dimin. of 
globus. Seeoiafta.J 

WJriVam.n. fw globe. [L. globus (-a 
round body, ball, sphere), in 
gradational relationship to L. glaeba, 
gleba (-clod, soil, land). Both these 
words derive from IE base *gelebh-, 
*glebh- (-to roll up in a ball, 
compress), enlarged from *gel- (of 
s.m.). cp. r^al^a and the second 



clement in p 1 ^ 10 ^ C P- alsoojgltylp-l 

Derivative: 'Vafy. 
'^Jadj.FW global. [From D«fy 

( = globe).] 
■nty adj. pbh skinned, excoriated. (From 

•to- 1 

•nty'adj. NH frozen, congealed. (Pass, 
part, of i^. Sec "fa. I 

piVa m.n. NH galvanization. [Verbal n. of 
j$i. See pVa . I 

mVladj.NH shaven. IFrom rfa; 

"formally, pass. part, of an otherwise 
non-existent Qal.) 

mV>m.n.PBH shaving. [Verbal n. ofn^i. 
Pi. ofrtVi.) 

■nVaadj. i uncovered. 2 open, public. 
[ Pass. part, of nfc. See rto and cp. *>» .) 

•nVam.n. 1PBH uncovering. 2NH detec- 
tion. 3NH discovering, discovery. 
(Verbal n. of rt^j ( = he uncovered; he 
disclosed, discovered). Pi. of nty. See 


n;v?af.n.NH postcard. [Properly f. pass, 
part, of Biblical Heb. nfc (=hc 
uncovered, revealed). Seen 1 ?;.) 

^Vjadj.NH rolled. [Pass. part, of Vty 
(=he rolled). See V» and cp. n^j and 

V^Vam.n. idol. [According to some 
scholars related to V$ ( = dung); 
according to Baudissin and to others 
o->&? derives from V?y ( = to roll), and 
orig. meant 'rolled blocks', cp. BAram. 
Y?i ]3N (= square stones), and see V?\. 
The form bbt was influenced by piptf 
(= abomination).] 

rfnbl f.n. NH pill. [Properly subst. use of 
the f. of W?\ ( = rolled, round).] 

P'ViVjf.n.NH hand-rolled cigarette. 
[ Formed from W?\ with suff. wc) 

DlVam.n. wrappings, mantle, cloak (a 
hapax legomenon in the Bible, occur- 
ring Ezek. 27:24). [Together with 
Aram. x$ ,, ?3,Syr.XD ,i 7J. X9$}(= mantle, 
cloak), prob. borrowed from Pers. 
kilim. cp.r\pb}.\ 

wVa m.n. nh embodiment, personifi- 
cation. [Verbal n. of dVj, Pi. of o"?i.] 

na^a f.n. nh glume (botany). [ L. gluma 
( = husk. hull), for *glubh-smd, from 
the stem of glubo, glubere ( - to peel, 
shell), which stands for *gleubho and is 
cogn. with Gk. gluphein ( = to hollow 
out, engrave, carve). Sec «fo .] 

JlVam.n. fw gallon. |Eng. gallon, from 
galoun, from Fren. galon, corre- 
sponding \ojalon (= a liquid measure), 
and related to Old Fren. jale (-a 
bowl), which is of uncertain origin.] 

pVlto galvanize. [See ro»^j.] -— Pi. iV?J 
u. v. nh he galvanized. — Pu. ]]^ NH 

was galvanized. Derivatives: \n% ]))&• 
'SjVj adj. FW galvanic. [See rwyfti and 

stiff. vU 
nvsjVj f.n. fw galvanism ( = current 
electricity). [It. galvanismo, from the 
name of the Italian physicist Luigj 
Galvani (1737-98). who discovered 
current electricity and first described it. 
For the ending sec suff. mo. ] 

nai?t?lV»f.n.Fw (pi. nixo?9V», also 
dvpj?!?^?) i stone coffin, sarcophagus. 
2 box, chest. [Borrowed from glossa 
(= tongue), and komein ( = to take care 
y*Vam.n. pbh i uncovering, disclosing. 
2NH opening. [Verbal n. of v\i. Pi. of 
qiVa adj. PBH carved, engraved. [Pass. 

part, of 1^. See 'pi and cp. n^J.] 
t^Vam.n. MH carving, engraving. [Ver- 
bal n. of ^Vj. Pi. of ^j.] 
•'KDlVam.n.NH zincographer. [Formed 

from i^ (see 'pi) with suff. ^.1 
nwVaf.n. NH block for printing. [Subst. 

use of the f. of^.j 
"iJS^Va m.n. PBH blanket. [Aram. 
ni??^!- from Gk - kerbikarion, which 
corresponds to L. cervicdrium 
(= cushion, pillow), from cervix ( = nape 
of the neck, neck). L. cervix is a 
compound word. Its first element is 
prob. related to cerebrum ( = brain), and 
the second to the base of vincire ( = to 
bind). Accordingly L. cervix lit. means 
'that which binds or fixes the head'.] 
njipiVa f.n. fw glucose (chemistry). 
[Fren. glucose, from misspelling of Gk. 
gleukos (=must, sweet wine), which is 
related to Gk. glykys (= sweet), from 
orig. dlyk-ys, which is cogn. with L. 
dulcis (= sweet), cp. 'dulcet' in my 
CEDEL and words there referred to. cp. 
alsop$ ,, ??.l?V ,, ??-l 
naipiVaf.n.FW glaucoma (disease). 
[Medical L., from Gk. glaukoma, from 
glaukos ( = gleaming, bright; gray, 
bluish green), which is of uncertain 
origin. See 'glauco-' in my cedel and 
cp. words there referred to.] 
niVaT.n. exile, captivity, banishment. 
I Formed from rr?i with suff. mo. cp. 
xnV?j.| Derivative: , ni'?j. 
KniVjf.n.PBH exile. [J Aram., corre- 
sponding to Heb. rn^n, related to Syr. 
"•niVa adj. NH exilic, exile-like, ghetto-like 
(used mostly in derogatory sense). 
[Formed from n^i with suff. v. I 
Derivative: nvniVi. 
nvniVaf.n.NH nature of the Diaspora, 
ghetto nature (mostly used in a 

derogatory sense). [ Formed from T»ty 
with suff. run. | 
nVa to shave. [J Aram. rr>» ( = he shaved), 
Arab, jaliha (=he was or became 
bald). I — Pi. rr» he shaved. — Pu. rfy 
he was shaved. — Hith. nVjnn he 
shaved himself. Derivatives: n^|, nrfti. 
mfy rnVj. ninVjnn, n>JO, rf^z?, nrfyn. 
n\i m.n. mh a Christian priest, monk. 
[From n"?j ( = lit.: 'the tonsured one').] 

Derivative: mrVji. 
mnVa f.n. MH Christian priesthood. 

IFormed from rfj* with suff. roc] 
nnV} f.n. pbh the shaven place. [Formed 

from n 1 ?* (see riii) with suff. no. For the 

form cp. nnw (= scurf, scab).] 
'^i adj. l MH wavelike. 2 NH wavy, 

undulating. [Formed from"??" with sufT. 

\j.] Derivative: ro*Vj. 
'^a adj. pbh openly; uncovered (used in 

the phrase ty tfna, 'publicly', lit. 'with 

an uncovered head'). [Aram., pass. 

part, of ^J (=he uncovered), hence 

equivalent to Heb. -"b\ (q.v.).] 
"fVa m.n. PBH ice. [From i% cp. 

Aram.-Syr. «rp% Arab.jalid{ = icc).\ 
'NfVa m.n. nh i ice-cream manufac- 

turer. 2 ice-cream vendor. [Formed 

from ny 1 ?* with agential suff. ^ q. ] 

rrrVa f.n. NH ice cream. [Coined by 
Eliezer ben Yehudah(1858-1922) from 
t>j (=ice), on the analogy of n^a"? 
( = pancake). For the ending see first 
suff. n.;. I 
D^Va m.n. fw gallium (chemistry). 
[Modern L. gallium, coined by the 
French chemist Paul-Emile Lecoq de 
Boisbaudran (1838-1912), the dis- 
coverer of this element, from L. Gallia, 
the former name of France. The name 
gallium may also be an allusion to his 
name Lecoq (lit.: 'the cock' =L. 
]V>Vam.n. (pi. irji^a, also nWpj) i tablet 
for writing. 2 polished plate, mirror. 
3NH margin. 4NH copy of a 
newspaper. [From n^i ( = he revealed). 
Pi. of n"». Whence also Syr. x}1^ 
(= volume), X)fa. n^i (- revelation). 
Some scholars, referring to the Sep- 
tuagint rendering of the word cjV^agj 
(Is. 3:23) and to Arab.y'a/»a''( = a fine 
garment), and to Akka. gulence 
(=name of a garment), render ^\\ in 
sense 2 by 'fine garment').] Derivative: 
'3V"?a adj. NH apocalyptic. [Formed from 
|V"?j with suff. \p.] 

n! s Va.f.n. MH waviness, undulation. 
I Formed from ■•W with suff. nv ,.] 

V" 1 ^' m.n. i turning leaf of a folding door. 
2 pillar. 3NH cylinder, roll. [From^J.I 



Derivative: , "r 1 ?? 1 - 

^ty'm.n. i district, region. 2PBH "r^g 
Galilee (shortened from o«Ug V»>a, 'the 
district of nations'). [From V?a. cp. 
jAram.-Syr. k^i (-region).] Deriv- 
ative: -w. 

n^af.n. inh rolling, wrapping. 2MH 
wrapping up the Scroll of the Torah. 
| Verbal n. of^a,. See*? 1 ?! and first suff. 

^J'adj. NH cylindrical. [Formed from 

y?*' with suff.'J.] Derivative: m»V ,l ?»- 
fybl" adj. pbh I regional. 2 Galilean. 

[Formed from V , ty' with suff. \i.\ 
ni»W?»f.n. nh cylindricity. [Formed 

from -V' 1 ?? 1 with suff. n^;.| 
0'V» m.n. NH mantle, cloak. [See np'Va .] 
nn'^f.n. pbh mantle, cloak. [From 

JAram. K^i. See ofta and cp. □■>"?» .] 
j^ato fluctuate. [Denominated from 

, 3 ,Sj.| _ Hith. j^ann nh it fluctuated. 
'j'VJadi. NH undulating. [Formed from 

*?l n (- wave), with suff. -j^.l Derivative: 

'J'^am.n. PBH calmness. [From Gk. 
galene ( = calmness of the sea). I 

HD'^af.n. pbh engraving. [Verbal n. of 
r\b\; see *pi .] 

pjf'Va m.n. fw glycerin(e) (chemistry). 
[Fren. glycerine, coined by the French 
chemist Michel-Eugene Chevreul 
(1786-1889), from Gk. glykeros 
( = sweet), from glykis ( = sweet). See 
nrtp^a and cp.]j1p , '?J.] 

]$pty m.n. fw glycogen (chemistry). 
[Coined by the French physiologist 
Claude Bernard in 1848 from Gk. 
glykis (= sweet). See njlp^i and cp. 

ntf'Vaf.n. nh I glide, gliding. 2 overflow. 
3 skiing. [Verbal n. of tf^. Seeufta and 
first suff. n;.] 

^ato roll (esp. to roll large stones). 
[Aram. Vfa (-he rolled, rolled away), 
Ethiop. galaga ( = it accumulated, 
heaped up); whence the nouns tyi 
( = wheel), ty (-dung), V (-heap), V 
(=wave), JAram.-Syr. xfy (-tortoise). 
Related to base 1 ?'!.] — QalV^tr. v. i he 
rolled, rolled away; 2 PBH he wrapped. 

— Niph. Y^ and mh "^a? rolled up; was 
rolled, was folded. — Po'el V?1a MH he 
rolled, unrolled, unfolded. — Po'al V?1a 
was rolled, was unrolled, was unfolded. 

— Hithpol. V?linn i he rolled himself, 
wallowed; 2 he sought occasion 
against. — Hiph. "?>n he rolled away, 
removed. — Hoph. Vpan pbh was rolled 
U P, was removed. — Pilp. (see W?i). 
Derivatives: V? 1 , *?i", *?i'", Va, *?i)i\ bi)i", 
n ^'- n^». tofy ityty ntyty V' 1 ?!', Wft u . 
n 1% Vft. V?a, xnV ? , ■ mV?1ann, tyap. 

n'jap. Wag. n^ap, nftap, possibly also 
"y^am.n. dung. [From "?"?a. cp. JAram. 
k^j, K^j,Aram.ya//a'i( = dung).] 

V^a m.n. in *^a jax. 'square hewn stones'. 
IB Aram., also JAram. and Mand. 
Derived from V?a (-he rolled) and lit. 
meaning 'stones ground by turning', 
cp. Akka. aban galdla, which corres- 
ponds both in etymology and meaning 
to B Aram, tyi j;jx . I 

V?i prep, on account of, because of, for 
the sake of (in the Bible only with the 
pref. 3: y?ia). [From Vra. Related to 
JAram. b^aa, Syr. ^a> (-on account 
of), Arab, jalal (-a weighty and 
momentous matter), minjalalika, min 
jaldlika, min 'ajlika (-on your 
account, for your sake).] 

'^a m.n. somebody (used together with 
preceding '^p, after Neh. 12:36, where 
'^p and '^a are personal names of 

D^ato wrap up, to fold. [JAram. xp/m 
(-a shapeless mass), Syr. xpVa (-a 
shapeless mass; a rocky place).] 

— Qal ti?\ he wrapped up, folded 
together (a hapax legomenon in the 
Bible, occurring Kin. II 2:8 in the form 
o^a?). — Niph. D^aj mh was embodied. 

— Pi. o^a nh he embodied, personified. 

— Pu. u\\ nh was embodied. — Hith. 
oVanri mh l was embodied. 2 pupated. 

— Hiph. D'Van mh he wrapped. 

— Hoph. D^an mh he took on the form 
of a body. Derivatives: o^a, oVa. o?an, 

oVl m.n. i shapeless matter (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring Ps. 
139:16 in the form ■•p'pa). 2MH 'Golem' 

— legendary human figure made of 
clay. 3NH cocoon. 4NH a shapeless 
mass. [From o'w.] Derivatives: D^a, 


D^a m.n. NH raw (in D^-npn, 'raw 
materials'). [Froma^a.] 

iD^ato make lonely. I Back formation 
from TttjVj.1 —Pi- ip"?a tr. v. nh he 
made solitary, made lonely. — Hith. 
ip^ann nh became solitary, became 

■H»Vjadj. l lonely, solitary. 2 (according 
to others) barren. [Related to Arab. 
jamada (-was hard), jalmada (-was 
turned into a stone), jalmud ( = a hard 
stone).] Derivatives: ioii. nnio^ 

nviio 1 ?*- 

nniaft, ni»7l»fa f.n. nh loneliness, sol- 
itariness. [Formed from-HD>* with suff. 

m»7^0^8 see nmo^j. 

^0^1 m.n. NH lever-wood, Ostria vir- 

giniana (botany). [From tf'p'rta, a kind 
of cedar, which is of unknown 
etymology. I 

'•a'ra.adj. pbh shapeless, raw, crude. 

[Formed from o^a with suff. •>^.\ 

Derivative: ni'pVa. 
nvraVjf.n. nh loneliness, solitariness. 

[Formed from tid 1 ?! with suff. ra::. cp. 


nva'raf.n. nh shapelessness, crudeness. 

[ Formed from 'p^ with suff. mz>. I 
niJD^a f.n. nh awkwardness, clumsiness. 

[ Formed from oVa with suff. ma v . I 

'.D^aadj.NH awkward, clumsy. 
[Formed from oVa with suff. ••,:;.] 

n i???^i f - n - FW ^"cy goods. [It. ga- 
lanteria (-politeness, gallantry, deli- 
cacy), from galante (-polite, cour- 
teous, gallant), Sp. galante (of s.m.), 
which derives from gala (-cele- 
bration), from Arab, khil'ah (-robe 
of honor presented by oriental rulers 
to their favorites), cp. 'gallant' in my 

njp'ra, NgpiVa f.n. pbh (pi. nlxjjpVa, also 
rripp^a) cake, roll. [Borrowed from Gk. 
kolix ( = a roll of coarse bread), which 
is of unknown origin.) 

5?^a to disclose oneself, burst out. 
[Perhaps related to n"?a (-to uncover).] 

— Niph. y 1 ??, pbh it was disclosed, it 
broke oul — Pi. yfca pbh it disclosed, 
caused to break out. — Hith. y^ann it 
disclosed, itself, broke out, burst out. 
Derivatives: y^a, nwVann. 

lyVam.n. monument standing fori?" 1 ?} 

( - hill of testimony). See b>j and ly . 
fy^a. m.n. pbh pit, stone (in fruit), kernel. 

[A collateral form of ry^.l Deriv- 

atives:'jV?2'I yl; a 
"•S'V'rjadj.NH (fruit) containing a stone. 

[Formed from j'y^j with suff. -;:. cp. 


|»^a to pit, to stone (fruit). [Denominated 
from JT73.I — Pi. JV<>a NH (- he stoned 
fruit). — Pu. ]?>,» NH (-was stoned). 
Derivative ijy^ap. 

«)^ato engrave, carve. [Hebraization of 
Gk. glyphein (= to hollow out. engrave, 
carve), which is cogn. with L. glubere 
(-to peel, shell). See 'cleave' (-to 
split), in my cedel. and cp. npiVa and 
the second element in D'^anri.] 

— Qal «fta. tr. v. pbh he carved, 
engraved. — Pi. iVa (of s.m.). — Pu. i^ 
NH was carved, was engraved. 
Derivatives: *\\\, ^a, n^a. n^a, n!?ap. 
I^ap, i^p, t ,i ?jo and the first element in 

*fol m.n. NH i engraver. 2 zincographer. 
[Nomen opificis formed from 'ftl (-he 
carved, engraved), according to the 



pattern tys . I 
ViDD^am.n. NH pantograph. [Compound- 
ed of 1^ ( = he carved; see ^J), and ^b 
(--all). I 
"ipgloj^ m.n. FW galactometer. [Com- 
pounded of Gk. gala (-milk), and 
metron {= measure). The first element is 
cogn. with L. lac ( = milk). See rtoj# . For 
The second element see id? . I 
rnpp^af.n. fw the 'Milky Way", galaxy. 
[Gk. Galaxias ( = the Milky Way; lit.: 
"the Milky Circle'), from gala ( - milk).) 
rrn^f.n. fw gallery. [It. galleria; of 

uncertain origin.] 
ttftato go down, glide down. [Arab. 
jalasa ( = he went up, went down, sat 
up). For sense development cp. Arab. 
wathaba ( = he jumped, leaped; he sat).] 
— Qal afy ihe went down, glided 
down; 2NH it overflowed; 3NH he 
skied. — Hith. tfVann NH he glided 
down. — Hiph. tf'^an PBH he caused to 
overflow, caused to boil. — Hoph. uftan 
PBH was caused to boil. Derivatives: 
wp\\, &}, flEftj, D'cty, j^i, ntfV*, rn#an, 
n^a. ^jd, mtfVarin, n^Vig, D^ap. 
tfVam.n. nh skier. [Nomen opificis 
formed from ttfta (-to ski), according 
to the pattern ^g.] 

jiufram.n. nh glider (plane). [Formed 
from rf? a ( = to glide), with suff . jl g . ] 

DltfVa m.n. boiling water. [From ttfta .] 

I^Jm.n. NH l skier. 2 glider. 3 hang- 
glider. [Formed from ufta with suff. p-1 

n^jf.n. NH eczema (disease). [Coined 
from sfa according to the pattern n^y§ 
serving in NH to form names of 
diseases. See npix and cp. words there 
referred to.] 

rajfyjtf.n. pbh (pi. nlxn^) woolen mantle. 
[J Aram., from V71 ( - to roll ; to wrap).] 

DS'conj. also, to, even as well. (Prob. 
from base ddj, meaning 'much', 
'many', 'a heap'. Whence also Arab. 

jamma (- became much), jamm 
(-heap, abundance, much), jamman 
( - in a mass, altogether). Prob. related 
to Ugar. gm( = loudly).] 

Di», K»J m.n. pbh (pi. |'9j). i gamma. 
2'gimel'. [Gk. gamma, from 
Heb.-Phoen. by\. See by\ and cp. 
Heb. "?ij$, Aram. vty# ( = camel).] 

Kaato sip. [JAram. kqi, »©j (=he 
sipped). See soa.] —Qal wj| pbh he 
sipped, swallowed. — Niph. N91) nh 
was sipped, swallowed. — Pi. nm he 
swallowed. — Hiph. K'ijari he gave to 
drink. — Hoph. Niyiri nh was given to 
drink. Derivatives: 'Nija, j(opi, riKTj},, 
n;z?j. cp. kijj. 

K^lm.n. papyrus. [According to 
Gesenius, from xoa (q.v.) and lit. 

meaning 'the plant that swallows 
water', with reference to L. bibula 
papyrus, which prob. means 'the 
papyrus that drinks up moisture'. 
Several other scholars see in kijj an 
Egyptian loan word; cp. Coptic kam 
( = papyrus), cp. also ""ipa . ] 

»tt^, nityjf.n. pbh hole, pit. [Prob. from 
ddj. cp. n'tpga .] 

'Kljam.n. pbh liquid food. [Fromxna.] 

]$»! m.n. nh sprinter. [Formed from xqi 
(after fn$-x^>, 'he swallowed the 
ground'. See xna arid agential suff. |g.] 

nlaa/g m.n. fw jamboree. [Eng. 
jamboree, of Hindu origin; introduced 
by Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936).] 

O'SOJm.n. fw gambit. [Fren. gambit, 
from Sp. gambiio, from Arab, janbiyy 
( = lateral), from janb (-side), which is 
related to JAram.-Syr. x^a. (-side), 
Heb. 211 (~ ne stole); lit.: 'he put aside'. 
See 33J.] 

QUSlm.n. inh stammering, stuttering. 
2MH hesitation. [Verbal n. of 049? ; see 
dioi. The word Dwzpj was coined by 

Daaato stammer, stutter. [Aram. DJ.zpj, 
Arab, jamjama (-he stammered, 
stuttered); prob. of imitative origin.] 
— Pilp. Djzpa pbh 1 he stammered, stut- 
tered; 2 he hesitated. — Pulp, djd^ mh 
was stammered, was stuttered. Deriv- 
atives: Dttzpa, 19393, 0*939, D^ajp. 

jaaaam.n. nh stammerer, stutterer. 
[ Formed from Daoa with agential suff. 
jg.) Derivatives: nia^azpj, "•agazpj. 

nu^aa&j f.n. nh stammering, stuttering. 
[Formed from i^aoj with suff. r»^. ] 

'jaaaaadj.NH stammering, stuttering. 
[ Formed from 19319? with suff . 'G . ] 

taa m.n. nh dwarf. [From wiqi, name of 
a nation mentioned Ezek. 27:1 1. The 
meaning 'dwarf is prob. due to an as- 
sociation of proper name vnqi withipa 
(-cubit). For sense development cp. 
P)J! (- giant), from the proper name p}?, 
(usually with the art. p}5ft), name of an 
early giant people.] Derivatives: nnpj, 

T»ato contract, reduce. [JAram.-Syr. 
15a ( = it contracted, shrank), Arab. 
jamada (-it congealed, hardened, 
stiffened); related to 19a.] —Qal i?| 
pbh he contracted, reduced. — Niph. 
T&aj mh was contracted, was reduced, 
shrank. — Pi. "iga NH he contracted, 
reduced. — Pu. ii}\ NH was contracted, 
was reduced. — Nith. -nsjnj nh was 
contracted, was reduced, shrank. 
Derivatives: 193, "ndj, TiDa. nfjpj., 717933, 

T$»,m.n. nh rudiment. [FromTOa.] 

n^'J m.n. cubit. [Related to JAram. 

K797J, Syr. NT 1 *??" ( = cubit), Mand. 

KnDTia, Ethiop. g w end (-stick), cp. 

-"91- 1 
nHtyJf.n. nh dwarfishness. [Formed 

from 19a with suff. run.) 
"HJja. adj. nh dwarfish. (Formed from 193 

with suff. "t^.] 
"n»J adj. pbh 1 contracted, shrunken. 

2NH stunted. [Pass. part. of 193. See 


"n»a m.n. nh contraction, shrinking. 
[Verbal n. of 19a ( = he contracted), Pi. 

MBJm.n. nh caprification. [Verbal n. of 


Vl»$'adj. 1 weaned. 2 pbh bereft, 
deprived. [Pass. part. of?&f See^oa'.] 

Vina" adj. mh (a person) rewarded. 
[Pass. part. oP?b$. See^Da".] 

Vina m.n. 1 action, deed. 2 recompense, 
reward, benefit. [From^Da". cp.rfyna.] 

nViaaf.n. 1 (pi.) deeds. 2 recompense, 
reward. [A secondary form ofTioa. For 
the ending see first suff. n^.] 

DWJm.n.MH imh forming of a hole. 
2NH cutting, lopping. 3NH pitting. 
[Verbal n. of d&j, Pi. ofooa.] 

Diaaadj. ipbh truncate. 2 pbh hornless. 
3NH cut, lopped. 4NH full of holes. 
[Pass, part ofnoj. SeeDna.] 

yiaa adj. nh sipped, swallowed, gulped. 
[Pass. part. of»B$. SeeyDa.] 

yiaa m.n. MH swallowing, gulping. 
[Verbal n. of y$a (-he swallowed, 
gulped), Pi. ofyDa.] 

•ua^adj.PBH 1 complete, perfect. 2 ripe 
(fruit). 3 absolute, certain. [Pass. part. 
of-i9|. Seeina.] 

■Ntta m.n. nh finishing, finish, end. 
[Verbal n. of -19?, Pi. ofina'.] 

ttflttam.n.NH making elastic. [Verbal n. 

of tzflja, Pi. oftfoa.] 
taato caprificate. [Derived fromn;i9a.] 

— Pi. 19a f. v. pbh he caprificated 

(properly 'he cut off branches for 


njTaaf.n. nh a tender branch. [Prob. 
related to Arab, jamz (-that which is 
left of the branch of the palm tree).] 
Derivative: raa. 

nnaafn. nh niche, alcove. [From 
JAram. KIJ9?. cp. Akka. gimahhu 
( = tomb, sepulcher), Palm. noa. ma (of 
s.m.). cp. also Arm. kmax(oi s.m.).| 

jinaam.n. pbh stubborn, capricious. 
[Explanation of the name do* (Gen. 
22:24) in Gen. Rabba cp. Arab. 
jamaha (-he was refractory, was 
recalcitrant — said esp. of a horse). 
For another explanation of the name 



oni sec flana.] Derivatives: nulnaj, 

malnaa. f.n. NH stubbornness, capri- 

ciousness. [Formed from jlnpa. with 

suff.m a.] 
'tfnaa, adj. nh stubborn, capricious. 

| Formed from jimp? with adj. suff. 'p.] 

"Htjaam.n. nh interpretation by means 
of gematria. [Verbal n. of ipz?*. See 


"loaato interpret words by means of 
'gematria'. [Back formation from 
x^oo'a.l — Pi. "ipa? tr. v. MH he 
interpreted (words) by means of 
gematria. — Pu. "icaa^ NH was 
interpreted by means of gematria. 
Derivative: "uoaa. 

»aa, '»a m.n. pbh reed. [Related to 
Samaritan x'aa, Egypt.-Aram. xaa, 
Ethiop. gom'e and to Heb. xa> (q.v.).] 


nx'paf.n. pbh sipping, drinking. [Verbal 
n. of kijj. See xaa and first suff. ng and 
cp. nvjaandny^aa.) 

rrraaf.n. pbh stunting, dwarfing. [Ver- 
bal n. ofi?|. Seeiaaand first suff. n g.] 

njoaf.n. pbh sipping, drinking. (A col- 
lateral form of nx'aa.] 

nV'aa 1 f.n. nh ripening, maturation. [ Ver- 
bal n. of "??*. See ^aa' and first suff. ng.] 

nV'aa" f.n. pbh recompensing, reward- 
ing. [Verbal n. of?Da. See "702" and first] 

niV'aa f.n. pbh used in the phrases mV»aa 
Dnijn, 'benevolence, charity'; m^pa 
ton, Moan (to the poor) without in- 
terest'. [Formed from "79a. See^aa" and 
suff. ma.] 

njpaaf.n. pbh sipping, swallowing, 
gulping, drinking. [Verbal n. of yea,. See 
yea and first suff. ng and cp. ntrpa . ] 

KVaam.n. PBH end, finish, completion. 
[J Aram., from naa (=he completed), 
which is related to Heb. n?j. Seenaa and 

riTaa f.n. mh ending, finishing, com- 
pletion. [Verbal n. of noj. See naa and 
first suff. ng and cp. xn'pa. ] 

tf»aaadj. nh pliant, flexible, elastic. 
[Coined by Eliezer ben Yehudah 
(1858-1922) from tfaa.] Derivative: 


roa^aaf.n. NH pliantness, elasticity. 
[Coined from tt^oa. and suff. m n.] 

^aa 1 to ripen; to wean. [Related to nea. 
The orig. meaning of this base prob. 
was 'to be complete', hence it is related 
to Arab, kamala ( = was whole, was 
complete), Akka. giimalu {- perfect, 
complete).! — Qal "79a, intr. & tr. v. lit 
ripened; 2 he weaned. — Niph. bzsaj 

l was weaned; 2MH ripened. — Hith. 
"?ojnn nh he weaned himself (of 
something). Derivatives: b\o\. rrpaa 1 . 
m^ajn, n^oann, perhaps alsoVla , a. 
Vaa" to pay, reward, recompense. 
[JAram., Samaritan, Egypt.-Aram., 
Nab. and Palm. ^01 ( = to pay, reward, 
recompense), Arab, jamala (=he 
collected), jamula ( = was beautiful, 
was handsome), ajmala ( = he acted 
well, acted decently), Akka. garndlu 
( = to spare, forgive, give), turru gimilli 
( = to repay). — Qal bga, tr. v. 1 he did 
so, rendered to; 2 he repaid, rewarded, 
recompensed. — Niph. 'yga} mh 1 it was 
done to him; 2 he was paid. Deriv- 
atives: "701a, ^o}", "yiaa. n^aa, n^oa". 
m'rpa, nVaa, ^eari. 

Vaam.n. camel. [Related to Phoen. 'yaa, 
JAram.-Syr. x^aj, Egypt.-Aram., 
Nab., Palm, x'raa, Mand. x'ra'ia, Arab. 
jamal, Ethiop. and Tigre gamal, Akka. 
gammalu ( = camel). Gk. kamelos 
(whence L. camelus), is a loan word 
from Heb. -Phoen. 'ypj. Derivatives: 
■?d?, n^oa, rftDj 1 , i^dj". 'jftaj. -Voa, j^aj. 
^aj, n^pj. cp.^p'?. 

Vaam.n. PBH camel driver. [Nomen 
opificis formed from baj according to 
the pattern tyg. cp. JAram.-Syr. x^pa. 
{- camel driver), nomen opificis 
formed from x^pa. ( = camel).] 

msVaaf.n. NH right or title to receive a 
pension. [Formed from n^a? with suff. 

nVaaf.n. pbh gangway, gangboard. 
[JAram. x^pj; of uncertain origin.] 

rvVaaf.n. nh pension. [Formed fromVaa" 
with first suff. ng. cp. Aram, x^aa, 
rendering "?iaa (= recompense).] Deriv- 
ative: nix^aa. 

nVaaf.n. pbh she camel. (Formed from 
■?pa. with first suff. ng.] 

JlVaa'm.n. nh gable. (Formed from Vaa, 
( = camel), with suff. rlc; so called from 
its shape suggestive of a camel's hump. 

]iVaa», 'JiVaa adj. (pbh and nh resp.) 
very large. [Formed from "?aa. 
(= camel), with suff. |1a, resp. ^Ic. For 
sense development cp. the English 
words horsemint, horse mussel, horse- 
radish, etc. cp. ftp?, 'ftp*.] Derivative: 

nwlVajf.n. nh overlarge size. [Formed 
from jftaa" with suff. ma] 

n^ipaf.n. NH ripeness, maturity. 
[Formed from'raa 1 with suff. ma.] 

*V>5* adj. mh of a camel; camel-like. 

[ Formed from "79a with suff. '•a. I 
ftaj, ^»ladj. (pbh and NH resp.) very 

large. [Formed from bq\ ( = camel) with 

suff. jy. For sense development see the 
related ^aj.-'j^aa.] 
n^ffljf.n. pbh camel caravan. [Formed 
from "raj. (= camel), according to the 
pattern n^g . I 

D»a to cut (the branch of a tree). [Arab. 
jamma (=he cut off).] — Qal 09a, he 
cut (the branch of a tree), lopped. 

— Niph. oaaj pbh was cut, was lopped. 

— Pi. ozja pbh he cut, lopped. — Pu. 
vt}\ NH was cut, was lopped. 
Derivatives: oiaa,, oiaa, maaa. do^b, 
prob. also npa^. 

maaa f.n. pbh a small hole. [Formed 
from oaa with dimin. suff.rrc. cp.ap|.] 

vaato sip, swallow. [JAram. xpa. »aa, 
Arab. jum'a h ( = a sip, mouthful, 
swallow), Ethiop'. gem'e( = a. vessel for 
liquids). A collateral form of xaa.] 

— Qal ypa, pbh he sipped, swallowed, 
gulped, drank. — Niph. ypaa NH was 
sipped, was swallowed. — Pi. y$a pbh 
he sipped, swallowed, gulped, drank. 

— Hiph. yaan mh he gave to drink. 

— Hoph. ygan nh was given to drink. 
Derivatives: yiaa., yiaa, ny^aa, |yaj. 

]yaaran. nh gulper, glutton. [Formed 
from yaa with agential suff. ]g.] 

paa, yTSM m.n. pit (a hapax legomenon 
in the Bible, occurring Eccles. 10:8). 
[An Aramaic loan word. cp. JAram. 
x^jaip ( - pit). For the interchangeabili- 
ty of a, 3 and p see the introductory en- 
try to letter a.] 

naa 1 to complete, finish. [BAram. Tpa 
(- completed, finished), JAram. n?a 
( = he perfected, finished, accomplished, 
he concluded, deduced; he learned), 
Syr. naa (=he perfeaed, finished, 
accomplished, effected, performed), 
Arab, jammara, OSArab. naa (=he 
collected, assembled), Ethiop. agmara 
( = he perfected, finished), Akka. 
gamdru (=to perfect, finish). Related 
to Vaa 1 .] — Qal naa. tr. v. 1 came to an 
end; 2 he brought to an end, finished, 
completed; 3 PBH he concluded, 
deduced; 4 PBH he learned. — Niph. 
iaa} pbh was finished, was completed, 
came to an end. — Pi. laa 1 pbh he 
finished, wasted, spent, squandered; 
2 nh he destroyed. — Hoph. naan pbh 
1 was ended, was finished, was 
completed; 2 was concluded, was 
decided. Derivatives: iaa, lej, xnaa, 
paa 1 , rjoj". -uaa. xyaa. nyea, vo?e. 

naa" to burn spices on coal. 
[Denominated from Aram, xnau; see 
rna$ and cp. nea^". cp. also Arab. 
jamara (= he roasted), which is 
denominated fromyamra"( = live coal).] 

— Pi. noa he burned spices on coal, per- 



fumed. — Hith. 15195 PBH was per- 
fumed (with spices on coals). — Hoph. 
i^n pbh (of s.m.). 

naa, "UJJ m.n. pbh end. completion, con- 
clusion. [From-ina. cp. joijj.I 

«W rnjja f.n. pbh 'Gemara', commen- 
tary o'n 'the Mishnah (together with 
which it forms the Talmud). [JAram.. 
from ioa (=he finished, ended, com- 
pleted; he concluded, deduced; he 
learned). See id; and cp. naa. T"59»" • 1 

rnajf.n.PBH live coal. [From JAram. 
iypu. XJjnau (=live coal), which is 
related to Aram, jamr (- embers), 
jamra>> (=live coal), jammara (-he 
roasted), ijtamara (-he burned 
incense).] Derivative: idi". 

pa*' m.n. NH extremist. [Formed from 
naa' with agential suff. jg.] Derivative: 

paa"m.n.NH expert in 'Gemara', 
Talmudist. iFormed from xnaa with 
agential suff. I^.l 

nuiOJf.n.NH extremism. [Formed from 

T t • 

73a j' with 3.) 
tfaato bend. I Borrowed from JAram. 
V$l (-he bent), which is prob. related 
to tfga (-was wrinkled), and to Arab. 
qamasa (-he dipped, immersed). See 
#aa . ] — Pi. tf 9? tr. v. he made flexible, 
made elastic. — Nith. tfaan} MH was 
made elastic, became elastic. — Hiph. 
cfoan NH he made elastic. — Hoph. 
tfaan nh was made elastic. Derivatives: 
aftaa, tfuj, n^oan, mtfaann. 
ntfaaf.n.FW gamash. [Fren. gamache, 
from gamacho, from galamacha, from 
Sp. guadamaci, from Arab, ghada- 
masiyy, lit.: 'leather', from Ghadames 
(a town in Tripoli).] 
]a m.n. 1 garden. 2 nh (short for Dn^-jj) 
kindergarten. [Aram. x\%, xn^a, Ugar. 
gn, Arab. janna h , Akka. ganna 
( = garden).] Derivatives: -\h ]\l, p3J. cp. 
]a m.n. FW gene (biology). See $ a. 
|jp fw -gen. [Combining form used in 
the senses: something produced, 
something that produces (as in 'oxy- 
gen', 'hydrogen'). The second sense 
was introduced by the French chemist 
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier in 1789. 
From Fren. -gene, from Gk. -genus 
( = born of, produced by), from IE base 
*gen-, *gene-, m geno-, *gn- (-to 
beget, bear, bring forth; produce).! 
'xaa, 'ja m.n. shame, disgrace, dis- 

rapture. [Fromnu.] 
aaato steal, rob, cheat, delude. [Aram. 
aja, Arab, janaba (-put aside), from 
janb (^ side).! — Qal ay ihe stole, he 
robbed; 2 he cheated, deceived. 

deluded. — Niph. ajaj was stolen. 

— Pi. naa 1 he stole frequently, was a 
habitual thief; 2 pbh he slipped in, he 
slipped out. — Pu. ay he was stolen, it 
was stolen. — Hith. ajjnn he slipped in. 

— Hiph. nan nh he passed on 
stealthily, he introduced surreptitious- 
ly, he smuggled in. — Hoph. ajan NH he 
was passed on stealthily, he was smug- 
gled in. Derivatives: ay, ay. nay, J3$. 

aajm.n. thief. [Derived from aaa, 
according to the pattern ^9.] 
Derivatives: may, ,3 U» ^d perhaps 
also ftpia. 
33a m.n. pbh theft. [From a:a (q.v.).] 
n3?af.n. theft, stolen goods, pilferage. 
[Formed from a:a with suff. ng.) Deriv- 
ative: may. 
maaf.n.PBH theft. IFormed from nay 

with suff. ni3.) 
masaf.n.NH thievery. [Formed fromaji 

with suff. m j. 1 
'aaaadi.NH thievish. IFormed from a^ 

with suff. '^.l 
]3aam.n. NH a thievish person, sneak 
thief. IFormed from ay with suff. ]g.l 
Derivatives:*}^ nuay. 
'333a adj. NH thievish. [Formed from jay 

with suff. ■•;.] 
n»33Jf.n.NH thievery. [Formed from 

jay with! 
i|3am.n.NH ginger. [Aram, xnay, from 
Gk. dzingiberis (-ginger), from Pah' 
singivera, from Old I. syngavera 
(.ginger; lit.: 'hornlike'), from s'yn- 
gam (-horn) and vera (-body); so 
called in allusion to the hornlike shape 
of the root.! 

"•rasa adj. stolen (a hapax legomenon in 
the Bible, occurring Gen. 31:39). 
[Obsolete form of c. st. of naua, f. of 
aiy (q.v.).l 
in33J.adj.NH sneak thief, petty thief. 
'[ Formed from ay or from nay with adj. 
suff. jg or with dimin. suff. ]v-\ 
j1»Va3j m.n. fw ganglion (medicine). 
[Medical L., from Gk. gagglion 
(-encysted tumor on a tendon). The 
word ganglion prob. stands for *ga-gl- 
ion and is a loan word from Heb. b\\i 
(-anything round; a wheel), from the 
nooa3am.n. fw gangster. [Eng. gang- 
ster. Formed from gang with suff. 
ruyiasaT.n. ? w gangrene. [L. gangraena, 
from Gk. gangraina ( = lit.: 'that which 
eats away'), formed through reduplica- 
tion from gran, granein (-to gnaw, 
rr^a f.n. 1 pbh troop, band of soldiers. 

2NH artillery unit. [From Aram, x'jy 
(-band, troop). Related to Arab, jund 
(-army, soldiers). Prob. related to 
W|8m.n. coquetry, dandyism. (Verbal 
n.of-ny. See-raa.l 

Vt3ato beautify, dandify, embellish. 
[From Aram. "nyx, which is prob. 
related to -nann . See ma.] — Pi. -ny NH 
he beautified, dandified, embellished. 
— Pu. Tjy NH was beautified, was dan- 
dified. — Hith. -nynn nh he beautified 
himself, he dandified himself. 

Tttjjm.n.NH 1 squadron leader. 2high 
rank official in Israeli prisons' service. 
I Formed from rrjy with suff. ig . 1 

]T13|nh lm.n. dandy, fop. 2 adj. 

coquettish. [Formed from ma with 

suff. |g.] Derivatives: nuyjy, ^jjy. 
m3Tl3a f.n. NH coquetry, dandyism, 

foppishness. IFormed from jrjy with] 

"'STMa adj. NH coquettish, foppish. 
I Formed from piy with suff. >;:. .] 

naa f.n. 1 garden, grove. 2 pbh small 
garden. [Aram, xny, Arab, janna 1 ' 
( = garden), from Sem. origin gann. See 

njaf.n. garden. [A secondary form ofny 

(q.v.). I 
rmto denounce, deprecate, condemn, 
disgrace, defame. [Aram, 'ja (-he was 
shaded), Arab, janay (-he commited 
an offence), janyya h ( = crime).] —Pi. 
nja pbh he denounced, deprecated, 
condemned, disgraced, defamed. 
— Pu. ny pbh he was denounced, 
deprecated, disgraced. — Hith. nynri 
pbh made himself repulsive, was 
13a m.n. fw gnu (a kind of antelope). 

[From Eng. gnu, from gnoo, the word 
by which the German traveler Georg 

Forster (1754-1794) rendered Kaffir 

3«aadj. stolen. [Pass. pan. ofay; see 

ruaisaf.n. 1 pbh a kind of umbrella. 2NH 

awning, canopy. lOf unknown origin.] 
naa adj. pbh hidden, concealed, latent. 

[Pass. part. ofTy;seetia.l 
niam.n. NH keeping in archives. [From 

msam.n. mh grown, coughing. [From 

MHm.n. 1PBH shame, dishonour. 2MH 

denunciation. [From ny, Pi. of naa .1 
|Waadj. MH protected, guarded. IPass. 

part, of jy; see pa.] 
pajm.n. NH pre- kindergarten. [Formed 

from ]} with dimin. suff. p\ :. 1 
]Mi' m.n. 1 pbh manner. 2 NH (in pi.) d -1 ?"? 



etiquette. [Prob. from Gk. gennaios 
(generous, noble). I 
]»»" m.n. NH gardening. [From jja, Pi. of 

133 ".I 


rPJisaf.n. nh small garden. [Formed 

from ]i with dimin. suff. rrp.] 
n^^ppiasi f.n. fw gnostics. [From Late L. 

Gnosticus. from Gk. Gnostikos 

( = Gnostic: lit.: 'knowing'), from 

gignoskein ( - to know). ] 

X'DiJa, rrowa f.n. pbh birth. [From Gk. 
genos ( - birth, descent, race), from IE 
base *§en-, *§ene (=to beget, pro- 

T?13J, T51S'J m.n. fw genocide. [Lit.: 
'killing a tribe", a hybrid coined from 
Gk. genos ( = race, tribe), and L. cfdere, 
from caedere ( = to kill). ] 

nil* f.n. pbh disgrace, defamation, libel. 
[Formed from ma (q.v.). Related to 
Aram. xrn»(of s.m.).) 

l{im.n. NH ! curator, keeper. 2 archivist. 
[Formed from m according to the pat- 
tern ^9-1 

TJJto hide, conceal, store, file away, 
shelve. [Denominated from m. cp. 
Aram, Tja (-he hided), Pers. ganza 
(- treasure). Related tows.) — Qahj? 
1 pbh stored, shelved; 2 pbh concealed, 
hid: 3NH cancelled, suspended. 
— Niph. Tjaj inh was stored; 2PBH 
was hidden, concealed; 3NH was 
cancelled, was suspended. Derivatives: 

ni m.n. (used only in the pi.; seen^a). 

O'Tjam.n. i treasure, coffer; 2MH secret 
hiding place, [pi. of t$. Together with 
Aram, xi^a loan from Pers. ganj 
{- treasure).] 

"?II3a m.n. i treasure-house. 2NH archives. 

[From Pers. ganjak, from ganj 

( = treasure), and suff. -ak ( = belonging 

to).] Derivative: R!^ j. 
JltJJm.n. nh archivist. [Formed from 

ipi with suff.];. ] 
Ijaa m.n. NH l curator, keeper. 2 archivist. 

[ Formed from ua with suff. j p. ] 

njato groan, to cough, to sigh. [cp. 
Aram. n;a ( = he groaned). Related to 
mx (q.v.). | — Qal nja, l pbh he coughed 
up blood; 2MH he sighed, groaned. 
-- Nith. rtjjnj nh he groaned deeply. 
Derivative: rtrni. 

'psaadj.FW genetic. [Eng genetic, a 
modern word formed from Gk. genesis 
( - birth, descent, origin), on analogy of 
Gk. adjectives ending in -etikos.l 

!1 ? ,t ?3J'f.n. fw genetics. [Eng. genetics, 
coined by the English biologist and 
Geneticist William Bateson (1861- 

1926) from genetic. See ■•pjj and suff. 
n ? L).] 

J^P?'? m.n. fw gentleman. [Eng. gentle- 
man, compounded of gentle, in the 
sense of 'well-born', and man.] 

■>sa adj. I MH pertaining to the garden. 
2NH pertaining to the kindergarten. 
[ Formed from ja. with suff. 'p.] 

^Wto adj. fw genial. [From Fren. genial 
( = genial), from Fren. genie ( = genius), 
from L. genius (- tutelary spirit). | 
Derivative: m»Vx^a. 

rvi^lOMf.n. FW geniality. [Formed from 
^x^a with suff. m:i.\ 

DVJam.n. fw genius. [L. genius (= tute- 
lary spirit; inclination, orig. 'generative 
power'), for *gen-yos, from IE base 
*gen( = to beget, produce). Seejaa.] 

np?»f.n. I pbh hiding, storage. 2NH 
archives. 3MH storeroom in a syn- 
agogue in which disused sacred books 
are preserved. [ Verbal n. of tjj (q.v.). ] 

nirsaf.n. mh groan, coughing, sighing. 
[Verbal n. ofroa(q.v.).] 

D'S'SJm.n. pi. tantum pbh an abortion 
consisting of a fleshy substance. [From 
Arab, janin ( = embryo, foetus; 
anything hidden), from jannay (= he 

pa 1 to defend, protect, guard, shelter, 
[cp. Aram, |ja, fax ( = he protected). 
Akka. gannu (= cover), Arab, jannay 
( = he covered, concealed).] — Qal jja. 
he defended, protected, guarded. 

— Polel ]})i mh (of s.m.). — Polal ]}U 
MH was defended, was protected, was 
guarded. — Hiph. jan he defended, 
protected. — Hoph. |}in NH was 
defended, was protected, was guarded. 

pa" to garden. [Denominated from ja. 
( = garden). I — Pi. J3.a nh he gardened. 

— Pu. m nh was gardened. 

IJJm.n. i pbh garden owner. 2NH gar- 
dener. [Formed from ]}.] Derivatives: 

nusa f.n. nh gardening, horticulture. 

[ Formed from jja. with suff. rn::. ) 
rPSMf.n. nh gardener (f.). [f. of]}?.] 

nmf.n.NH kindergarten teacher. 
[Properly f. off}}.] 

•rto^SS m.n. fw generator. [L., from 
generdtus, p. part, of generdre ( = to 
beget, bring forth, produce, generate), 
from genus ( - birth, descent, race). See 

Vnaa. m.n. fw general (n.). [Fren. general, 
from general (adj.), from L. generdfis 
(=of a specific kind; relating to all. 
general), from genus (-sort. kind, 

"•V^SS adj. fw general (adj.). [Fren. 
general from L. generdlis (see *tt$).\ 

In'P'VjPI m.n. generalissimo. [It., super- 
lative of generate (- general), from 
generate adj., from L. generalis (sec 

oaadj. i pbh coarse, bulky. 2NH vulgar, 
impolite, discourteous. [Related to 
ooa". Prob. akin to Aram. oa. ( = it was 
large), and to Arab, jashisha ( = coarse 

noa 1 to belch, burp. [Related to Syr. x^a 
{= he belched, vomited), Arab, jasha'a, 
and perhaps also to Ethiop. gas'a 
( = he belched). —Qal nga pbh he 
belched, burped. 

noa" to make rough, to vulgarize. [Either 
derived from oa. or related to it; see o? 
and ooa".| — Pi. nija pbh he made 
rough, vulgarized. — Hith. nejnn mh 
i he was made rude, vulgar; 2 it was 
made rough. 

""iDJt m.n. NH belching, burping, eruc- 
tation. [From noa'.) 

moa f.n. I pbh rudeness, bad manners, 
vulgarity. 2NH 'dirty' words. [Formed 
from o? with suff. nij.] 

nup'af.n. fw gesture. [Fren. geste 
( = gesture), from L. gestus, p. part, of 
genere (=to carry, to bear, produce, 
show, manifest, manage, rule, govern, 
accomplish, perform, do). Of uncertain 
origin. I 

intppa m.n. pbh (pi. nlxnooj, also ninpoj) 
military camp. [From L. castra 
( = camps). ] 

rPaWnppa f.n. fw gastronomy, art of- 
cooking. [Fren. gastronomic from Gk. 
gastronomia, another name for 
gastrologia. Formed from gastros 
( = stomach) and -nomia. from nomos 
( = anything allotted or designed, usage, 
custom, law).] 

"•pa m.n. pbh belching. [From noa 1 .] 
np'pa f.n. nh dying, agony. (Verbal n. of 
05$; see ooa 1 .] 

oca 1 to be dying, expiring. [ Prob. related 
to Arab, jasha 'a ( - he was convulsed). ] 

— Qal oga. pbh he was dying, expiring.] 
DDJ" to behave rudely, be haughty. 

[Related to o? (q.v.). Prob. akin to 
Aram. oa, ( = it was large), and to Arab. 
jashisha (-coarse flour).! — Qal oa 
pbh he behaved rudely, was haughty. 

— Hiph. can pbh he was rude, insolent. 

— Hith. opann nh he behaved 

opam.n. pbh side of the body. [Aram. 

xg-a, x?9 , a (-side). Syr. xijj (-thigh, 

¥«yam.n. nh quacking. [Fromyaya 11 .] 

D'lnayj m.n. pi. tantum pbh longing, 
yearning. [Prob. derived from nya( = he 
cried, wailed, wept).) Derivative: saya 1 . 



»jyj' to long, to yearn. [Denominated 
from a'yuyj.) — Pi. »*y? MH he longed 
for, yearned, wailed. — Hith. yayjnri 

»ay>" to quack. [Of imitative origin. 
Perhaps enlarged from nw.l — Pi. y?y? 
NH it quacked. Derivative: yiayi. 

yjyj" 1 to dig, make holes, roll in. [From 
Aram. yjyin-N ( = he rolled in).] —Pi. 
yjy? MH he rolled in, dug. made holes. 
— Hith. yayjnri pbh (of s.m.). 

rnyjm.n. NH germander (plant). [From 

Arab. ja'ada h .\ 
nyato moo. low, bleat, cry. [cp. Ugar. 

nyi ( = noise), Aram, xya (=he 

shouted).) — Qal nya. (=it mooed. 

lowed, bleated; he cried, wept, wailed). 

— Hith. ny^nn nh it began mooing: he 

burst out crying. Derivatives: 'ya, njyj. 
V*y»' m.n. pbh loathing, abhorrence. 

[ From Vya; see ^?J'.] 
bw\ n m.n. PBH rinsing with boiling 

water, cleansing (vessels) with boiling 

water. [From^! 11 .] 
Vwaadj. mh dirty, unclean. [Pass. part. 

of ! ?y$;see ! ?yi 1 .] 
-nyaadj. mh cursed. [Pass. part, of nyj; 

dm adj. nh stormy, raging. [Pass. part. 

oftfy?; seecya.] 

tya m.n. fw Geez (the classical Ethio- 
pian language). [From Ethiop. ga'z 
( = lit.: 'migration'; hence 'emigrants', 
'land of emigrants — Ethiopia', 
whence 'Ethiopian language').] 

'yjm.n. imh crying, wailing, weeping. 
2NH mooing, lowing, bleating. 
[Derived from n»j.] 

njyaf.n. imh crying, wailing, weeping. 
2NH mooing, lowing. bleating. 
[Derived from nyj.] 

rryaf.n. mh "metheg" (in Heb. grammar 

— a sign denoting secondary stress). 
[From Aram. v.y\ ( = mooing), hence 
prominent pronunciation of a syl- 

n^yaf.n. pbh loathing, abhorring, 
abhorrence, detestation. [Verbal n. of 
"ry^see^yj 1 .] 

Tvyaf.n. nh rebuking, reproaching, 
scolding. I Verbal n. of lyy, see ^j .] 

Vyj' to loathe, abhor, reject, [cp. Aram. 
VyjrfK ( = it was fouled, soiled. See ^kv. ] 

— Qal "ry? he loathed, abhorred, 
rejected. — Niph. ^yjj was loathed, 
was abhorred, was rejected, was 
soiled. — Hith. Vyanri 1 pbh it was 
soiled: 2NH he felt disgust. — Hiph. 
V^jn ipbh he soiled; 2NH caused 
disgust, nauseated. Derivatives: Vwj 1 , 
"?w?, n^yj, "?yj, ">yj. 

*?Vl" to rinse (vessels) in boiling water, to 
scald, purify, cleanse. |Of uncertain 
origin. Prob. related toVw.] —Hiph. 
^yjn he scalded, rinsed (vessels) in 
boiling water. — Hoph. Vyjn mh it was 
scalded, rinsed in boiling water, 
purified. — Niph. Vyij 1 pbh was 
scalded, was rinsed, was purified; 2MH 
was discharged. was vomited. 
Derivatives: ViyjH,n^?ri. 

^?k m.n. disgust, loathing, nausea, 
revulsion. [FromVyj'.] Derivative: ■•>$£. 

^ya m.n. MH disgust, abomination. 
[FromVyj 1 .] 

tyl adj. nh disgusting, detestable, 
loathsome, abominable. [Formed from 
tyi with adj. suff. ■•p.] Derivative: 

ni^yaf.n. nh loathsomeness, disgust. 
[ Formed from ^yj with suff. wg. ] 

">yato rebuke, scold, reproach, curse. 
[Ugar. gr ( = to scold), Aram. -Syr. isj 
( = he scolded). Tigre ga'ara ( = he 
shouted), Arab, ja'ara ( = it mooed).] 

— Qal -\y\ i he rebuked, scolded, 
reproached; 2 he cursed. — Niph. nyij 
MH was rebuked, was scolded. — Pi. 
ny? MH he rebuked, scolded. — Pu. nyj 
MH was rebuked, was scolded. 
Derivatives: nyj, "Tvy$, rqya. jny.j, |Fnya. 

"lyam.n. mh rebuke, reproach, scolding, 
reprimand. [ From isi . ] 

rnya f.n. rebuke, reproach, scolding, 
reprimand. [Fronmyj.] 

jny? adj. and m.n. nh scolder. [Formed 
from nyj with suff. p. I Derivative: 

^ny? adj. nh scolding, reprimand. 
[ Formed from fiy r i with suff. , ^. ] 

jrnyj m.n. nh scolder. [Formed fromiw 
with suff. jnz;.] 

tfya to shake, quake, quiver, to tremble, 
to rage, to storm; to moo. [cp. Akka. 
gesu ( = to belch), Arab, jasa'a (=he 
vomited, it vomited), Ethiop. g»as'a, 
Tigre gas'a ( = he belched), cp. also 
tfy-i.] — Qal tfya lit shook, quaked, 
quivered, trembled; 2 PBH it mooed. 

— Pu. tfy? was shaken. — Hith. tfyann 
and tfyiinn it shook, quaked, stormed, 
erupted. — Hiph. tzfyan mh caused to 
shake, caused to quake, caused to 
erupt. Derivatives: tfy1a.ffyj,™pyj,|^y?. 

tfyam.n. mh quaking, eruption. [From 

tfyi.] Derivative: '^y,?. 
ntfya f.n. mh quaking. [Fromffyj.] 

"•tfya adj. nh volcanic. [Derived fromtfya 
with suff. ■•q.) Derivative: nvjjtya. 

rn»tfy|f.n. nh volcanicity, volcanism. 
[Formed from -Vyi with suff. m:r..\ 

HJJy,! adj. & m.n. nh raging, furibund, 
rampageous, rampant. [Formed from 

tfya with suff.jg.] Derivative: nwpyj. 

nu^yj f.n. nh rage, rampage. [Formed 
from nftyj with suff. mo. ] 

«]J m. & f.n. (pi. d^j, also u>$\) i back. 
2 body, person. 3 pbh wing (of a bird). 
4 pbh (in pi. o?9j) hands and feet (of a 
human), feet (of an animal), j pbh 
handle, rim (of a vessel). iRelated toaj 
and to 1?^. For sense 1 cp. Arab, janif 
(- humpbacked), and Syr. x^pi 
(- curved, convexed). For sense 2 cp. 
Heb. ngu, from «pa, and Arab, jifah 
( = corpse), i? in the sense of wing is 
borrowed from Aram, x^a. ( = wing); cp. 
Syr. xga, and Akka. gappu (of s.m.).] 

nsa f.n. pbh fence, hedge, loose wall. 
[Probably derived from ia ( = he closed, 
shut; it closed, shut); see «pa.] 

nsa f.n. l pbh bank (of a river). 2NH the 
upper part of a shoe. 3 NH wing (in the 
-air force). [ Related to ^a. and to 2$ .] 

119a m.n. PBH hugging, caressing, em- 
bracing, closing up. [Verbal n. of ^gj; 
see iDJ.] 

"iisa m.n. nh vulcanization, sulphur- 
ization, fumigation. [Verbal n. of -isj; 

T?a m.n. nh 'ghaffir' — constable (in 
Palestine under British rule). [From 
Arab, ghafir ( = watchman).] 

Vsato accelerate, press, urge. [cp. Arab. 
jafala (=he ran away), jqffala ( = he 
scared somebody away).] — Pi. V?j 
pbh he accelerated, pressed, urged. 
— Hith. V?jnn nh he pushed himself in. 

]pa m.n. vine. [Aram, xjdu, Syr. ^su 
(pi.), Ugar. gpn, Arab, jafn ( = vine), 
Mand. kidij, Akka. gapnu, gupnu 
( = tree).] Derivative: ]\*$. 

]JSlm.n. nh cordia, Assyrian plum, 
Sebesten's plum. [Fromjsa.] 

osato plaster. [Back formation fromoDa, 
a variant of 03a (q. v.).] — Pi.o?a pbh he 
plastered. — Niph. ogaj pbh was 

09a m.n. nh plasterer. [Derived from odj 
according to the pattern Vy^. A 
collateral form of djj.] 

O'ODam.n. pbh gypsum. [Gk. gypsos. 

i)D3to embrace, caress, hug, cling. 
[From Aram, "pi ( = he embraced), 
prob. derived from x§a (see i?).] —Pi- 
15? pbh l he embraced, caressed, 
hugged, clung; 2 he encircled. — Pu. 
19£ l it was encircled, he was encircled; 
2NH he was embraced; 3NH it was 
closed. — Hith. «|9?nn, Nith. i^ari) NH 
he was caressed, was embraced. 
Derivative :niD^ann. 

nsa m.n. 'gopher* (a kind of wood of 
which Noah's ark was made). [Of 


DTI 5 

unknown origin. Perhaps related to 
Akka. giparu.] 

nDSto sulphurize, to vulcanize. [Derived 
from rnpj.] — Pi. "19? imh he 
sulphurized: 2NH he vulcanized, 
fumigated. — Pu. ngj i pbh it was 
sulphurized; 2NH it was vulcanized. 
— Nith. igjn) pbh was sulphurized. 

rnpaf.n. nh sulphate. [Derived from 
rrnpj.l Derivative: Tnpa,. 

■inpam.n. nh match. [Coined from 
nnD? under the semantic influence of 
Yiddish y^yairmtf (= match), derived 
from "?ayntf ( = sulphur), or of Ger. 
Schwefelholzchen ( = lucifer match) 
from Schwefel( = sulphur).] Derivative: 

rnmpaf.n. nh small match. [Derived 
from "inpj with dimin. suff. rrp.] 

npjadj. NH sulphide. [Back formation 

rrnpaf.n. sulphur, [cp. Aram, xrrnpu, 
xrvna?. (xnmaa, Syr. nivh33, Akka. 
kubrftu, kibrftu, Arab. kibrith 
( = sulphur). Prob. a loan word from 
some non-semitic language.] Deriv- 
atives: mx rnpj, in??, npj, '•nnpj, 

'n'iDJ adj. I MH containing sulphur. 2 NH 
sulphuric, sulphurous. [Derived from 
rvnpa with adj. suff. ■•p.] 

'JO'IDJ adj. NH sulphuric. [Derived from 
rrnpj with adj. suff. , 3^.] 

msito sulphurize. [Denominated from 

vnpaadj.NH sulphatic. [Derived from 
rnsj with adj. suff. ■•".] 

npjf.n. i pbh olive waste, rape. 2NH 
waste of honeycombs, [cp. Aram. 
ndd^, Arab.jift (= olive waste, rape).] 

]np>seejnp , j. 

nMnDJseen«nD , i. 

fa 1 m.n. pbh spark, flicker. [Of unknown 

H" m.n. pbh mud. [cp. Syr. x^ ( = gyp- 
sum, lime), Arab.y'ass ( = lime). ] 

r*lto flash, to glitter. [Coined from fji 1 
through reduplication of the x.] — Pi. 
fsj nh it flashed, glittered. 
">*. m.n. i foreigner, stranger, temporary 
dweller, newcomer. 2 pbh proselyte, 
convert. [Related to ij, from -na (q.v.). 
cp. Arab, jara (- he went astray from), 
jawara {-he lived close by), Ugar. gr 
(=to dwell), Aram. >n1*a ( = proselyte), 
Syr. n^I'j ( = foreigner, temporary 
dweller, proselyte).] Derivative: nnj. 
3}*' m.n. I itch, scab. 2NH eczema, [cp. 
Aram, K37L Syr. xanj, Mand. xa-ra, 
Akka. garabu, Tigre garbeb, Arab. 
jarab{- itch, scab). I Derivative: rqna. 
3}}" m.n. pbh large earthenware jug (for 

wine), [cp. Aram, xana. or xa^J, Syr. 
N3"ia ( = earthenware jug), Arab, jirab 
( = leather bag). I 

3"ia m.n. nh (dual pi. 0:37?) stocking, 
sock. [Borrowed from Arab, jawrab 
(= socks, stocking).] Derivatives: ana, 
aa-u, rtaia, n-g??- 

3"Uto wear a stocking, to rob. [Back 
formation from 37$.] — Qal ana. nh he 
put stockings on. Derivative: ana,. 

331 J to put stockings on. [Derived from 
37s through reduplication of the third 
radical.] — Pi. 337a he put stockings 

jlana, Jl»sna m.n. nh panty hose. [Form- 
ed from 37a with dimin. suff. ri d, resp. 

n^tranaf.n. fw gravitation. [Eng. and 
Fren., from Modern L. gravitdtio, 
coined by Issac Newton (1642-1727) 
from L. graviias ( = weight). ] 

n'anaf.n. nh hosetops. [Formed from 
37a with dimin. suff. rro.] 

nanaf.n. nh scabies, eczema. [Formed 
from 37 i' according to the pattern n^g 
serving to form names of diseases. See 
nznx and cp. words there referred to.] 

liana' m.n. imh gargling, gurgling. 2NH 
cleaning the throat. 3NH prattle, 
nonesense. chatter. [Verbal n. of nsn?; 

liana" m.n. | PBH picking berries. 2NH 
drying berries. [Verbal n. of nan?; see 
nana", cp.-vana-l 

"Vina. 1 m.n. 1 pbh berry. 2 nh grain. 3 pbh 
somewhat, a little. [A secondary form 
of in? (q.v.).] Derivatives: jn , n?, , i , n?. 

vana/'m.n. 1 pbh Eruca sativa (plant). 
2NH cress, [cp. Aram. -Syr. kt"?7? 
( = cress). Akka. gingiru. Arab, jarjir 
{- water cress).] 

jlTjna m.n. nh a small grain. [Formed 
from "ran? 1 with dimin. suff. |1d.) 

'Tana adj. nh granular. [Formed from 
-rana 1 with adj. suff. ■•p.] 

nana m.n. pbh 1 berry, grain. 2 some- 
what, a little, [cp. Aram. Knanj, Arab. 
jirgir( = berry, grain). See also -rsna.) 

nana 1 to gargle. [Of imitative origin, cp. 
Arab, jarjara (=he gargled). Possibly 
related to rnai} ( = throat). See -imn.] 

— Pi. -ina ipbh he gargled; 2MH he 
cleaned his throat; 3NH he grunted. 

— Hith. -la/i^nn l MH he gargled; 2 nh he 
grunted. Derivatives: ")«}?', T7J7?. 

nana" to pick berries; to dry berries. 
[Denominated from -ijn?.] — Pi. t*7* 
pbh 1 he picked berries; 2 he dried 
berries. — Nith. ijn&nj nh it was 

nana, adj. & m.n. pbh glutton, gourmand. 

gormandizer, gobbler. [Formed from 
ini' with suff. |p.] Derivatives: m^snj, 

ninana f.n. pbh gluttony, voracity. 
[ Formed from risnj with suff. ro r..\ 

"•nana adj. NH voracious, gargling. 
[Formed from nan? with adj. suffer;.] 

nnnaf.n. (in the Bible only in the pi. 
nnanj) throat, windpipe, gullet, neck. 
[cp. Syr. xrnaj, Mand. nmoxajxa, 
Akka. ganguriiy, gagguritu, Tigre 
g*arg»urit, Arab, jarajir ( = throat). 
Perh aps related to rhj. See nana '. ] 

Tia 1 to scratch, scrape, scrabble, [cp. 
Phoen. tod ( = flesh scraper). 
Aram. -Syr. -nj ( = he scraped), Arab. 
jarada {- he peeled, stripped off bark, 
shaved hair).] — Qal 17a, nh he 
scratched, scrabbled, scraped. — Pi. 
"na 1 pbh he scratched, scraped, 
erased; 2NH he searched and found 
(colloq.). — Pu. -na nh was scratched. 

— Niph. "nij mh was scratched. 

— Hith. Tianri he scratched himself. 
Derivatives: -r$\ mi, nynj, nrij, ma/, 
mj, rnni, jiij, -rtij, rnna. nyna. 

■na" to weave. [Back formation from 

^T}\ (q.v.).] — Qal Tij pbh he wove. 

Derivative: in a ". 
TU 1 " to be dry, to become dry. 

[Denominated from thj.] — Hiph. 

inan nh it became dry. Derivative: 

ma ". 

"na 1 m.n. 1 PBH erasure. 2NH itchy. 
[ From -na 1 (q.v.).] 

"na" m.n. PBH fringe, tassel. [From tij" 

KTia see NT-ia. 
•ma to scratch lightly. [Pil. of -na 1 .) 

— thj nh he scratched lightly. 
DVria 1 , dtij 1 , jlria m.n. pbh (pi. o^nna, 

resp. □"•^"i?. d-^tij) gallows, scaffold. 
[ From L. gradum, accusative ofgradus 
(= stair, step).] Derivative: ^Itij. 

dItii", Dnnj" m.n. 1 pbh stump, block. 
2NH process (botany, horticulture). 
3 PBH completely destitute. [Aram. 
n?"?? ( = stump), from dtij ( = he cut 
off, he chopped up, he blunted off), 
from mi (q.v.).] Derivative: dtii. 

DiTiam.n. nh cutting (a stalk), be- 
heading. [Verbal n. of dtij; see dtij.] 

'DlTia. adj. nh 1 of the gallows. 2 ma- 
cabre. [Formed from d1tij ' with adj. 
suff. 'P.] 

"•Tjjm.n. pbh weaver. [From Late Gk. 
gerdios (- weaver).] Derivative: -ni". 

DTiato cut off (a stalk), to behead. 
[Denominated from dIthj". cp. Aram. 
DT?a , tf ( = was cut off).] — Pi. dtij nh 
he cut off, he beheaded. — Pu. uy\\ mh 
was cut off, was lopped. Derivative: 



]Tia. adj. & m.n. scratcher, itchcr. 
I Formed from tu 1 with suff. jg.l 
Derivative: -an}. 
'JTiaadj. NH itchy, scratchy. [Formed 

from rrij with adj. suff. "V.\ 
n$i"ma. f.n. fw wardrobe, closet, vestry, 
cloakroom. [Fren. garderobe, com- 
pounded of garder ( = to guard), and 
robe(- robe). j 
nnaf.n. nh scabies (disease). [Formed 
from ru ' according to the pattern n^y? 
serving to form names of diseases. See 
rOTK and cp. words there referred to. I 
n"na f.n. pbh chips (of wood), shavings, 
scraps, filings, sawdust. [Formed from 
-na' with dimin. suff. ng. cp. rnbJ and 

ma to excite, provoke, irritate, tease, 
incite, stir up. [Aram, »na, h* ( = he 
provoked, incited). Akka. garu (-to 
challenge).! —Pi. tjj ihe excited; 
2 pbh provoked, incited; 3NH teased. 
— Pu. rnj nh was excited, was 
provoked. — Hith. rnjnri he teased, he 
challenged. Derivatives: 'na, ""nj, nj. 

rna'f.n. cud. [Sem. *girrat- (=cud), 
from *grr (see "na"). whence Arab. 
jirra *( = cud). I 

rnV'f.n. I'gerah' — an ancient coin, 
twentieth part of a 'shekel'. 2 PBH grain 
of acarob. [Sense 2 is prob. the original 
one. cp. Akka. giru '/, 4 part of siqlu 
(unit of weight), cp. -ijn». cp. also rnttje. ] 

."na"' f.n. pbh torso. [Related to Akka. 
girru (- throat). Prob. related to Sem. 
*girdn ( = throat), whence fh| (q.v.). | 

ana adj. nh wearing stockings. [Pass, 
part of yjj; see tij. I 

rnanaf.n. pbh dried fig. [Prob. related 
to Arab, jarjar, jurjar ( = very ripe 
olives). Perhaps related to nana, (q.v.).] 

ina 1 adj. pbh scratched, scraped, scrab- 
bled. [Pass. part, of-nj: seefii'.l 

■ma 11 adj. nh dry. [ Pass. part. ofni ,!l . I 

■ma m.n. mh scratching, scraping. [Ver- 
bal n. of ti 3 ; seen j '.J 

■ma m.n. nh shoe scraper. [From tij'. | 

rnnaf.n. pbh sawdust, chips (of wood). 
[From to 1 .) 

ma adj. 1 mh cut, dissected. 2 nh carved, 

engraved. |Pass. pan. ofnj.) 
ma m.n. nh carving, etching, engraving. 

[Verbal n. ofnj.l 
xtjna see nynj. 

'KOna m.n. nh junkman. [Formed from 

K^n» with suff.\;.l 

n^-ia, Ki^-ia, 'ona_ m.n. (pi. m^na) 1 
pbh junk, scrap-iron; 2NH old stuff. 
[ From Gk. gryte ( = trunk, box; whence 

'old things, scrap').] Derivatives: 'N^na, 
on a. 

nj0t?1ia f.n. fw grotesque. [Fren. gro- 
tesque, from It. pittura grottesca 
( = grotesque painting; orig. 'painting 
found in a grotta'), from grotta 
( = crypt, cave), from L. crupta, crypta, 
from Gk. krypte ( = a hidden vault).] 

">nam.n. 1 pbh provocation, excitation. 
2NH tease, challenge. [Verbal n. ofrna 
( = he provoked ; he teased) ; see ma . ] 

ma adj. nh excited, irritated, provoked. 
[Pass. part. ofrna; see ma. I 

n«y»naf.n. fw grevillea — a genus of 
Australian plants. [Modern L.. named 
after the botanist C.F. Greville 

ona 1 adj. pbh bony, having protruded 
bones. [Pass. part, of on?; see ona 11 . 1 

ona" adj. pbh oversize. [Prob. from d~}}., 
hence identical with ona, 1 .] 

ona'" adj. mh broken, crushed. [Pass, 
part, of on?; see ma 11 .! 

B'pnam.n. pl.tantumPBH small addi- 
tion to the measure (which the vendor 
is accustomed to give to the buyer). 
[According to Levy, from Gk. 
grammai ( = lines; hence small addi- 

jnam.n. nh making a threshing floor. 
[Verbal n. of pa 1 . 1 

ma m.n. 1 throat, gullet. 2 neck. [Aram. 
kj1-i|. Akka. girdnu ( = throat, neck). 
Arab, jiran ( = upper part of the 
camel's neck). See rnrij.l Derivatives: 
'jna, pa 11 . 

rpJlVlwna f.n. fw gerontology. [Com- 
pounded of Gk. geronto-, from 
gerontos ( = old man), and Gk. -logia 

ona m.n. pbh (pi. nlonaj grist maker. 
I Aram. x^nj. From onj; see ona 1 .] 

ona' adj. MH crushed, pounded. [Pass, 
part, of on? ; see ma 1 . 1 

ona" adj. mh learned. [Pass. part, ofonj; 
see ma 11 . 1 

ona m.n. fw gross. [From Fren. la 
grosse (douzaine), 'the great dozen' 
( 1 2 x 1 2), from gross, f. grosse( = big). ) 

ynaadj. 1 pbh bad, worse, inferior. 2 cut 
(beard), shortened. [Pass. part. ofjn$; 
sec mi. J Derivative: nw-ii. 

ynam.n.PBH 1 shortage, deficit, reduc- 
tion. 2 unripe fruit. [Verbal n. of ma; see 

ina m.n. nh sweeping. [Verbal n. of ma; 
see m 1 . J 

in} adj. 1 pbh swept. 2MH cleaned. 

iPass. part, of Tij; see ini. I 
n'pnaf.n. pbh shoot of an olive or 

sycamore. [From Gk. grophion 

(-shoot of olive used as a seedling), 
whence Syr. ndtij. I 

"ina/ adj. ipbh towed, dragged. 2nh 
dependent, satellite. [Pass. part, of Yja/, 
seen j. I 

ina," m.n. nh trailer. [Subst. use of in? 

ina" 1 adj. nh grated, crushed, mashed. 
[ Pass. part, of -q j; see nj".| 

ina 1 m.n. nh dragging, towing. [Verbal 
n.of-na, Pi. of-na 1 .) 

ina" m.n. MH grain, crumb. [Verbal n. 
ofnju Pi. of -nj".) 

rnnaf.n. nh metastasis (medicine). 

[Subst. use of rnvia (adj.), f. of iny 

tfnam.n. pbh deportation, expulsion, 

eviction. [Verbal n. of itf-ia. Pi. ofsni.] 

Derivative: o'^nj. 

tfna ; m.n. nh 'grush' (coin). [From Ger. 
Grosche, from Late L. grossus 
denarius (=a thick, bulky denarius), 
cp. Russian gros, Polish grosz, and 
Modern Arab, qursh, which are of the 
same origin.) 

tfna adj. & m.n. 1 pbh divorced man. 
2MH expelled, driven away. [Pass, 
part, of tfna/, see una.) 

n^na adj. & f.n. divorced woman, [f. 

pass. part, of &\\\ see una.] 
D"»tfna, p #na m.n. pi. pbh 1 divorce. 2 

expulsion, [pi. of tfna.] 

nnaf.n. 1 settlement of foreigners. 2 pbh 
proselytism, conversion to Judaism. 
3 pbh state of foreign settlers. [ Formed 
from na with] 

nato be cut off. [cp. Arab, jaraza (=to 
cut). Tigrinya gdrdzd ( = he divided, 
circumcized), Tigre gdrza ( = portion, 
cut piece). Amharic gdrrdzd ( = he cut). 
Perhaps a metathesis of in (q.v.); see 
also ms.J — Qal tij mh he cut off. 
— Niph. naa was cut off. — Pi. na. nh 
he carved. — Pu. na nh was carved. 
Derivatives: ma, mj, na. 

nJm.n.NH mortise (carpentry). [From 

|.n» m.n. axe, hatchet, [cp. Egypt, grdn, 

Ugar. hrsn, Akka. hassinnu, Aram. 

xj/vq, Arab, kurzan. kurzum, kyrzim 

( = axe). Perhaps related to na (=to 

Biato write off, discard (economy. 

accountancy). [Denominated from 

xyni.) — Qal cij NH he write off. 

discarded. — Niph. onaa nh was wirte 

off, was discarded. Derivative: cn». 
0"iam.n. nh discard. writing off 

(economy, accountancy). [Verbal n. of 

0'l?na adj. fw gratis, freely, for nothing. 


on j 

|L. gratis, contraction of grdtus ( = out 
of favor, without reward, for nothing, 
gratuitously), ablative pi. of gratia 
( favor, kindness).! 

naadj.NH irritable, irascible, excitable. 
[From rna (*hc excited); see ma.] 
Derivative: runs. 

nana f.n. fw garigue (botany). iFren. 
garigue, from garrie ( = kermes oak). 
Prob. a local substrate word of non-IE 

'jniana adj. fw Gregorian, Gregoriac. 
[In , ?;i^"i5 m 1 ? ( = Gregoric calendar), 
from Modern L. Calendarium 
Gregorianum, after the name of the 
Pope Gregory XIII. who in March 
1582 substituted the new reformed 
calendar for the ancient one.] 

TlSm.n. pbh I dry season, rainless 
season. 2 arid land. Icp. Arab, jarida 
(=to be bare — said of soil or field). 
Perhaps a further development of "na 1 
(-to scratch).] Derivative: ■na 1 ". 

NT"iaadv. pbh only, exclusively. I From 

Aram. adj. Kjna ( = lonely, solitary, 

rnnam.n. imh scraping, scratching. 

2MH abrasion. 3NH surgical abortion. 

[From-ru 1 .] 

nnaf.n. nh l provocation, excitation. 
2 causing irritation. [From ma.] 

runaf.n.NH irritability. [Formed from 
n$ with suff. m::.] 

nVnaf.n. fw guerrilla. [Sp. guerrilla 
( = lit.: 'little war'), dimin. of guerra 
( - war), from Old Ger. werra ( = war). ] 

nana f.n. nh causing, causation. [ Ver- 
bal n. of Dia; see ana 1 .] 

nenaf.n.NH i coarse milling, crushing, 
pounding. 2 munching. 3 dish of groats. 
[Verbal n. of o~\y, see oia 1 .] 

cpna m.n. pi. pbh groats, grits. [pL of 
ona. From Aram. x^na, pass. part, of 
oif(= he crushed, pounded). Seeoia 1 .] 

n^ia f.n. mh decrease, diminution. [ Ver- 
bal n. of sna; see jn a. 1 

msnaf.n. MH badness, worsening. 
[ Formed from yna. with suff. m a . ] 

n^naf.n. ipbh sweeping. 2MH cleaning. 
[Verbal n. of *r\\ see»na.| 

r*i> m.n. pbh 'hallah' —Sabbath loaf. 
(From Aram. xnyna ( = a kind of 

IJJ'Ya m.n. FW jerrican. [Eng. jerrican, 
jerrycan, compounded of jerry 
( = German) and can ( = container).] 

rrvna'f.n. ipbh dragging, towing. 2NH 
being related (grammar). 3NH 
metastasis (medicine). [Verbal n. of 
T}j; see-ni'.l 

mna"f.n. mh sawing. [Verbal n. of-nj; 

sec tij". I 

Via to cast lots, raffle. [Denominated 
from 'nla.l — Hiph. Vnan pbh i he cast 
lots, raffled; 2 he won (in lottery). 

— Hoph. "nan mh was raffled. 

D"ia' to cause, bring about. [From Aram. 
Dna ( = he decided, determined, cut off), 
cp. Syr. q-\} (-he cut off. cut short, 
decided, determined), Arab, jarama 
( = he cut off fruit, sheared sheep).] 

— Qal ona pbh he caused, brought 
about. — Niph. Dnaa nh was caused. 

— Hiph. Dnan pbh he caused, brought 
about. — Hoph. anan mh was caused. 
Derivatives: ante, n;jna, ana, nijna. 

ma" to break bones, gnaw. [Denom- 
inated from ana ( = bone).] — Qal ana. he 
broke bones, gnawed. — Pi. ana i he 
gnawed; 2 he exhausted (a subject). 

— Pu. ana NH was gnawed. Deriv- 
atives: ana 1 ", manann. 

Dna 1 " to let the knife slide outside the 
space prescribed for cutting (in ritual 
slaughtering). [Of unknown origin. 
Perhaps related to Aram. -Syr. Dna (see 
Dna')-) — Hiph. Dnan ipbh he let the 
knife slide (in ritual slaughtering); 2NH 
he missed (the target). — Hoph. onan 
pbh was slaughtered by letting the 
knife slide outside the space prescribed 
for cutting (in ritual slaughtering). 

onam.n. ibone. 2PBH self. 3MH 
(celestial) body. [Aram, ona, Kan?, Syr. 
Ni?"?*. Ugar. grm ( = bone), Arab, jirm 
( = body). For sense 2 see Nan?. Sense 3 
was prob. borrowed from Arab. jirm. \ 
Derivatives: Dna", 'an?. 

ana m.n. fw gram, gramme. [Fren. 
gramme, from Late L. gramma, from 
Gk. gramma ( = that which is written; 
written character, letter; a small 
weight). I 

anao, nijnaaFW combining form de- 
noting 'something written' (as in Dnaj^, 
njjnaxn, nzjnaVnn;?). [Gk. -gramma, 
from gramma, from the stem of 
graphein ( = to write). See ina a . ] 

Dna m.n. pbh cause. [See ona 1 and cp. 

KDna m.n. pbh cause. [Aram.] 

wyia m.n. pbh 1 bone. 2 self. [See Dna".] 

nttiaa seeanan. 

T - 1 » I 

nana f.n. nh cause. [A collateral form of 

|1s1ttna m.n. FW gramophone. [Origi- 
nally a trademark used for a type of 
phonograph, coined by its inventor 
Emile Berliner (1852-1929) from Gk. 
gramma ( = something written), and 
phone ( = speech sound). ] 

nj'O^a f.n. fw grammar. [Russian 
grammatika, from Gk. grammatike. 

from grammatike techne ( = grammar; 
orig. "the art of reading and writing let- 
ters'), from gramma, gen. grammatos 
( = letter; lit.: 'that which is written'), 
from the stem of graphein ( = to write).] 

'ana adj. nh bony, osteal, osseous. 
I Formed from ona with suff. ■•z.l 
Derivative :nvD"i?. 

nvana f.n. MH boniness. [Formed evi- 
dently from 'ana ( = bony), a word which 
must have existed in MH although not 
attested by the lexicographers so far.l 

|^a f.n. (pi. nlana) 1 threshing floor. 2barn. 
3 open space (used for meetings). 4 pbh 
threshing season. 5 PBH produce, fruit. 
[Aram. Kjnia (= stone-basin, trough), 
Ugar. grn, Ethiop. g«arn ( = threshing 
floor), Arab, jurn ( = stone-basin, 
trough, floor).] Derivative: pa'. 

pa 1 to make a threshing floor; to gather. 
[ Denominated from na .] — Hiph. pan 
NH the made a threshing floor; 2 he 

pa 11 to laryngealize. [Denominated from 
|1n?.] — Pi. ]-ia NH he laryngealized. 
— Hiph. |--ia : n nh (of s.m.) 

, T^ , ??l a adj. fw grandiose. [Fren., from 
II grandioso, from grande ( = great), 
from L. grande, accusative of grandis 
(= large, tall, fullgrown, great, power- 

Di , 3^a./ 1^* m.n. FW geranium (a ge- 
nus of plants). [L. geranion, geranium 
( = cranesbill), from Gk. geranion (of 
s.m.), from geranos (= crane); so called 
because the fruit resembles a cranebill. 

trana m.n. FW granite. [Through Rus- 
sian or Ger. granit. from Fren. granite. 
from It. granito ( = lit.: 'grainy'), p. part, 
of granire ( = to make grainy), from 
grano ( = grain), from L. granum 
(- grain, seed, small kernel).] 

rvanaf.n. nh geranium. [A Hebraized 
form of the word jl^ana (q.v.). ] 

ona'to crush, pound, ground, mill: to 
make grits. [Aram. ona. Syr. x^na 
{- crushed), Arab, jarasha (=he 
brayed, bruised). See fen?.] — Qal on? 
pbh he crushed, pounded, milled, made 
grits. — Niph. onaa. nh was crushed, 
was milled, was pounded. — Pi. ona. 
pbh he crushed, pounded, milled. 
— Pu. ona 1 nh was crushed, was 
milled, was pounded; 2MH (fig.) he 
longed for. — Hiph. o-ian he crushed, 
broke. — Hoph. onan nh was crushed, 
was broken. Derivatives: olnj. ona\ 
nona. D'pna. ""on?. 

Oia" to learn, to study, to read the mean- 
ing, to determine, to maintain. [From 
Aram, ona (- he spoke, he uttered), akin 
to Arab, jarasa (= he uttered).] — Qal 


onj I mh he learned, studied, read the 
meaning: 2MH he determined; 3NH he 
maintained, claimed. Derivatives :on*'. 

K^-ttf.n.PBH (See 71971.) 

non* f.n. (pi. mo-jj. also niK?7*) 1 mh text, 
version. 2MH study. 3NH interpreta- 
tion. (Borrowed from Aram. K97J, from 

^vf.n.PBH maker of grits. [Formed 
from otj 1 with suff. *d • ) 

y-U to lessen, reduce, subtract, diminish, 
deduct; to trim (a beard), to shear. 
[Aram. »"?? (=he shaved his head), 
Arab, jam 'a ( = he swallowed).! — Qal 
jn? 1 he lessened, subtracted, reduced; 
2 he destroyed, consumed; 3 was 
lessened, was diminished. — Niph. yn?? 
was lessened, was diminished. — Pi. y7? 
he lessened, reduced, subtracted. 
— Nith. s^ii} MH worsened, 
deteriorated. — Hiph. r?J? ,MH he 
deducted from, discounted; 2NH wor- 
sened, deteriorated. Derivatives: ynj, 
ynj, nynj. y;ji. y??. TO- *?3?n- 

rjjm.n.PBH bloodletter, cupper, bar- 
ber. [From Aram, yn?; see rii.l 
r«ian.NH deficit, shortage, want. 


I From n J. 1 
jljn»m.n. (pi. ntoWij) ipbh shortage, 
want. 2NH loss. 3MH beneath one's 
dignitv. I Formed from jro with suff. 

f.:.l ' 
]«nim.n.NH pitting, stoning (fruit). 

[Verbal n.oflF??: see pni.l 
T'STIm.n. ipbh stone, kernel. 2NH 
nucleus, granule. 3NH (fig.) essence, 
source. 4NH group of founders. 
[According to J. Levy, from Gk. 
karoun (=nut).l Derivatives: n^yi*. 
pryn?. TTji. n>rr}h ir*> \snx ra?7*- 
nrruf.n.PBH (pi. pv?*. also mrynj) 
stone, kernel. lEither formed fromfynj 
with suff. n^ or is a loan word from 
Ito'jnJ m.n. nh nucleolus. iFormed from 

■pynj with dimin. suff. $z.\ 
'J'JTUadj.NH nuclear. [Formed from 
pyij with adj. suff. r:.) 
n'?T?>f.n. NH granite. [A Hebraized 

]} , yn>m.n. nh nuclein. [Formed from 

py-i* with suff.];;.! 
|jna to pit, to stone (fruit). [Denominated 
from TT?|.l — pi - l y "?? NH ne stoned 
(fruit), pitted. — Pu. ]r& NH was 
stoned, was pitted. — Hilh. jy/jinn NH 
nucleated. Derivative:^?. 
nsmf.n.NH trachoma. [Formed from 

VI- ] - 

fyij according to the pattern nV?9 
serving to form names of diseases. See 
ni?-?8 and cp. words there referred to. I 

tpi to sweep, sweep away, clean, shovel; 
blow (the nose); collect. [Aram.-Syr. 
«pj, Arab, jarafa ( = he swept away, he 
shoveled).! —Qal 17* 1 it swept away; 
2 PBH he swept, cleaned; 3 PBH he blew 
(his nose); 4 PBH he collected, gathered, 
heaped. —Niph. ip$) ipbh he was 
swept away, it was swept away; 2NH it 
was collected, was heaped. — Pi. 17? 
NH ihe cleaned; 2 he blew (his nose). 

p u . tpi nh it was collected and 

removed. Derivatives: 17*, «gf. n?7j. 
i)*ijim.n. nh erosion. [Verbal n. of«pJ.) 
rp»' m.n. PBH nightpot, bedpan. [Verbal 

n. of«yu.) 
t]n»"m.n. fw graf (German title of 
nobility, equivalent to Fren. comte, 
and to Eng. earl). [From grave 
(= count), which orig. meaning seems 
to have been 'judge'.) 
tp»'" m.n. FW graph. [Abbr. of graphic 
formula. See«yj»n.l 

t\yp FW -graph. [Fren. -graphe, from 
Gk- graphos, from graphein ( = to 
scratch, engrave, draw, paint, write, 
inscribe), cp. ^J"'. rr^nja, olsnj. "pnJ. 
a ten* fw grapho- (combining form). 
[Gk. grapho-. from graphein (=to 
write). See 171::. 1 

rrulVls-i* f.n. fw graphology. [Fren. 

11 '1 . 

graphologie, coined by Abbe Jean- 
Hippolyte Michon in 1868 from Gk. 
grapho- (see □tali) and -logia (see 
l»ton>m.n. fw graphomaniac. [From 

rPJ!jlDn» f.n. fw graphomania. [Com- 
pounded of grapho- (see 01371) and Gk. 
mania ( = madness, frenzy).! Deriva- 
tive: V?1D7». 
••pnjadj. fw graphic. [I. graphicus, from 
Gk. graphikos ( = pertaining to writing 
or drawing), from graphein (=to 
write). See "pp.! 
rrinjo fw -graphia, -graphy (combin- 
ing form). [Fren. or Ger. -graphie, 
from L. -graphia, from Gk. -graphia 
(= description of), from graphein ( = to 
U'DiJim.n. fw graphite. IGer. Graphit, 
coined by the German mineralogist 
A.G. Werner 1789 from Gk. graphein 
( = to write); so called by him because 
this mineral is used for making pencils. 
See insicj.J 

ng'DnJf.n. fw graphics. (From Gk. 
graphike. from graphein ( = to write). 
Secpj-.l Derivative: , K? ,, 97>. 
"•KJ^dtji m.n. fw graphic artist. IFormed 

from nj? - ^ 1 with suff. 'KU-! 
n?n»f.n.NH gravel, silt. [Formed from 


«P$ see *pa) with dimin. suff. nu. cp. 

11J 1 to drag, tow, draw, pull along; to 
involve, bring about. [Aram. -n», Syr. 
-ia ( = he pulled, he dragged), Akka. 
gararu (=he ran), Arab, jarra {- he 
pulled, dragged).) —Qal 17$ ihe 
dragged, towed, drew, pulled along; 
2 PBH he involved, it involved, brought 
about — Niph. vjaq pbh was dragged 

— Pi. "n* pbh he dragged. — Pu. -17'j 
MH was dragged. — Hith. Tijnn nh he 
swept along. Derivatives: ina 1 , nria", 
ina', ttj, :177a, nnU, rrnla. 

•na" to grate, to saw. lAram. 17a (=he 
grated, he scratched). Related to tij'.I 

— Qal -na ihe grated; 2 pbh he 
scratched. — Niph. -ruj ipbh it was 
sawn; 2 NH it was grated. — PL -1-331 pbh 
he grated, scratched. — Pu. -ni it was 
cut, was sawn, was chiselled. — Hith. 
"nann pbh he rubbed himself, scratched 
himself. Derivatives: rnj'. "»"»a", ^773". 

YUm.n. NH drawing, dragging, trailing. 
[From Aram. K77J, from nia, which is 
the Aram, corellate to Heb. nnj; see 


X-n»m.n.PBH dragging in. [Aram. See 

rnna f.n. nh 1 sledge. 2 backsight (on a 

rifle). I Formed from Tia 1 with suff. n~. ) 

una m.n. groats, grits. [Aram. K\jnj. 

wjna, Arab, jarasha ( = he brayed, 

bruised), jarasha h ( = wheat coarsely 

ground). SeeD-'pna. cp.tfna.) 

tthato drive away, drive out, expel. 

deport; to divorce. [Related to Ugar. 

grs (- to drive away). Aram. Eha (= he 

drove away).) — Qal vh\ ihe drove 

away, sent away; 2 it produced, 

yielded. — Niph. uhaj lwas driven 

away, was expelled; 2 it raged, was 

stormy. — Pi- #7* 1 he drove away. 

drove out, expelled; 2 pbh he divorced. 

— Pu. #7» 1 was driven away, was 
driven out; 2 PBH was divorced. 

— Hith. tthanri pbh was divorced. 
Derivatives: tfna, tfni, rujfna. 

ttham.n. produce, fruit. [Possibly from 
tzMi or is a secondary form of fenj . ] 

tfnam.n. (dual cr<P71.) 'geresh' imh a 
Biblical diacritic sign, resembling an 
apostrophe ('a). 2NH an abbreviation 
sign; e.g. h (for ^n). [Of unknown 
origin.) Derivative: d^7 J. 

o^n&m.n. (dual) 'gershayim' imh a 
Biblical diacritic sign("d). 2NH quota- 
tion marks ("-")• 3NH initials sign; 
e.g. n "t (for unh ^k7). [ From un j. 1 
^«tt>lim.n. NH tinkle, rattle, rustle. 

tfauftto tinkle, to rattle, to rustle. I Of 
imitative origin, akin to tfpffp.l —Pi- 



0J0* PBH it tinkled, rattled, rustled. 

— Nith. 0a0?n5 nh was tinkled, was 

rattled, was rustled. Derivative: 0«0a. 
Dl^ 1 adj. PBH rainy. [Pass. part, ofn0?; 

sec dou 1 . I 
D?0g"adj.NH coarse, crude, clumsy. 

[Pass. part, ofn0?; see 001".] 

S^im.n.NH realization, materializa- 
tion, embodiment, implementation, ful- 
filment. [Verbal n. of 00a, Pi. of 00a" .] 

i^> m.n. nh I bridgework. 2 bridging. 
[Verbal n. of-i0?. Pi. of-io?a.] 

010a m.n. NH I feeling, groping. 2 scout- 
ing, exploration, reconnoitering. [Ver- 
bal n. of 00a, Pi. of 00a.] 

urt0»m.n. i (pi. O'010J, also nW^j) pbh 
plummet. 2NH sounding pole, sounder, 
calipers. 3NH wiper, brush. [From 

m0*f.n.NH syphoning. [From nn0a. 
Formally verbal n. of n0i. Pi. ofri0a.] 

V0aadj.NH bridgeable. [Formed from 
10? (see nca) according to pattern "ryg 
which is used in nh to form adjectives 
denoting capability or fitness.] 

rrvttfof.n.NH bridging, bridge building. 
[Verbal n. of lift; see irca .] 

tf'j/Jm.n. pbh 1 surgical splint. 2 cross- 
piece. [Of unknown origin.] 

nttWaf.n. imh tangible reality, reality. 
2NH feeling, groping. [Formed from 
00a, (see 00a) with suff. n ? • 1 
D0a'm.n. rain. [Ugar. gsm ( = rainfall). 
Arab, sajama (metathesis) ( = flowed).] 
Derivatives: dw 1 , nij0a. ]1o0a. 
D0>" m.n. MH substance, matter. [Aram. 
D0a ( = body of a person), Arab, jism 
(= solid substance).] Derivatives: mD0j, 
'90*. 19«|. 
00a 1 to rain, to cause rain. [Denom- 
inated from 00a'.] — Qal 00* MH it 
rained, he caused rain. — Hiph. o^an 
he caused rain. — Pu. 00^ it was rained 
upon. — Hoph. o0an PBH (of s.m.). 
Derivative: oi0?'. 
001" to carry out, to execute; to realize, 
to materialize, embody. [Denominated 
from D0a".] — Niph. 00a) MH 1 was 
realized, was embodied; 2 was carried 

out. — Pi. O0» nh 1 he carried out, 
executed; 2 he materialized, realized. 

— Pu. □#;» nh i it was realized, was 
carried out; 2 he became clumsy. 

— Nith. D0anj i MH he materialized, it 
materialized; 2NH it was carried out, 
was realized; 3NH he became coarse, 
clumsy. — Hiph. n^in i NH he carried 
out, realized; 2MH he gave a concrete 
form, he embodied. — Hoph. atfan 
I NH it was carried out, was 
implemented; 2MH he was given a 
concrete form, was embodied. De- 
rivatives: Di0a ", oi0a. 

rujtfaf.n. nh water-spout, gutter (for 
rain water). [Formed from 00a/ with 
suff. rg.] 

]1»ttfam.n. nh light rain. [Formed from 
00a 1 with dimin. suff. jlz:.] 

mattfaf.n. imh corporeality, corporeity, 
worldliness. 2NH body, substance, 
material. [Formed from D0a" with suff. 

Vpttfo adj. MH physical, corporeal, bodily, 
worldly. [Formed from 00-}" with adj. 
suff. v.:.] Derivative: m»90?. 

m'Dttfa f.n. MH materialism, corpore- 
ality. [Formed from '00? with suff. 


Jljtt'Jm.n.NH materialist. [Formed from 
o0a"with suff. j:;.] Derivative: roj;j0a. 

niJJjttfof.n. NH materialism. [Formed 
from j2)0a. with suff. ma. | 

n£39tttof.n. i pbh seal, cachet. 2NH 
approval, authorization. [From Aram. 
Kj?}90«, from Old Pers. angu'stapdna, 
from Pahlavi angustban ( = finger- 
guard, finger stall).] 

"i#» m.n. pbh bridge. [Aram, xyf}, Syr. 
jn0a. Akka. gisru, Arab, jisr 
(= bridge).] Derivatives: -ura, rn0a, 

"I0J to bridge, to build a bridge, to 
connect. [Denominated from 10?.] 

— Qal n0? pbh he built a bridge. — Pi. 
•v&l NH he bridged, built a bridge. 

— Pu. -10^ nh was bridged. — Niph. 
-i0aj nh it was bridged. — Hith. ntfann 
NH it was connected by a bridge. 

— Hiph. T-tfin MH he built a bridge 

over (or between). Derivatives: -n0j, 
■v0$, rn-T? a. it??. 

"I0J m.n. i pbh bridge guard. 2 nh bridge 
builder. [Formed from ^a according 
the pattern ^g.] 

rntfaf.n. nh bridge (of ship). [Formed 
from -i0a with suff. n.> | 

]1l0> m.n. nh small bridge, culvert, 
viaduct. [Formed from -|0? with dimin. 

inttfo m.n. nh ponticulus (anatomy). 

[ Formed from -utfa with suff. -p~.) 
nntfa f.n. nh bridge (of violin). [Formed 

from -i0a ; with dimin. suff. n-::..} 

00a to feel, to touch, to grope; to touch 
the bottom of the sea, to j—>und; to 
scout. [Aram. 00a, Arab. ,ssa ( = he 
touched).] — Qal 00a I pb\ I touched 
(the bottom of the sea); 2 nh ru v groped. 
— Pi. M he groped, he scouted. — Pu. 
00^ NH was touched, was groped, was 
scouted. — Niph. 00a: MH it touched, 
was touched. — Hith. 00|nn, Hithpol. 
001ann PBH he wrestled. Derivatives: 
0i0a. 010a, ntf^a. 00?. 

0"0a m.n. NH I tracker. 2 scout, recon- 
noiterer (military). [Formed from 00a 
according to pattern Vyg.] Derivative: 


ni00af.n. nh tracking. scouting, 
reconnaissance (military). [Formed 
from 00a. with suff. ni:;.] 

nn0>f.n. nh syphon. [From Aram. 
Knc^a. Of uncertain etymology.] 

naf.n. (pi. nlna, also D'nj) 1 wine-pit. 
wine-press. 2 PBH period of the grape 
pressing. 3NH vat. 4 PBH pit, cistern. 
5 nh sinus (anatony). (Ugar. gt 
{ = wine-press). This word (originally 
*gint-) is prob. derived from Sem. root 
*wgn: hence Arab, wajana ( = he 
beated a hide), wajan ( = tanner). ] 

71a adj. pbh wine treader. [Formed from 

na with suff. "z.\ 
n'naf.n. 'gittit' (name of a musical 

instrument mentioned in the Bible). [Of 

unknown origin; perhaps after the 

name of the town n?.] 


iThe fourth letter of the Hebrew 
alphabet. Its name, 'Daleth', lit. means 
'door' (see njji); so called in allusion to 
the ancient Heb. form of this letter, 
representing a house (cp. xn 1 ?!). In pbh 
it has the numerical value four, i 
alternates with : (cp. e.g. ttj and iu. -nj 
and and tfii , Heb. rnlai and 
J Aram, xt^-i). It also alternates with o 
(cp. Heb. njn, Aram. x?c and Syr. Njp). 
t also alternates with n (cp. e.g. ri2 and 
rna. pi2 : and pro). In Arab, the 
corresponding consonant is d, 
sometimes dh (cp. e.g. 'Tin with Arab. 
hadhala. it: with Arab, nadhara, iip 
with Arab, qadhara). For the 
interchangeability of i and b cp. L. 
lacruma, lacrima (-tear), from Old L. 
dacruma. which is a loan word from 
Gk. dakruma. cp. also L. Ulixes. 
equivalent to Gk. Odysseus. 

31, zi of, about. [Aram., from Aram, 
and BAram. *7 ( = who. which, that; 
also mark of the gen.). See *i and cp. 
the second element in t?'" . ] 

~i FW [ L. de-. from de ( = from, away 
from, down from, out of, on account 
of. concerning, according to), which 
derives from IE base *di-. See 'de-' in 

Klf. pron. this. [JAram., also BAram. 
Related to Egypt. -Aram, x - !. Nab. xt. 
Palm. m. and to Aram, and BAram. n 
( = who. which, that). See n and cp. 


3Nito grieve, pine away. [A collateral 
form of 2H ( = to pine away). Prob. 
related to Arab, da'aba ( = he toiled), 
cp. rrx.l — Qal 2x7 intr. v. he grieved, 
was sad. languished, pined away. 

— Niph. ztii: mh he grieved, was sad. 

— Hiph. 2-R-tn pbh he made sad. dis- 
tressed, caused sorrow to. caused pain 
to. Derivatives: 2x7. njin, P2X7. nrxi, 
-3X-.7. 2X-: . 

3Nim.n.MH(of the s.m. asn;in). [Back 

formation from rsajp (q.v.).) 
naxif.n. sorrow. sadness. grief. 

faintness (a hapax legomenon in the 

Bible, occurring Job 41:14). [Verbal n. 


p3Ni m.n. sorrow, sadness, pain, regret 
(a hapax legomenon in the Bible, 
occurring Deut. 28:65). I From axi (see 

= KT).| 

ixito care, worry. I J Aram, ixi (=he 
cared, was worried). OSArab. jxt ( = to 

care, be worried). 1 — Qal Jin intr. v. 
i he cared, was worried, was anxious, 
was uneasy, was concerned; 2 he 
feared, dreaded. — Niph. jjcij mh was 
worried, was anxious, felt uneasy, was 
concerned. — Hiph. r'xin mh he 
worried, caused anxiety, distressed. 
— Hoph. JX77 was worried, was anx- 
ious, felt uneasy, was concerned. 
Derivatives: ruin, rmjxi. "^xi. mjruxi. 
"•jnjgi. Jixi. 1x70, rxi?. 

njNl f.n. care, anxiety, concern. [Verbal 
n. ofjxi(scejxi).l 

mJJNl f.n. NH worry, anxiousness, anxi- 
ety. [ Formed from jxi with suff. nu 3 1 

VXKiadj. worried, anxious. [Formed 

from jxt with suff. -j 3, 1 
msnJKlf.n. NH worry, anxiousness, 

anxiety. [Formed from njxi with suff. 


"3.15X1 adj. nh worried, anxious. 
[ Formed from hjk- with suff. "3 v • I 

nxito fly, glide (in the air). lUgar. dgy 
( - to fly). I — Qal njjT intr. v. 1 it flew, 
soared; 2 glided (in the air). — Hiph. 
njpn 1 MH he caused to fly: 2 NH caused 
to glide. — Hoph. 71x77 nh was caused 
to fly; was glide-borne. Derivatives: 
pxi. rrx". nxip, 71x70. prob. also 71x7 

nxi f.n. a bird of prey (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring Lev. 
11:14). [ Prob. derived from nxi and so 
called to its pouncing, cp. the related 
Aram. -Syr. xn"H, and Ugar. d\\\ name 
of a bird of prey, prob. the kite. cp. also 

SlXl adj. worried, anxious, uneasy. 
[Pass. part, of 3x7 ( = he cared, was 
worried). This is an exception because 
intransitive verbs regularly have no 
pass. part, in the Qal. For similar 
exceptions cp. niua and words there 
referred to. I 

|ixim.n. NH glider. [Formed from hnt 
with suff. p j.J 

na^Ni f.n. nh sorrow, sadness, grief. 
I Verbal n. of 2x7. See 2XT and first suff. 
n ; and cp. J Aram. na'XT (of s.m.). I 

rrxif.n. nh flying, flight; gliding. 
I Verbal n. of nxi. See nxi and first suff. 

1X1 m.n. nh post office; mail. [From 
Aram. The orig. form in Talmud and 
Midrash is nil, txii. and the first mean- 
ing is 'mail carrier, despatch bearer'. 

The word 157 prob. derives from base 
"in ( - to go round), and denoted a man 
who 'goes round'. Several scholars 
derive ixi from Pers. dur ( = delivery of 
written news).] 

31 m.n. bear. [Prob. from 221 ( = to walk 
softly), cp. JAram. X37, Syr. X37, Arab. 
dubb. Ethiop. debb ( = bear). Akka. 
dabii and dabbu are Sem. loan words.] 
Derivatives: 7127. P27. ■•ai. p2 , 2i. 

X3lm.n. 1 strength. 2 abundance, out- 
flow, affluence (a hapax legomenon in 
the Bible, occurring Deut. 33:35). [Of 
uncertain origin. Related to Ugar. db't 
( - strength) and possibly also to dabd' 
( rest). Derivative: X2i. cp. the first 
element in D-rrTi.l 

S3i to be affluent, overflow. [Denom- 
inated from X21.J — Qal X27 tr. v. he 
caused to flow, made affluent. 

33T to move gently, to walk softly: to 
drip. [Arab, dabba ( - he walked softly, 
went on all fours), dabbdb (- quad- 
rupled). I — Qal 227 intr. v. it dripped 
(a hapax legomenon in the Bible, oc- 
curring Cant. 7 : 1 in the form 221). 

331" to speak, whisper. [Akka. dabdbu 
( -- to speak, whisper, charge), bel 
dabdbi ( - slanderer, enemy), whence 
Syr. N22^y2. JAram. X227 7i'3 
( enemy). Arab, dhabba ( = he defend- 
ed).! — Qal 237 intr. v. pbh he spoke, 
whispered. — Pol. 2211 mh 1 he caused 
to speak; 2 he spoke, whispered. — Pi. 
227 1 mh he spoke; 2 nh he caused to 
speak, interviewed. — Nithpol'el 
22nm nh he was made to speak. 
Derivatives: 227. 221. X237. 212T 1 . 2127". 
2127. prob. also 7137. 

321 m.n. 1MH speech. 2NH interview. 

[From 221". I 
331, NB31 m.n. pbh hatred. [From22T'.l 

]3l3l m.n. pbh cherry. [Of unknown 
etymology. The word occurs in the 
Mishnah. but there both its form and 
meaning are uncertain.) Derivatives: 


■•33131 adj. NH cherry like. [Formed from 

I3727 with suff. 'a 1 
HJ33131 f.n. NH cherry tree. [Formed 

from 13727 with suff. n;:;i. I 
nai f.n. defamation, calumny. [Prob. a 

loan word from Akka. dibbu ( - word. 

legal charge). I 
nai f.n. (pi. ntai. also o'?i) she-bear. If- 



formed from 2i. | 
3<3Tadj. pbh hated. I Pass. part, of 331; 

see 331" andcp.3i3i".| 
aiay adj.MH spoken. [Pass. part, of 

231; see 32i". Accordingly 3131' and 

3121" are derivatively identical. I 
aia^m.n. mh speech, talk. [Verbal n. of 

331 ( = he spoke). Pi. of 331. See 33i".] 

•jian m.n. nh young bear, bear cub. ted- 
dy bear. [Formed from 31 with dimin. 

pia^adj. PBH attached, joined. [Pass, 
part.ofpsi. Seep3i.) 

j?l3Tm.n. 1 PBH attachment, joining. 
2MH construct state (MH grammar). 
3NH "dibbuk' — a migrant soul 
entering the body of a living person. 
(Verbal n. of pai ( = he caused to 
adhere). Pi. of p3i.l 

ma? m.n. PBH 1 speaking, saying. 2 
speech, utterance. [Verbal n. of 131 
( = he spoke). Pi. of 121'. I Derivative: 

■•1121 . 

IWI m.n. NH wasp, hornet. [From Arab. 

dabbtir (of s.m.).\ 
ma^adj. said, uttered. [Pass. part, of 

mian f.n. bee. [ Related to J Aram, amai, 

* : T . - _ 

xniisi ( = bee), Kita -1 : ( - bee, wasp), Syr. 
xii2i. Arab, dabbur ( = hornet, wasp), 
and zunbur ( = hornet), pi. zandbir, 
whence Ethiop. zandbir. Prob. of 
imitative origin. Seei3i'. For the inter- 
changeability of i and t see introduc- 
tory entry to letter i.| Derivatives: 
rritei. n , ni3i. 
■Hia^adj. NH colloquial, vernacular. 

[Formed from ii3i with adj. suff. 'S.l 
nniai f.n. NH a swarm of bees. [Formed 

from 17131 with suff. rr^.l 
n'niaTf.n. NH Ophrys (a genus of 
plants). [Formed from nyci ( = bee). 
with suff. m 7. so called from the bee- 
like shape of the flower.) 
©133 adj. NH sweet as honey. [From 

23". I 

^adj.NH 1 bcarlike. 2 bearish. 

iFormed from 31 with suff. 'U.l Deriv- 
ative: r.i'21. 

pa'a^m.n. NH raccoon. [Formed from 
2i, through reduplication of the 2, with 
suff. ]1 .[ 

B^Ta^i m.n. pi. dung (in the Bible oc- 
curring Kin. II 6:25 and usually ren- 
dered by 'doves dung'). [The first 
element of this compound prob. means 
'flowing out, outflow, outlet', cp. 
J Aram. Kyii (of s.m.), and see nsi. The 
second element is the pi. of njv 
( dove). I 
ru'a^f.n.NH bcarishness, clumsiness. 
I Formed from '31 with suff. m n. I 

T\ri m.n. fw foreign currency. [Fren. 
devise, from devise ( = division, inten- 
tion, plan), from deviser ( = divide, 
distribute), from VL *devisdre, 
formed with vowel dissimilation from 
*dfvisdre, frequentative of L. dfvidere 
( = to divide). Sec in^ri. ] 

p':n adj. NH adhesive, sticky. [Coined 
from p2i ( = to cleave, adhere, stick), 
according to the pattern ^y?, which is 
used in NH to form adjectives denoting 
capability or fitness.) Derivative: 

njrrn f.n. pbh attaching, joining. [Ver- 
bal n. ofpji. See p3i and first suff. ng.l 

mp^an f.n. NH adhesiveness, stickiness. 

[ Formed from p^i with suff. ma.) 
V3^l m.n. hindmost room, innermost 

pan of the Temple. [Related to Arab. 

dabr (-part behind), dubr (-back), 

Amharic daber (- church, cloister). 

Egypt, dbr ( = shrine) is a Sem. loan 

word. 1 

'^an to rarefy, to thin out. [Arab. 
dhabala, dhabula (-it became dry, 
withered, faded).) — Pil. 7731 intr. v. he 
thinned out, rarefied, ruffled. — Pul. 
y?3i pbh was thinned out, was rarefied, 
was ruffled. Derivatives: 71731. 71731, 

n?:n f.n. (pi. nl73i. also o ,! ?2i) cake of 
pressed figs. [Related to Phoen. n?3i, 
J Aram. -Syr. anVsi (=fig cake), Ugar. 
dblt ( = fig cakes), Arab, dabala ( = he 
pressed together), dubla h ( = lump, 

rrrai m.n. pbh (also V-^i in nh) end of a 
string that has been woven. [From 


Wa^ m.n. NH rarefaction, thinning out. 
[ Verbal n. of ^31, Pil. of "731. ) 


7731 Pil. of 731 (q. v.). 

nV?3i f.n. nh sycosis (disease). (Formed 
from 7V31 (see 731) according to the 
pattern n 1 ??? serving to form names of 
diseases. See npiK and cp. words there 
referred to. I 

jiyanm.n.NH tannin. [From Arab. 
dibgh (of s.m.). I 

paito cling, cleave, adhere. (BAram. 
I'pai ( -= they stick together), Aram. ,731 
( - he cleaved, adhered), Syr. psi and 
P3i (of s.m.), Egypt.- Aram. p3i ( = to 
cleave, adhere). Arab, dabiqa ( = hc 
cleaved, adhered) is prob. an Aram, 
loan word.l — Qal psi intr. v. 1 he 
clung, cleaved, adhered, joined, was 
attached. 2 pbh he pasted, glued 
together. — Niph. p3i} 1 pbh he was 
joined, was attached; 2MH was con- 
tagious. — Pi. p3i PBH 1 he stuck, glued 

together; 2 he caused to adhere. — Pu. 
P3i pbh was stuck, was glued together. 
— Hith. psin pbh, p3inn NH he clung, 
was joined together. — Hiph. p^in 1 he 
caused to cling; 2 he infected (with 
disease); 3 he overtook; 4 he followed 
hard after, pursued. — Hoph. p3in was 
made to cleave, was stuck. 
Derivatives: p3i. npsi, n;?3i, ]ip:n. pi3i, 
pi3i, p'ai, nipziin, nipsinn, psiD, pain, 
n^3iD, p'sin . 

paiadj. 1 cleaving, attached. 2MH con- 
struct state (MH grammar). (From 
,?3i.] Derivative: rnpsi. 

pajm.n. 1 glue. 2 joining. 3 appendage. 
[From p3i. cp. Syr. xpsi, Mand. xgsn, 
k^^i ( = glue). Arab, dibq, ddbiq ( - bird 
lime), is prob. a Syr. loan word.) 
Derivatives : ■731. rrpin . 

njrn f.n. NH Galium (a genus of plants). 

the bedstraw. IFormed from p3i with 

first suff. nj.) 
njrn f.n. nh stick (aeronautics). 

(Formed from p3i with first suff. na.) 
]ipa^ m.n. nh Viscum (a genus of plants 

of the mistletoe family). (Formed from 

p3i with suff. ]\Z.\ 

mpaT f.n. MH attachment, devotion, 
devoutness. [Formed from p3i with 
suff. ma.) Derivative: VHp?!. 

vupin adj. nh pertaining to devotion, 
devoted. (Formed from nip3i with suff. 

"•pa? adj. nh sticky, adhesive, glutinous. 
[Formed from pyi with suff. ""a.) 

ivpsi f.n. nh sticker. (Formed from pgi 
with suff. nvj. | 

n3T to speak. [Prob. an imitative base 
with the orig. meaning 'to buzz, hum" 
and base of nyoi ( - bee). ) — Qal 131 tr. 
v. (used only in the act. part. 1311, 
'saying, speaking', and in the pass, 
part. 1131, 'said, spoken'). — Niph. 131: 
1 (pi.) they spoke to one another, 
talked; 2MH was said, was spoken. 
— Pi. 121 1 he spoke of: 2 he spoke to or 
with. — Pu. 131 1 was spoken; 2 nh 
was stipulated, was agreed. — Hith. 
i3in 1 he spoke, talked; 2NH he came 
to an agreement. Derivatives: 131. 131 
(n.), 1131. ii3i. ni3i. ]i2i, ni2i, nnsin. 

13ia. 121D. IJip". 

nai" to follow behind someone's back: 
to drive. I Arab, dabara (^ he followed 
behind), dabr ( - part behind), dubr 
( back), dabur ( - west wind), Ethiop. 
ladabara (=he lay back, reclined), 
Akka. dabdru (push back), dabru 
( violence, outrage), JAram.-Syr. 131 
( he led, guided). si2i (field; orig.: 
'the place whither cattle are driven'), 
Ugar. dbr ( = pasture), Aram, xi?!, Syr. 
Nii3i ( - leader, guide). I — Pi. 131 he 



destroyed. — Hiph. vain he subdued, 
overwhelmed. — Hoph. njin NH was 
subdued, was overwhelmed. Deriv- 
atives: vai. n?l- -iai. ?g?*". n ?37?' "W- 

isim.n. (pi. nnai) speaking, speech, 
word (a hapax legomenon in the Bible, 
occurring Jer. 5:13 and 9:7 in the 
sing.). [From 121'.] 

151 m.n. pbh leader, guide. [JAram. -i?i. 
N-133, Syr. ^7127, nomen opificis from 
13*7 (-he led, guided; see 121"), ac- 
cording to the pattern tyg.l Derivative: 

131 m.n. 1 word, speech. 2 matter, affair. 
3 business, occupation. 4 something, 
anything. [From izf, whence also 
BAram. -727 (- matter), JAram. Kim 
( - speech), xr?-? ( = word). I Derivative: 
■>737,cp. rmi. 

13;! m.n. pestilence, plague. [Prob. re- 
lated to Ugar. dbr ( = death), Arab. 
dabr ( = death), dabra h {- misfortune), 
dabara h {= running sore), Akka. dibiru 
( = calamity).] Derivative: n??. 

131 m.n. pasture (in the Bible occurring 
Is. 5:17 and Micah 2:12). [cp. i?-? 
( = wilderness), Aram.-Syr. X727, 
Mand. dibra (afield), Arab, dabra h 
(-sown field), Ugar. dbr (- pasture), 
which show a similar sense devel- 

msif.n. cause, reason; manner. 
[Formed from 121' with first suff. ng. 
cp. BAram. mai ( = matter), and see 

niai, niaii f.n. raft (a hapax legomenon 
in the Bible, occurring Kin. I 5:23 in 
the pi.). [Formed from 12T" with first 
suff. ng. The orig. meaning of this word 
prob. was 'the trunks placed behind, 
and dragged along, by the ship'.] 

nnaif.n. NH leadership. [Formed from 
-i? 1 ] with suff. ma.] 

nan adj. mh pertaining to a word; 
rational; theoretical. [Formed from!}} 
with suff. '^.l 

nan adj. MH pertaining to pestilence, 
pestilential. [Formed from -133 with 
suff. 'a] 

|131 m.n. pbh I talkative, loquacious 
person. 2mh eloquent speaker. 
[Formed from 121 ( = he spoke). Pi. of 
■in', with agential suff. jg. cp. JAram. 
Njnin (-speaker), which exactly 
corresponds to Heb. 1737. 1 Derivatives: 

niJiaif.n.NH 1 loquacity. 2 eloquence. 

[ Formed from 1727 with suff. ni a.] 
'nan adj. NH loquacious. [Formed from 

I727 with suff. \j.| 
rnsif.n. nh excessive talkativeness, 

logorrhea (psychopathology). [Coined 

from 121 (=he spoke; see nat 1 ), ac- 
cording to the pattern n^g serving to 
form names of diseases. See rnjns and 
cp. words there referred to.] 
#31 m.n. honey. [Related to Aram. ©37, 
x<ftn, Syr. mftrj, OSArab. idbassa 
( - became honey-colored), Arab, dibs, 
Akka. dishpu (- honey), dashpu 
(-mead), dashdpu (-to be sweet).] 
Derivatives: tfai, ntfn 1 , n#37", 'JWai, 

#31 to be as sweet as honey. [De- 
nominated from #37 ( = honey).] 
— Qal #37 intr. v. was as sweet as 
honey. — Pi. #27 NH he made as sweet 
as honey. — Hiph. #'37:1 pbh I intr. v. 
it turned sour, fermented; 2tr. v. he 
sweetened. Derivatives: ntfnn, vfiiQ. 

n#3l'f.n. NH molasses. [Formed from 
#37 with first suff. ng.] 

n^3i"f.n. NH melilot. [Formed from 
0737 with first suff. ng, hence derivative- 
ly identical with ntfn 1 . ] 

■•jitfai adj. nh honeylike. [Formed from 
#37 with suff. '?1 a.] 

'tfaiadj. imh honeylike. 2NH mel- 
liferous. [Formed from #37 with suff. 

]e>aim.n. pbh honey cake. [Formed 
from #37 with suff. jg.] Derivative: 

nnaif.n. nh honey cookie. [Formed 
from i#37 with dimin. suff. rrg.] 

n#3i m.n. hump of a camel (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring Is. 
30:6). [Of uncertain etymology. 
Perhaps related — in spite of the sh — 
to Arab, dabash ( = luggage), Tigre 
dabbds (-having a humped back), cp. 
also Akka. gupshu, Ugar. gbtj 
( = hump).] Derivative: 'na^n. 

'ntfaiadj.NH having a hump. [Formed 

from n#37 with adj. suff. ' J . I 
in m.n. fish. [Related to Ugar. dg 

(-fish).] Derivatives: m a;i. irr, nrr?. 

cp. ]1>7 and the second element in n^tf. 
mNJif.n. nh fish breeding. [Formed 

from , xj7 with suff. rial 

'Kin m.n. nh fish breeder. [Nomen 
opificis formed from nn according to 
the pattern tyg.] 

Jin to tickle. [A loan word from Arab. 
daghdagha (-he tickled, titillated). I 

— Pilp. 1717 tr. v. mh he tickled. 

— Pulp. 17:17 nh he was tickled, was 
titillated. Derivatives: jjiin, 'jaire, J"??. 

]JlJl m.n. nh clitoris. [Formed from 1717 
(see mi) with suff. jo. ] 

'3 Jill adj. nh ticklish. [Formed from 

'Til" J 

rm (see nn) with suff.^g.] 
Hill m.n. mh tickling, titration. [Ver- 

bal n. of J7J7. See nn.| 
ni^f.n. 1 fish (collectively). 2MH a small 
fish. 3 nh female fish. [Formed from 17 

nilto multiply. [Denominated from 17, 
hence lit. meaning 'to multiply like 
fish', cp. in, n.) _ Qal nn. intr. v. he 
increased, multiplied. — Hiph. nnn MH 
he caused to increase, caused to 
multiply. Derivatives: ^ij, n;n, n;nn, 

n'JWl f.n. nh small fishing boat. [Dimin. 

'Uladj.MH plentiful. [Pass. part, of the 
verb nn and lit. meaning 'multiplying 
like fish'. This is an exception because 
intransitive verbs regularly have no 
pass. part, in the Qal. For similar 
exceptions cp. moa, and words there 
referred to.] 

"rui adj. raised up, prominent (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring 
Cant. 5:10). [Pass. part, of ^7. See 

Vlll m.n. NH raising the banner, hoisting 
the flag. [Verbal n. of "?n ( = he raised 
the banner, raised the flag), Pi. of "711' .] 

Din m.n. nh standardizing. [Verbal n. 
of on ( = he standardized), Pi. of Dn.] 

JUlm.n.NH gathering of corn. [Verbal 
n. of jn (= he gathered corn), Pi. of pi.] 

Jill m.n. 'Dagon' — the main god of the 
Philistines. [Related to Ugar. dgn, 
Akka. Dagdn, Daguna. Popularly 
associated with 17 (=fish), but prob. 
connected with ]}i ( = corn, grain).] 

mi adj. nh hatched. [Pass. part, of 137 
(-hatched), Pi. of in.] 

tfui adj. mh marked with a 'daghesh'. 

[From en.] 
j'Jl nh small fish, fry, minnow. [Dimin. 

formed from 17 (-fish) through 


n»Jl f.n. nh increase, multiplication. 
[Verbal n. of n>7 (-he increased, mul- 
tiplied). See nn and first suff. ng.] 

nV'Jl f.n. 1 MH (in the phrase n"j'nn ,-v?. 
'the Temple, a synagogue'). 2NH 
hoisting the flag. 3NH gathering under 
the banner. [Verbal n. of *?n. See bn 
and first suff. ng.] 

na-'Jl f.n. NH sampling. [Verbal n. of an 
otherwise not-used Qal 037. See on and 
first suff. ng. I 

rti'Jlf.n. pbh hatching, brooding, in- 
cubation. [Verbal n. of 137. See in and 
first suff. ng. I 

Vji m.n. standard, banner, flag. [Prob. a 
loan word from Akka. diglu 
(-eyesight; sight, gaze), whence 
'something conspicuous', from dagdlu 
( to look at). [For sense development 



cp. Arab. rd'ya h ( = banner), from 
ra'd(y) ( = he saw). Several scholars 
connect ^ with Arab. dajjdla h ( = a 
large crowd), Tigre dagal ( = army).] 
Derivatives: ton 1 , V^, "rtot, fttt, ]1to7 . 
toT to set up a banner. [Denominated 
from br\.\ — Qal V37 tr. v. he set up a 
banner. — Niph. "737? I he gathered 
around the banners; 2MH was a- 
dorned. — Pi. ^37 1 MH he adorned, 
praised, glorified; 2 NH he set up a ban- 
ner. — Hiph. "rain 1 mh he praised, , 
glorified; 2 nh he decked out with flags. 

— Hoph. Vjin 1 mh was praised, was 
glorified; 2NH it was decked out with 
flags. Derivatives: toig, tori, n^rn, 

ton" to deceive, cheat. [JAram.-Syr. to7 
( = he deceived, acted deceitfully), 
Arab, dajala (= he deceived, cheated), 
dajjdl (= cheat, impostor, quack).] 

— Pi. to"? pbh he deceived, cheated. 

— Hiph. Win pbh he denied; he 

tyl m.n. NH standard bearer. [Nomen 
opificis formed from ton according to 
the pattern V^g . ] 

totonm.n. NH flagging. [Verbal n. of 

]ito"i m.n. NH a small flag. [ Formed from 
toT with dimin. suff. ]1a .] 

^Jito flag. [Denominated from to^.] 

— Pi. bto-n nh he flagged. 

tam.n.NH standard bearer. [Formed 
from "737 with agential suff. jq.] 

Din, on m.n. nh sample, specimen, 
model. [Back formation from nan.] 

onto exemplify, standardize. [Denom- 
inated from na:n . ] — Pi. on NH tr. v. he 
demonstrated; he standardized. — Pu. 
□37 NH was standardized. — Hiph. 
D'rn nh he exemplified, demonstrated. 
— Hoph. 037:1 NH was exemplified, was 
demonstrated. Derivatives: 0117, jan, 
nonn, 037a, 0375. 

xijan, n»n f.n. pbh (pi. man or niNart) 
sample, example, instance, specimen, 
type, model, pattern. [From Gk. 
deigma (- sample, specimen), from the 
stem ofdeikuynai ( = to show), which is 
cogn. with L. dicere ( = to say, tell). See 
"ito^jri.) Derivatives: Dn, D17, D37, 

'KlJWadj.NH exemplary, serving as a 
model. [Formed from K937 with adj. 
suff. 'a) 

l^m.n.NH 1 artist's model; 2 man- 
nequin. [Formed from na:n with suff. 
jg.) Derivatives: nuari. n^jpaT. 

l^ m.n. nh sampler, modeller. [De- 
rived from on with suff. |p.] De- 
rivative: ]a^. 

pai to sample, to model. [Denominated 
from ]ar|.] — Pi. jari he sampled, he 

niJJjJPl f.n. NH profession of a man- 
nequin. [Formed from jail with suff. 

n'Jljnf.n.NH (female) mannequin. 
[ Formed from jari with suff. rrp.) 

'fl^jn adj. NH exemplary, serving as a 
model. [Formed from najn with suff. 

|J3 m.n. corn, grain. [Related to Phoen. 
pi, JAram. Kffl, Samaritan digan, 
Ugar. dgn ( - corn, grain).) Derivatives: 
pi,n» T }^,D^7,cp.Tl^. 

pi to gather corn. [Denominated from 
P7 (=corn, grain).] — Pi. pi NH he 
gathered corn. — Pu. pi mh was 
gathered (said of corn). Derivative: 

'jri adj. NH of the color of the centaury, 
bluish. [Back formation fromn^ji.] 

njanf.n. NH centaury. [Lit.: 'corn- 
flower'. Formed from pi ( = corn, 
grain), with suff. n»p .] Derivative: '^i. 

D™3}7 m.n. nh pi., cereal plants. 
[ Formed from P7 with suff. 'p . ] 

Bnajn m.n. fw a degenerate man. [L. 
degenerates, p. part, of degenerdre 
( = to degenerate), lit.: 'to depart from 
one's race', from de ( = from, away 
from, down from, out of, on account 
of, concerning, according to), and 
genus ( = birth, descent; race). See dt 
and p.] 

njinain f.n. fw degeneracy. [Fren. 
degeneration, from L. degenerdtus. 
See 07:31 and suff. rrxp . ] 

into hatch, sit on eggs (lit.: 'to gather 
together as a brood'). [JAram. 137 ( = he 
heaped; also f. 'she hatched'), JAram. 
and Mand. xitoi, Arab, metathesis 
daraja (=it left or outgrew its nest).] 
— Qal 137 intr. v. it hatched. — Hiph. 
vain MH he sat on eggs. — Hoph. 137:1 
nh was sat on eggs. Derivatives: nn, 
rnp-j, jiai, ir^ali, niali, rnjin, 137a, 
13715, rnrij^nninn. 

]"\X1 m.n. NH brooder. [Formed from iai 
with suff. jp.] 

tf?n m.n. 1 mh 'daghesh' — a dot put in a 
consonant in order to change its 
pronunciation (Heb. grammar). 2NH 
emphasis. [Syr. tf;n, act. part, of #37 
( = he pricked, pointed, pierced 
through), which is related to Akka. 
dagdshu ( = to pierce, sting), Ethiop. 
dag w asa (-he pierced through).] 
Derivatives: tfn, uftrj, nijoi, rWii, 
mtfi7. nt^n. 

tt>n to stress, emphasize; to mark with a 
'daghesh' [Denominated from #37.! 

— Pi. u>37 l mh he marked with a 
daghesh; 2NH he stressed, accen- 
tuated, emphasized. — Niph. 10315 mh 
was marked with a daghesh. — Hiph. 
tf^n 1 mh he marked with a daghesh; 
2NH he stressed, accentuated, 
emphasized. — Hoph. ^3771 1 mh was 
marked with a daghesh; 2NH was 
stressed, was accentuated, was 
emphasized. Derivatives: #37:1, n^irj, 
U7379, ^375. 

ntfri f.n. mh 1 'daghesh'. 2 being marked 
with a daghesh. [Formed from #37 
with first suff. np.] 

|itom.n. MH being marked with a 

'daghesh'. [Formed from uttj with suff. 

nitfw f.n. mh being marked with a 

'daghesh'. [Formed from tfai with suff. 

"Hm.n. 1 breast, teat, nipple. 2 pbh tap. 

3MH nipple of the citrus fruit. 

[Together with JAram. K77, Ugar. dd, 

Akka. didd, imitative of child's babble. 

cp. H".] 
DPKTim.n. FW Dadaism. [Fren. dada- 

I • T T ' 

isme, from dada, name of an artistic 
movement characterized by in- 
coherence and the love of paradoxes, 
properly a child's word meaning 
'horse, hobby horse, hobby'. This 
word was chosen in 1916 by Tristan 
Tzara, a Rumanian-born poet and 
editor in Paris (1896-1963), to 
designate this artistic movement. For 
the ending see suff. oyp.] 

rmto move slowly. [JAram. ^ ( = he 
led a child), T7K ( = he hopped, 
skipped), Arab, da 'daa ' ( = it ran quick- 
ly — said of a camel; prob. of imitative 
origin).] — Pi. rrrn PBH 1 he hopped, 
skipped; 2 he led slowly (a child or a 
calf). — Hith. rmn he walked slowly, 
sauntered. Derivative: ttj. 

'ITI m.n. MH hopping, skipping. [Verbal 

n. of mi. See nn.] 
lyu^vn adj. fw deductive. [L. deduc- 

tfvus ( = derivative), from deductus, p. 

part, ofdeducere. See rrsj7i-n.] 
rp^r! f.n. FW deduction. [L. deductid 

t i I: 

(_ a leading away; deduction, diminu- 
tion; reasoning), from deductus, p. 
part, of deducere ( = to lead or bring 
down, deduct, derive, trace down), 
from de (see 07) and ducere(= to lead); 
see 097.] 

am to redden (one's face). [Related to 
anx and am.) — Hiph. 3-37:3 pbh it red- 
dened (one's face), it filled him with 

xam m.n. PBH gold (occurring in 
phrases quoted from Talmud and 
Midrash). IJAram., related to Heb. 33J 



(- gold), cp. am. I 
nm to fade, become dim. [J Aram, nn$ 
( - he made weak or faint), Arab, da'd 
(-was sick).] — Qal nm intr. v. NH 
faded, was or became dim. — Niph. 
nnnj MH became dim, faded. — Pi. nm 
PBH became dim. faded. — Hiph. nmn 
pbh he made dim, dimmed, discolored. 

— Hoph. nmn NH was made dim, was 
dimmed. Derivatives: nrn, ^nn, 'inn, vn, 

nrn adj. pbh fading, dim, dull. [From 


Mrn adj. mh faded. [From nm; formally, 
pass. part, of nm. | 

'irn m.n. NH fading, discoloration. [Ver- 
bal n. of nm. Pi. ofnm.] 

Dirn adj. nh astounded, perplexed. 
[ Pass. part, of om ( = he was astounded, 
was perplexed. See Dm.] 

jirn adj. nh smeared with an oily 
substance, tarred. [Pass. part, of jm; 

jinn m.n. NH oiling, smearing with an 
oily substance. [Verbal n. of jm, Pi. of 

'rn m.n. nh fadedness. discoloration. 

rrjnTTnf.n. fw dehydration. [Formed 
from L. de- (see :rs) and Gk. hydor 
( = water). See nym.] 

n»nnf.n. nh fading, discoloration. [Ver- 
bal n. ofnm ( = became dim). See nm 
and first suff. na.] 

rrw-rnFW de jure. [L. de jure ( = by 
right), from de and ablative of jus 
( = right). See in and tiv . ] 

n»*rn f.n. mh stupefaction, shock. [Ver- 
bal n. of om. See Dm and first sufi*. n o. | 

i^rn adv. pbh that is to say. [JAram.. 
formed from on ( = that, which), and 
irn ( = that is). See on and irn . ] 

nrrn f.n. nh galloping, gallop. [Verbal 
n. ofnm. Seennn and first suff. no.] 

n»VriT f.n. fw Dahlia, name of a genus of 
plants. [Modern L. Dahlia, named by 
the Spanish botanist Antonio Jose 
CavaniJles in 1791 after the Swedish 
botanist Anders Dahl, a pupil of 

Dm to astound, perplex. [Arab, dahima, 
dahama ( = unexpected misfortune), 
'adham (-back), duhaym, duhayma 
( = misfortune, calamity), Akka. d'dmu 
(-to be dark).] —Qal om intr. v. MH 
he was astounded, was perplexed, was 
shocked, was frightened. — Niph. Dm: 
of s.m. (a hapax legomenon in the Bi- 
ble, occurring Jer. 14:9 in the form 
cmj). — Hiph. o'rnn NH he astounded, 
perplexed, shocked, frightened. 

— Hoph. omn nh was astounded, was 

perplexed, was shocked, was 
frightened. Derivatives: oitj. no'm, 
nomn, rnornn, om), nomn. 
pi m.n. MH oily ointment, polish. 
[From JAram. xjnn ( = oil, fattening, 
substance), which is related to Arab. 
duhn (- oil, fat, grease).] Derivative: 

jmto smear or polish with an oily 
substance. [Denominated from jrn. cp. 
Aram. -Syr. jrn ( = he was oiled, was 
anointed, grew fat), Arab, dahana 
(= he oiled, anointed, smeared).] — Pi. 
jm nh he smeared or polished with an 
oily substance, tarred. — Pu. ]rn nh 
was smeared or polished with an oily 
substance, was tarred. Derivatives: 

to|?2"."nFW de facto. [L. de facto (=in 
fact), from de and ablative of factum 
( = deed, act, fact). See an and Uj?9 .] 

nm to gallop. [Arab, dahara ( = he fell 
upon, befell, overcame), indahara 
( = he hurried).] — Qal nm intr. v. he 
galloped, it galloped — said of a horse 
(a hapax legomenon in the Bible, 
occurring Nah. 3:2 in the form inn). 

— Pi. -im MH he galloped. — Hiph. 
nvnn NH he caused (esp. a horse) to 
dash, he galloped (tr. v.), he spurred. 

— Hoph. nrnn NH it (esp. a horse) was 
galloped, was spurred. Derivatives: 
rn'rn, nm, nnn, mm. nrn, nnhnnn, nrrin, 

irnMH, irnPBHm.n. galloping, gallop. 
[ Back formation from 7f\r\^.) 

rnrn f.n. prancing, galloping, gallop (in 
the Bible occurring only Jud. 5:22 in 
the phrase VTax rmrn nVvno, 'by 
reason of the furious prancings of their 
mighty ones'). ( Formed from nm with] 

rn'nnrrn f.n. NH light galloping. [Formed 
from nnm through reduplication of the 
second and third radical of the stem.l 

n.rn m.n. nh galloper, racehorse, cours- 
er. [Formed from nm (see nm) with] 

n fw do — a syllable used in sol- 
mization to denote the first tone of the 
diatonic scale. 

Lin PBH combining form meaning 'two, 
bi-, di-, double' as e.g. in jgijrn 
( = two-wheeled cart), 'n^-n ( = dio- 
ecious), rinv-n ( = bimonthly maga- 
zine), ■•jltf'rn (^ bilingual), noo'in 
(two-dimensional). '»i}^?-n (= am- 
biguous), 'l'pp-n ( - dicotyledon). 
nns-n ( - two-sided, bilateral), etc. 
[JAram. on, borrowed from Gk. 
dyo ( - two), which is cogn. with L. 
duo, etc. from IE base *duwo(u) 
(^two). cp. rr?9n, anpn, noin, ]9in. 

cp. also unfi, or^xn and the first 
element in nnx^nln.) 

u$n m.n. fw duet. [Fren. duet, from It. 

duella, dimin. of due ( - two), from L. 

duo. See nn and cp. n-wn. ] 
nvtnf.n. nh duet. [Hebraization of 


DP^nm.n. fw dualism. [From L. 
dudlis ( = containing two), from duo 
( = two). See nn and oyo . I 


an to pine away. [A collateral form of 
axn, related to JAram., Syr., and 
Mand. an (of s.m.).] — Hiph. ann mh 
he caused to languish, caused to pine 
away (a hapax legomenon in the Bible, 
occurring Lev. 26:16).] 

nan m.n. nh spokesman, speaker. 
[Subst. use of the act. part, of nan. na1n 
is properly a secondary form of the Pi. 
part. nana. For other act. participles of 
the Qal, which are in reality only 
secondary forms of the resp. Pi.,cp. 
■•ain (-^no; see nan), nqv ( = na:a; see 
no-), arta ( = aiaa; see aia), nola ( = noaa; 
see noa). o*jau (^o^aja; see p:).| 
Derivative: nnan. 

man see man. 

nman f.n. nh spokesmanship. [Formed 
from nan with suff. m o. ] 

an to fish. [A secondary form of base 
an.] —Qal an tr. v. nh fished. 
Derivatives: njm,an%prob. alsorran. 

an m.n. fisher. [Nomen opificis formed 
from an ( = to fish), according to the 
pattern ^9-1 

nan f.n. fishing, fishery (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring 
Amos 4:2 in the phrase navrn-vp, 'a 
small fishing boat"). [Formed from an 
with first suff. n j.] 

ivanf.n. pbh i a small fishing boat. 2 a 
small boat. [Prob. derived from nan.) 
Derivative: rraun. 

niaanf.n. fw dogma. [L. dogma, from 
Gk. dogma (=that which one thinks 
true, opinion, doctrine, decree), from 
dokein (=to seem, have the ap- 
pearance of, think, believe), whence 
also doxa (-opinion, glory), from IE 
base *dek-, *dok- ( = to take, receive, 
accept; acceptable, becoming, good), 
whence also L. decere ( - to be seemly 
or fitting), cp. tmm and words there 
referred to. I 

■»u»an adj. fw dogmatic(al). [Gk. dog- 
matikos (-pertaining to doctrines), 
from dogma. See naan and suff. >g. | 

Druaan m.n. fw dogmatism. [Fren. 
dogmatisme. from Med. L. dos- 
matismus, from L. dogma, from Gk. 
dogma. See naam and onj.1 



n'SlJiif.n. nh broody hen. I Formed 
from "ijn. pres. part, of ijt (see in) 
with sufT.iv?j.| 

niJiim.n. nh broody hen. ISubst. use of 
the f. part, of -iji. See -in. I 

"Til m.n. i uncle (the brother of one's 
father or mother). 2 NH the husband of 
one's aunt. 3 beloved, friend. 4NH 
children's name of a stranger. [ Related 
to Syr. xtj ( = uncle; beloved), Mand., 
Nab. and Palm, dada (- father's 
brother), Arab, dad (-foster-father), 
dad (-play, game, joke), Akka. dddu 
( = beloved child). All these words prob. 
derive from infants' babbling 'dad'.] 
Derivatives: nrh, onli, jyn, prob. also 

in m.n. (pi. d'th, also onn, in sense 2 
also ciqn). l kettle. 2 a large basket. 
3NH boiler. [Related to J Aram. -Syr. 
and Mand. xin ( = kettle), Ugar. dd 
( = pot), Akka. dudu, Arab, midhwad 
( = feeding trough).) Derivative: in. 

in m.n. nh kettlemaker, boilermaker. 
[Nomen opificis formed from m 
( = kettle), according to the pattern 


Kin, nn m.n. (pi. D'xjn) mandragora. 
mandrake (in the Bible it occurs only in 
the pi., Gen. 30:14-16 and Cant. 
7:14). [ Prob. related to th ( - beloved), 
and properly meaning 'love-exciting 
(plant)'. 1 

rvrii f.n. l aunt (the sister of one's father 
or mother). 2NH the wife of one's un- 
cle. 3NH children's name for an un- 
known woman, [f. of Tn.] 

inseexm. love, love play. [Abstract 

Jill m.n. NH cousin (m.). [Formed from 
in with dimin. suff. jg.) 

n'niif.n.NH cousin (f.) [Formed from 
fTh with suff. n'a] 

vm;nn m.n. fw dodecahedron (geo- 
metry). [Gk. dodekahedron (-lit.: 
'having twelve faces'), from dodeka 
( = twelve), and hedra ( = seat, chair, 
bench; side, face). Gk. dodeka is 
shortened from duodeka, from duo 
(two; see :in), and deka ( = ten; see 
^Itii)- Gk. hedra stands for *sedrd and 
is cogn. with L. sedere ( - to sit). See the 
first element in pitfTn and cp. rrjtpx, 
H7?)9 and the second element in 
"nx'-Vis. See also nnng^x and cp. words 
there referred to.) 

]to£Ttt m.n. fw dodecagon (geometry). 
[Gk. dodekagonon (^lit.: 'having 
twelve angles'), from dodeka (- twelve; 
see Yjxj?Tn), and gonea (-corner, 
angle), which is related to gonu 
(-knee). See 'knee' in my cedel and 

cp. the second element in rtr^te.) 
nil to be ill, be unwell. | JAram.-Syr. xn, 
'n ( - to be miserable), Ugar. dwy ( = to 
be ill), Arab, dawiya, dd'a, Ethiop. 
dawaya (= was ill), perhaps also Akka. 
di'u (- illness).] — Qal nn intr. v. was 
ill, was sick (esp. of a woman in 
menstruation). — Niph. nrt} pbh he felt 
pain. — Hiph. nnn PBH he caused pain. 
Derivatives: nn, 'in, jln, - , y\, 'p, ]Vn, 

nn adj. sick, faint, unwell. [From mi. cp. 
Arab, dawin.] 

"inn adj. nh galloping. [Pres. part, of 

'in adj. pbh sick, painful. [Pass. part, of 
nn. Seenn.) 

]in m.n. MH pain, sorrow. [Formed 
from nn (= to be ill, be unwell), with ]1c, 
suff. forming abstract nouns.) 

nn 1 to rinse, cleanse, wash off by rins- 
ing. [JAram. nns ( = he rinsed, 
cleansed, washed off). Related to nm, 
nm, m: .) — Niph. rrftj pbh was rinsed, 
was cleansed, was washed off. 

— Niph. rrrn he rinsed, cleansed, 
washed off. — Hoph. nn'n PBH was 
rinsed, was cleansed, was washed off. 
Derivatives: nmn, rma. 

T T -I * 

mv'to report. [Formed from rrn (q.v.).] 

— Pi. nn tr. v. nh reported. — Pu. n^ 
NH was reported. Derivative: rm. 

rrnm.n. NH (pi. nlrrn) report. [Ab- 
breviation of |la^ni jn (-report, ac- 
count).) Derivative: nn". 

nnm.n. FW reporter. [Nomen opificis 
formed from nn (see nn"), according 
to the pattern ty§. ) 

nniiadj.NH repulsive, repellent, offen- 
sive. [Pres. part. ofnrn;seenm.) 

"•nnm.n. NH amphibian. [Compounded 
of nn ( - two, double), and i n ( = living). I 

^nnm.n. nh stonechat, whinchat. [Of 
unknown origin.) 

'11 m.n. illness, sickness. [ From nn. ] 

"Ml adj. very ill, very sick. [Formed from 
nn after the pattern ty§ . ) 

]1'n m.n. mh illness, sickness; pain. 
[Formed from nn with suff. j1a.) 

nim.n.FW foreign currency. [Fren. 
devise, from devise (- division), from 
deviser (-to divide, distribute), from 
VL *devisdre, formed with vowel 
dissimilation from *dfvi'sdre, frequen- 
tative of L. dividere (-to force apart, 
separate, divide), from di- (-apart), 
and *widh- ( to separate). See 'divide' 

"pi to crush, pound, beat. [JAram. Tn, 
Arab, ddka ( - he pounded), cp. Akka. 
ddku ( - to kill), Ugar. dk (-to pound). 

Related to bases Tn, n:n, ppi, and 
prob. of imitative origin. | — Qal tj tr. 
v. he crushed, pounded, beat (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring 
Num. 1 1 :8 in the form on). — Hiph. 
i]ni pbh was crushed, was pounded, 
was beaten. — Hoph. T3in MH (of s.m.). 
Derivatives: n^n, ^nij, n^na. cp. jyn. 
ns'Oiif.n. (pi. D-rig-on and nis-'sn), 
hoopoe. [Of uncertain origin; perhaps 
imitative of its cry. cp. Gk. hepops, L. 
upupa, Eng. hoopoe, which are also of 
imitative origin.) 

]?n m.n. pbh stand, platform, pulpit, 
rostrum. [Related to Aram. N}?n, 
Arab, dukkdn (-bench, store shop). 
These words lit. denote a flat place and 
derive from base -pi ( - to pound, beat, 
make flat), whence also Aram, Tn, 
xron (^ place; lit.: 'something flat'). 
For sense development cp. Fren. place 
(whence Eng. place) from Gk. platus 
( - flat). Base Tin is related to base "pn; 
see Arab, dakka ( = he made flat). See 
in and cp. xjDn, 'xj^n and ron. 

K33n m.n. pbh of the s.m. as ];n (q.v.). 
[JAram. i^n.l Derivative: 'Njan. 

■»N33n m.n. nh pedlar. stallholder, 
barrowboy. [Formed from ]jn with 

0311 see dst. 

Oiupiosnm.n. pbh (pi. pcoioan) an in- 
ferior kind of parchment. [From Gk. 
dischistos ( - divided, parted), from di 
(see : ;n) and schistos ( = split, divided), 
p. part, of schizein ( = to split, divide), 
which is related to schazein ( = to 
scratch), and cogn. with L. scindere 
(-to cut, split, cleave). 1 

moan see nio^n. 

'JjVn adj. nh desultory, superficial. 

[Formed from aVi (-to leap. jump. 

skip), with suff. ^g. I 

tf'DvVnm.n. fw dolomite. [Fren. dolo- 
mite, named after the Fren. geologist 
and mineralogist De'odat de Dolomieu 
(1750-1801). For the ending see suff. 
U\3 . 1 

nV^n f.n. pbh skein. [JAram. x?Vn, 
xV?n (^web), from rn ( = he wove), 
which is related to Syr. x^n ( = the woof 
of a web), prob. also to Arab, zdwala 
( he devoted himself, applied him- 
]»Vilm.n. fw dolmen. [Fren. dolmen 

(lit.: 'a table of stone'), from Breton 

tool (stable), a loan word from L. 

tabula (^ board, plank; see xjay), and 

Breton maen, men (-stone), cp. the 

first element in T-n:?.) 
)'9^ilm.n. fw dolphin. [Eng. dolphin, 

from Middle Eng. delphin. de(fyn. 

from Old Fren. daulphin, dalfin, from 



Med. L. da(/Tnus, from L. delphinus, 
delphin, from Gk. delphis ( = dolphin), 
which is related to delphus ( = womb); 
the animal is so called in allusion to the 
womb of the female.] 
^nm,n.FW dollar. [Eng. dollar, from 
Ger. ddler. from Taler. abbreviation of 
Joachimstaler (lit.: 'Valley of 
Joachim') in Bohemia: so called from 
the piece of money first coined there in 

BlVBnm.n.FW dumdum (kind of ex- 
panding bullets). [From the place 
name Dumdum near Calcutta, (the 
headquarters of the Bengal artillery 
until 1853).] 

n»n' f.n. silence, stillness, grave. 
[Formed from mi with first suff. ng.] 

n»n" f.n. pbh i evil report. 2 a woman of 
ill repute. [From JAram. on (=to be 
silent), whence 'to speak in a low voice, 
suspect'. See dit and cp. nijn' . ] 

now adj. similar, like. [Act. part, of n^. 

njanf.n. silence, stillness. [Formed 
from dm with suff. n;o.] 

iJ'anm.n. fw domino. [Fren., from It. 
domino (= master, lord), from L. 
dominus (of s.m.), prob. so called 
because he who has first disposed his 
pieces becomes 'the master'. L. 
dominus lit. means 'master of the 
house', formed from domus ( = house) 
with -nus (for IE *no-), a suff. denoting 
ownership or relation. See 'dome' 
( = building), in my CEDEL. cp. fprptt, 
jtt, njn. cp. also the first element in 

ji'ron m.n. fw dominion. [Eng. domin- 
ion, from L. dominio ( = property, right 
of ownership, domain), from dominus. 
See iron and cp. jVj'pnjlp . ] 

'jp'OVn adj. & n. fw Dominican. [From 
Med. L. Dominicdnus, from Domin- 
icus. Latinized name of Domingo 
de Guzman (Santo Domingo), 
the founder of this order of monks.] 

D»n i m.n. MH inanimate matter (as 
minerals, metals, water). 2 adj. nh 
silent. [Act. part. ofD9"j. SeeDQi 1 .] 

DDttadv. in silence. [Formed from on 
with indef. suff. Dg.] 


'30H PBH it seems to me. I A contraction 
formed from ni?1i ( = similar, like) and 
'?«(-- I).l 

fn 1 to judge. [A collateral form of base 
p.] — Qal 73 tr. & intr. v. PBH he 
judged. — Niph. jV:}, pi) pbh i was dis- 
cussed, considered; 2 sentenced, 

fn" a base prob. meaning 'to abide, stay, 

continue' (occurring Gen. 6:3 in the 
form }1t). [Of uncertain origin. Socin 
compares Egypt. Arab, ddna ( - he did 
something continuously).] 
7V1 m.n. fw Don (title). (Sp. don, from L. 
dominus ( = master, lord). See iron and 

JJil m.n. wax. [Of uncertain etymology; 
perhaps a loan word from Akka. 
dumqu (- clear). According to 
Fleischer related to Arab, danj 
( = remainder of the honeycombs).] 
Derivatives: in, 'jjH rriin. 

'Jita adj. NH waxen. [Formed from ojtt 
with adj. suff. 'Q.] 

iraji'n f.n. nh i a waxlike layer. 2 honey- 
wort. I Formed from oj1t with suff. n'a . ] 

nji'nf.n. FW Donna (title). [It. donna, 
from L. domina (-the mistress of a 
household), f. of dominus (- master, 
lord). Seelrpn and cp. fh. cp. also the 
second element in njnon9.] 

D}n m.n. FW dunam (a measure of 
land). [From Turkish.] 


n'J?^ f-n. NH a two-wheeled car. [Con- 
traction of an ( = two), and ]^k 

j?pn m.n. PBH upright tombstone. 
[Prob. subst. use of the act. part, of pgi 
( = he knocked, struck); see psi. ] 


fit to spring, leap, dance. [JAram.-Syr. 

p« (=to spring, leap, dance), Arab. 

ddsa (=he leapt off, jumped off).] 

— Qal fj intr. v. l he jumped, leapt, 
danced (a hapax legomenon in the Bi- 
ble, occurring Job 41:14); 2MH he 
rejoiced. Derivatives: yy. n$n. 

DSsVim.n. fw docent, privatdocent. [L. 
docens ( = teaching), pres. part, of 
docere (=to teach; orig. 'to cause 
somebody to receive something'), from 
IE base *dek~-, "dok- (=to take, 
receive, accept; acceptable, becoming, 
good), whence also L. decere ( = to be 
seemly or fitting). See 'decent' in my 
CEDEL and cp. rnf^gipn, "llopn. 
'PpT?. TJ5fDlp3 and the second element 
in n^plTlnplN, P"J}«. op/fn^. cp. also 

pnto consider, be exact. [An Aramaic 
base related to the base ppi. cp. pn.] 

— Qal pi intr. v. PBH he considered, 
looked up, was exact. Derivative: xj?n. 

Nj?n adv. pbh exactly, exactly so, pre- 
cisely. [From pit.] Derivatives: 'xpn, 


'Xgn m.n. nh spiteful, contradictive, 
cantankerous. [Formed from xpn with 

.T^o^pta f.n. fw documentation. 

[Late L. documentdlio, from L. 
documenlum ( = lesson, example, pat- 
tern, proof), from docere ( = to teach). 
See d^t and suff. rry a . ] 

nV^pta adj. fw documentary. [From 
L. documentum ( = lesson, example, 
pattern, proof), from docere ( = to 
teach). For the ending of n^oiptt see 
adj. suff. '-ary' in my CEDEL.] 

Ojnm.n.FW ducat. [It. ducato, from 
Gk. doukas, from doux, grecization of 
L. dux (= leader), surname of the em- 
peror Constantine X of the Byzantine 
Empire (1059-67), which was im- 
pressed upon the gold coins struck 
during his reign. This name was 
confused later with It. ducato 
( = duchy, dukedom), from duce 
( = duke), from L. dux ( = leader); see 

"ltopn m.n. fw doctor. [L. doctor 
( = teacher, instructor), from doctus, p. 
part, of docere ( = to teach). See uyrn 
and cp. njnopn. For the ending see 
agential suff. '-or' in my CEDEL.] 
Derivative: lopi. 

uniupn m.n. fw doctorate. [Med. L. 
doctordtus, from L. doctor. See-Hopft.] 

njnujrVn f.n. fw doctrine. [L. doctrfna 
( = teaching, instruction), from doctor 
( = teacher). See Hopli. For the ending 
see subst. suff. '-ine' (representing L. 
-md) in my CEDEL.] 

"ipnop'h m.n. fw doctrinaire, an im- 
practical person. [Fren. doctrinaire, 
from doctrine, from L. doctrina. See 
njnopn. Fren. suff. -aire derives from 
L. -drius; see first and second suff. 
'-ary' in my CEDEL.] 

]j?n adj. pbh i precise, accurate (said of 

a person); 2 meticulous. [From Aram. 

xjpn (of s.m.), derivative of xpn. See 

xpn.] Derivatives: nupn.'jpn. 
ni3j?l^ f.n. NH I precision, accuracy; 

2meticulousness. [Formed from xj-n 

with suff. ma] 
^jp/n adj. t precise, accurate (said of a 

thing). 2 meticulous. [Formed fromj^n 

with adj. suff. 'a] 
anjrnm.n.NH duel. [Compounded of 

an ( = two), and 3ip ( = battle, fight). ] 

l^irn m.n. pbh i cane, reed (for sup- 
porting vines). 2 two-pronged pole. 
[Gk. dikranon ( = pitchfork), properly 
subst. use of the neuter of the adj. 
dikranos (= two-headed), from di- 
( = two; see un'), and kranion ( = the 
skull), which is related to kare, kara, 
kar (=head). See 'di-' ( = two), and 
'cranium' in my CEDEL. The wordnprc 
was folk-etymologically explained as a 
compound of an (=two), and np 
( = horn).] 



mnp to f.n. NH I stinging, prickliness. 
2 sarcasm. iFormed from npn, pres. 
part, of -ij?-j (see ipi), with suff. rm g. J 

'njTil adj. nh prickly, thorny, piercing. 
[Formed from np>1i, pres. part, of ij?i 
(see ipi), with suff. 'j o. I 
in to move in a circle, go round, whence 
'to dwell'. [Arab, ddra ( = he moved in a 
circle, went about), ddr ( = house; orig. : 
'buildings surrounding a court'), daur 
( = circumference), dahr (=long time, 
age), BAram. and J Aram, in (=to 
dwell), Tiia, mo ( = dwelling place), m., 
N}3 ( = generation), J Aram. xnn, Syr. 
Kin ( = abode), Ugar. dr ( = generation), 
Akka. duru ( = wall, fortress; also dura- 
tion, eternity), ddru ( = everlasting).] 
— Qal -n intr. v. he dwelt (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring Ps. 
84:1 1). — Pi. in I pbh he introduced; 
2NH he caused to dwell, housed, 
accommodated. Derivatives: "in 1 (n.), 
iU, i1n, ivi, ti, ri, tIijj, nino. cp. 
int. cp. also -itix mm, mil and inn. 

"in m.n. (pi. nnn, also onn) I gen- 
eration. 2 period, age. [From in.) 

"in 1 m.n. i circle. 2 pbh rim. [From in.] 

W'm.n. FW major (music). [It. duro 
( = hard), from L. durus ( = hard, rough, 
rude), prob. dissimilated from dru-ros, 
for dreu-ros, and lit. meaning 'as hard 
as wood', from IE base *derew(o)-, 
*drew(o)-, *dru- ( = tree, wood), 
whence also Gk. drus ( = oak, tree), 
doru ( = stem, tree, beam, shaft of a 
spear, spear), Old I. dm- ( = wood, 
wooden vessel), ddru ( = wood). See 
'tree' in my CEDEL and cp. 'dure' ibid.] 

"itt, "ixn m.n. i pbh mail carrier, des- 
patch bearer. 2NH postman, mailman. 
[Nomen opificis formed according to 
the pattern by$. For the origin of the 
word see -int.] 

^inm.n.NH biped. [Compounded of 

jw(= bi-), and "?>i ( = foot). ] 
o^ro m.n. pi. mh yeast. [Aram. Kjmn 

(of s.m.).] 

n^nf.n.NH Sorghum (a genus of 
grasses). [From Arab. dhura h .\ 

]1i1i m.n. pbh (pi. nunn) gift, present. 
[From Gk. doron, from IE *do-ron 
( = gift), which has a collateral form 
*do-nom > whence L. donom. cp. 'dona- 
tion' in my cedel. cp. also Vfn and the 
second element in nnto}9 and in 

"nil adj. fw Doric. [Back formation 
from Gk. Dorikos, from Doris 
( - Doris), name of a district in Central 
Greece, named after Doros (= Dorus), 
the ancestor of the Dorians, a name 

related to doron ( = gift). See jinn. For 
the ending sec adj. suff^g.] 

nn'ft f.n. pbh gift, present. [A collater- 
al form of jlin (q. v.). | 

onn adj. NH raptorial (zoology). [Pres. 
part, of om; see on.] Derivative: '•59711. 

, 39*li' ! » adj. NH 1 raptorial, predatory. 

2NH running over, trampling. [Formed 

from Dili, act. part, of on, Qal of on 

( = to tear, rend).] 
tthto m.n. PBH preacher, expounder. 

[Subst. use of the act. part, of #73 (= he 

expounded). Seettfm.) 

tfn 1 to tread, thresh. [JAram.-Syr., 
Samaritan, Mand. cm ( - to tread under 
foot, trample; to thresh), Tigre 
dawshasha (-he ground, crushed), 
Arab, ddsa ( = he trod upon, trampled 
down, threshed), Akka. ddshu (=to 
tread upon). According to Fraenkel, 
Arab, ddsa, at least in the sense 'he 
threshed', is an Aram, loan word. cp. 
tfcn.] — Qal en tr. v. 1 he trod upon, 
trampled down; 2 he threshed. 

— Niph. umj and cni pbh was 
trodden upon, was trampled down. 

— Hoph. ttfiin lwas threshed; 2MH 
was trodden upon, was trampled 
down. — Pi. tfn pbh 1 he trod upon, 
trampled down; 2 he threshed. 

— Pilpel (see V1V1). Derivatives: afn. 
tfn, TMpn, n^no, n^no, cm), n^rt. 

tfn" to pedal, treadle. [Denominated 
from nt^T.] — Pi. An he pedaled, 
treadled. — Pu. utti NH was pedaled, 
was treadled. 

ntfnf.n. nh pedal, treadle. [From 
J Aram, xtfn ( = treading), from u^ ( = he 
treaded). See am ' .) Derivative: «m" . 

rpipn m.n. nh dialogue. [Compounded 
of nn ( = two) and rrip ( = conversation, 

nn f.n. (pi. nlnn or n1*rvn), pit, cistern. 
[This word prob. derives from nnn, 
whose n was misread for a n, which 
was mistaken for the art. and was 
consequently dropped. For a similar 
misreading see oino.) 

■nam see Wi. 

If 1 rT 

rrspsa'H f.n. fw disinfection. [Fren. 
disinfection, from privative pref. des- 
(from L. dis- and infection, from Late 
L. infectio, from L. infectus, p. part, of 
inficere ( --- to put into, dip into; to stain, 
taint, to infect), from in- (=in), and 
facere ( = to make, do). See non and 

nm to push, thrust. [JAram.-Syr. am 
( - he pushed, thrust), Arab, dahd(y) 
( = he spread, extended, he threw, 
drove). Related to run, nm. mi, prob. 
also to im.] — Qal nm tr. v. 1 he 
pushed, thrust, repelled; 2 pbh he put 

off; 3 NH he rejected, turned down, can- 
celled. — Nith. nm? 1 was thrust, was 
pushed, was cast down. 2 pbh was put 
off, was postponed. — Pu. nrn was 
pushed, was thrust. — Hiph. nmn PBH 

1 he pushed away; 2 he repressed 
(psychology). — Hoph. nmri nh was 
repressed (psychology). Derivatives: 
nnn, ^m, ^rn, vn, nvn, n-rnn, nmo, 
nmo, n mi, nTnn. 

V l % V 1 I ■ F * 

'IPIT adj. 1 pushed in (said of a wall). 

2 PBH put off, postponed; deferred. 
3MH superseded. [Pass. part, of nm. 

'irn m.n. pbh postponement, delay. 

fjrn m.n. (pi. nliirrj) 1 table. 2NH a small 
ornamental table. [Of uncertain 

Oirn adj. pbh compressed, dense, thick. 
[Pass. part, of orn. See om.l Deriv- 
ative: mem. 

* 1 

*Tirn adj. 1 hastened, in haste, urged. 
2 mh pressed, oppressed. [Pass. part, of 
im. Seeim.] Derivative: niDTn. 

pirn adj. 1 pbh needy. 2MH pressed, dis- 
tressed. 3NH crowded. [Pass. part, of 

j??rn m.n. pbh 1 pressure, density, crow- 
dedness. [Verbal n. ofpm, Pi. ofpm.] 

nmto push, thrust, banish. [Related to 
nm, rm, ma.] — Niph. mi was pushed, 
was thrust; was banished. 

'rrc m.n. stumbling, downfall. [From 


njrraf.n. ipbh pushing, thrusting. 2MH 
putting off, postponement. [Verbal n. 
of nm. Seenm and first suff. ng.] 

b">m adj. MH terrible. [From Aram. Vrn, 
pass. part. ofVrn (- he feared). See brrt.] 

nWn f.n. MH fear, terror. [Verbal n. of 
bm. See "?m and first suff. ng.] 

^m f.n. MH fear, awe, reverence (in the 
phrase iothi I'rrn?, 'with fear and 
love'). [JAram., from ^m (=he 

D'rn adj. nh compressible. [Coined 
from orn (=he compressed; see om), 
according to the pattern V'v?, which is 
used in NH to form adjectives denoting 
capacity or fitness.) 

ncj'rn f.n. nh compression. [Verbal n. of 
orn ( = he compressed). See om and first 
suff. ng.] 

niDTlT f.n. NH compression, density. 
[Formed from omi with suff. ma.) 

«l'ijj m.n. NH tappet. [From n^rn.] 

nym f.n. pbh 1 pushing, push. 2 incen- 
tive, stimulus. I Verbal n. of ^m . See ^m 
and first suff. ny.) 

nwrn f.n. nh urgency. IFormed from 


120 :i. I 

jrnim.n. mh a kind of euphonic 
'daghesh' (Heb. grammar): hiatus. 
I J Aram., lit.: 'compressed', from ptp\. 

Hjrrnf.n. mh i pressing. 2 pressure. 
I Verbal n. of prn. cp. pm and first suff. 

?mto fear. [Borrowed from BAram. 
( - JAram.) ?rn ( = he feared), which is 
related to Heb. ?n: ( = he feared). See 
bnv and cp. rrn. ~i' n ?- ^'Cty ' 7,! ?!?3-] 

— Qal ?rjT intr. v. pbh he feared. 

T'Vni m.n. nh scarecrow, bogey, bug- 
bear. I J Aram. ?i?rn ( = scarecrow), for- 
med from "rim ( = he feared), through 
reduplication of the third radicaJ.I 
Derivative: 'rVni. 

*?*'?rnadj. like a scarecrow. [Formed 
from rVrn with suff. '2 . 1 

inn m.n. millet. Sorghum vulgare (a 
hapax legomenon in the Bible, occur- 
ring Ezek. 4:9). [Related to JAram. 
xj'rrn, Syr. x;nn, Arab. duhn. Akka. 
duhnu, tuhnu ( = pearl millet), properly 
'the smoke-colored plant', cp. Arab. 
duhna h ( = smoke color), from dahan 
(^ smoke, fume).] 

omto press, compress. [JAram. orn 
(-he pressed, stamped). Arab. 
dahasha ( = he insened. thrust in).] 

— Qal cm tr. v. I MH he pressed; 2NH 
he compressed, condensed. — Niph. 
crn? NH was pressed. — Pi. cm MH he 
pressed, thickened. — Hiph. crnn NH 
he compressed, condensed. — Hoph. 
orrrn nh was compressed, was con- 
densed. Derivatives: crn, crh. n$rn. 
ncrn, cim.. i'rn, r.c/rn, n$rnn. orna. 

crjim.n. nh pressure, density. [From 

onim.n. nh pressure, density. [From 

cm. J 

norn f.n. pbh pressure, squeezing. I Ver- 
bal n. of crn. See cm and first suff. ~ a.] 

norn f.n. nh pressure, density. [Formed 
from cm with suff. n z. I 

rjmio drive, urge, hasten. [JAram. qm 
( he pressed, hastened). Akka. da'dpu 
( to push, push away, set in motion). 
Prob. related to base nm, possibly also 
to mn.l — Qal ^m tr. v. pbh he pushed, 
drove on (in the Bible occurring only in 
the pass. part. ^rn). — Niph. ^m? 
1 was hastened; 2 pbh was driven on. 
Derivatives: ^m, ^.m. «yrn. rs^rn. r fi~fV- 
"smzj.cp. the first element in iisrn.- 
^rnm.n. NH impulse, urge. ICoined 

from r ,m.| 
'Jicrn adj. nh impulsive. [Formed from 
r ,n~ with suff."';' ..I 

"norn. m.n. nh bulldozer. I A blend of im 

(^he pushed), and nsn (-he dug). See 

1 rn and iDn. I 

pmto thrust, press. [JAram. -Syr. prn 
( • he pressed, drove), Mand. prn (-to 
press, drive), Akka. dahaqa ( = he 
drove away, removed). I — Qal prn tr. 
v. 1 he pressed, pushed: 2 pbh he urged. 
— Niph. pmi pbh was pressed, was 
pushed; he pushed himself. — Pi. pm 
pbh he pressed. — Pu. prn nh was 
pressed. — Hiph. P'rnn 1 MH he 
pressed; 2NH he repressed (psycho- 
logy). — Hoph. prnn nh 1 was pressed; 
repressed (psychology). Derivatives: 
pm. prn. niprn. pirn, pirn, pTn, npTn. 
npmn, prnn. np'mn. 

pni m.n. 1 pbh need, distress, poverty. 

2 mh pressure. [ From prn . ] 

j?ni m.n. 1 pbh need, distress, poverty. 

2NHcrowdedness. [From prn. 1 
nipnif.n.MH need, distress, poverty. 

[Formed from prn with suff. ma. cp. 

JAram. xmprn,.) 
.13103 f.n. fw Datura (a genus of plants). 

[Modern L. Daiura, from Hindu 

dhaturd. from Old I. dhatturah, 

dhusturah ( = thorn apple). I 

n"?,'7.oi abbr. nh the five lingual letters 
(in Heb. alphabet). [Formed from the 
initials of the names of the letters n'73. 
n-t?,-in?, p:, and in.] 

nio,?pi m.n. fw detector. [L. detector 
( = uncoverer, revealer), from delectus. 
p. part, of detegere (-to uncover, 
disclose, reveal, detect), from de (see 
,;^), and legere ( = to cover), which 
derives from base *(s)teg- ( = to cover). 
See 'thatch' in my CEDEL. For the 
ending of nuppi see suff. '-or' ibid. cp. 

orraioi m.n. fw determinism. [From 
Ger. Determinismus. which is prob. a 
back formation of Praedeterminismus 
C^predeterminism). from L. prae 
( - before), and determindre ( = to 
bound, limit, prescribe, determine), 
which is formed from de (see rvxpi-n) 
and termindre ( - to mark off by 
boundaries, mark, limit, define, ter- 
minate), from terminus (= boundary, 
limit), which is related to tennen 
(= boundary stone), which derives 
from IE base *ier-, "tr- ( = to go 
through, pass beyond). See co:yo and 
suff. Drg and cp. 'term' in my CEDEL. | 

■n 1 m.n. sufficiency. 2 adv. enough, suf- 
ficiently, [cp. Phoen.ia( no, 'as often 
as'). JAram. 'X}? (worthy), Syr. n? 
( -enough, already). See 'x-p and cp. 
no^.cp. alsonitf.] Derivative: nin. 

'"ipron. who, which, that; of, about. 
UAram. (also BAram.) n ( who. 
which, that; also mark of the gen). 

Related to xi f. (^this), Arab, dhu 
( - possessor of), and to Heb. n:, nxi 
( = this), cp. xi, ni.rn. cp. also 'Tl. 

cri 1 FW di- (pref. meaning 'two, double, 
twice', used esp. in chemistry to denote 
two atoms, molecules, radicals, 
equivalents, as the case may be). [Gk. 
di-, from dis ( = twice), which stands 
for *dwis and is related to Old L. dvis 
(whence L. bis) and cogn. with Old I. 
dvih, Avestic bish ( - twice). See j o^ 
andep. lj 11 ?.] 

DH" see.jxn. 

rjvjm fw di- (pref. meaning 'apart, asun- 
der'). [L. di-. form of dis- before b, d, 
g.l.m, it, r, v. See ao'i.l 

:jn"»i, a 101 (before a vowel on" ) dia-. di 
(combining form meaning 'thorough, 
thoroughly, entirely, utterly"). [Gk. 
dia-, from dia (^through, through- 
out), which prob. stands for disa and 
was formed (on the analogy of meta. 
'after') from dis ( = twice), hence orig. 
meant 'divided in the middle'. See jn' 
andep. .:on.| 

VjiJK'H m.n. fw diagonal. [L. diagondlis 
( - diagonal), from Gk. diagonios 
( from angle to angle), from dia ( - see 
jxn) and gonia ( = an angle), which is 
related to gonu ( = knee), and cogn. 
with L. genu ( - knee). See 'knee' in my 

niij;N ,, i m.n. fw diagnosis. [Medical L. 
diagnosis, from Gk. diagnosis (-a 
distinguishing, discerning, determin- 
ing, decision; lit.: 'a knowing thor- 
oughly"), from the stem of 
diagignoskein ( - to distinguish, dis- 
cern, determine: lit.: 'to know 
thoroughly'), from dia (see z^-) and 
gignoskein ( = to learn, know). See 

n»i;gn f.n. fw diagram. [Gk. diagram- 
ma ( - something marked out by lines, 
a geometrical figure), from dia- 
graphein ( - to mark out by lines, draw 
out), from dia and graphein (-to 
write). See ; xn and ^3 ::i . ] 

Drpnioi m.n. pi. Diadochi (the suc- 
cessors of Alexander the Great, hence 
also successors in general). [From 
Modern L. Diadochi. from Gk. 
diadochoi, pi. of diadochos (^suc 

nnppiN-H f.n. fw dioptrics. I From Gk. 
diopira (name of an optical instru 
ment), which is formed from di- (see 
xn) and the stem of optos ( seen: 
visible), opiikos ( pertaining to sight). 
See 'ysix and suff. rr :.| 

njjTiNn f.n. fw diorama. | Formed from 
Gk. di- (see ,Jxn) and orama (-that 
which is seen, view, sight), from oran 



( to sec), which is cogn. with L. vereri 
( to observe with awe, revere, respect, 
fear). See 'ware' ( -- alert) in my CEDEL 

nosn f.n. fw diet. [L. diaeta ( = mode of 


living), from Gk. diaita (^ the office of 
an arbiter; mode of living; dwelling, 
abode), back formation from diaitan 
( : to maintain, support), which is 
formed from di- (see nNn). and aisa 
(-share, lot, destiny), which is cogn. 
with Avestic aeta- ( - share, lot, due), 
cp. s^n.l 

'jiBNn adj. fw diatonic (music). [Back 
formation from Gk. diatonikos, from 
diatonos (extending; pertaining to 
the diatonic scale), from diateinein 
( - to stretch out), which is formed from 
dia and teinein ( = to stretch). See oxn 

ji'?sn m.n. fw dialogue. [Gk. dialogos 
(- conversation, dialogue), from dia- 
legesthai ( - to converse). See op^xn . ! 

rii'Van f.n. fw dialvsis. [L.. from Gk. 
dialysis ( = separation, dissolution), 
from dialeyin ( - to part asunder, break 
off. dissolve), from dia- ( = thorough, 
thoroughly, entirely, utterly), and lyein 
( = to make loose, loosen).] 

upVxn m.n. fw dialect. [Gk. dialektos 
( = talk. discourse. conversation, 
speech, language: the language of a 
country, dialect), from dialegesthai 
(-to converse, talk with, discuss), 
middle voice of dialegein ( = to pick 
out. choose), from dia (see uxn) and 
legem ( = to pick out. reckon, count, 
tell. say. speak), which stands in 
gradational relationship to logos 
( - word, speech, discourse, account), 
cp. rq^Uyhx^ and aVrxn and see ;3<n 

n^u^Kn f.n. fw dialectics. [Gk. dia- 
lektike (techne) ( = the art of discussion 
by question and answer), f. of 
dialektikos {- skilled in discourse), 
from dialectos. See up'jxn . I 
itsasn m.n. fw diameter. [Gk. dia- 
meiros (gramme) (lit.: 'a diametrical 
line'). See 2 xn and ido .1 
l^xnm.n. fw diapason (music). [L. 
diapason (-the whole octave), from 
Gk. diapason, short for diapason chor- 
don symphonia ( = concord through all 
of the notes, the octave), from dia 
( through) and pas ( ^ all). See cxn 
and ;]9.| 

ni^nogn f.n. fw diaphragm. |Gk. dia- 
phragma (= partition, barrier; muscle 
which divides the thorax from the 
abdomen), from diaphragnuai, 
diaphrassein ( = to divide off, 
barricade), from dia (see as- - ?) and 

phragnunai, phrassein ( = to enclose, 
fence, round). I 

, t? , npx'H adj. fw diacritic(al). [Back for- 
mation from Gk. diakritikos. from 
diakrinein ( = to separate one from 
another), from dia and krinein ( = to 
separate, decide, judge). See oxn and 


™?7nK , H f.n. fw diathermy. [Medical L. 
diathermia. coined by Nagelschmidt 
in 1908 from dia- and Gk. therme 
( = heat). See uxn and -Qin.l 

"tJTa'H m.n. fw dividend. [From L. 
dividendus (-that which is to be 
divided), from di- ( = apart) and IE base 
*widh- ( = to separate). See on' and cp. 

njra , *i f.n. fw division. [Fren. division, 
from L. divfsio ( - a division, separa- 
tion), from divfsus, p. part, of dfvidere 
( = to divide). See "nT}n and suff. 7r\ □. ] 

n to fish. [Denominated from ai 
( - fish), cp. an. I — Qal jn tr. v. he fished 
(a hapax legomenon in the Bible, 
occurring Jer. 16:16 in the form dwj), 
'and they shall fish them"). — Pi. an NH 
he fished: he occupied himself with 
fishing. Derivatives: an, an, nan, ain. 

Vl m.n. fisherman (in the Bible occur- 
ring only Is. 19:8 and Jer. 16:16). 
[Nomen opificis formed from base an, 
according to the pattern bvB. cp.ayi.] 

an m.n. NH fishing. [ From an. | 
, *T ,, i pron. PBH my. mine (occurring in 
forms as T7 1 ?. 'as for me', 'according 
to my opinion', ■'jn ^jV, 'as for me'). 
[Aram., prob. compounded of n 
( - which, that), and -r ( - hand). See n 

, »i?T r ) adj. fw didactic. [Back forma- 
tion from Gk. didaktikos ( = skilled in 
teaching), from didaktos ( = taught), p. 
part, of didaskein ( = to teach), prob. 
dissimilated from di-dak-skein and 
cogn. with L. discere, for *didk~-skere 
(to learn), from IE base *dek~- ( = to 
take, receive, accept; acceptable, 
becoming, good), whence also L. 
decere ( = to be seemly or fitting). See 
uaxVi and suff. , a.] 

ng'up th f.n. fw didactics. [From Gk. 
didaktikos. See -vpi'n . I 

nn f.n. a bird of prey, the kite (in the Bi- 
ble occurring only Dcut. 14:13. Is. 
34:15). [A collateral form of nxi. cp. 
J Aram. -Syr. xnn. Mand. XTtn ( = kite, 

In f.n. (pi. rrtxln) ink (a hapax lego- 
menon in the Bible, occurring Jer. 
36:18). I Possibly of Egypt, origin. 
Related to J Aram. -Syr. xmn ( = ink). 
Mand. dywt', Arab. dawd h ( = inkbottle. 
inkhorn); cp. nln. nnln. cp. also the 

first element in ]i:Vn. Even-Shoshan 
takes 1n to be of both masculine and 
feminine gender. This is wrong. 1n is 
solely f.| 

]xrn m.n. NH divan (collection of 
medieval poems). [Arab, dfwdn, from 
Pers. diwdn ( = a royal court; a council 
of state); whence on the one hand *a 
convenient seat, coach', and on the 
other 4 a register, an account book; a 
collection of poems').] 

» , ? ! P"i m.n. PBH (pi. ppnin) siphon. 
[From Gk. diabetes ( = siphon; lit.: 
'that which causes a going through"), 
from dia and betes ( = that which goes, 
moves or flows), from the stem of 
baino ( = I go). See 3xn and c^a and 
cp. 1 pin.) 

Jin m.n. NH fishing. [Verbal n. of an 
(-he fished). See an.] 

KUi'H, nuin f.n. pbh (pi. nluin and 
rrtxuln) floor, story. [From Gk. diaita 
( = place for living, dwelling). See 


Tarn m.n. pbh a double pillar. [A hybrid 
coined from Gk. dyo ( = two; see ~n) 
and Heb. "pdv ( - pillar, column).] 

P"*i m.n. mh dealing with a case, con- 
sideration, deliberation. [Verbal n. of 
jn( • he discussed). Pi. of]n.] 

njrn f.n. fw dune. [Fren. dune, from 
Med. L. duna, from Dutch dunen.\ 

]iainm.n. NH ink fish, squid. [Com- 
pounded of V~ (=ink), and Aram, ju 
(fish); seep:. ] 

^"n m.n. pbh (pi. fsin) siphon (another 
version for tr^n). [Folk-etymological 
alteration of train ( = lit.: 'two 
mouths'), from Gk. dyo (-two), and 
Heb. ■•? . properly c. st. of ns ( = mouth). 1 

IDinm.n. NH barrow. [Lit.: 'two- 
wheeled (cart)', a hybrid coined from 
Gk. dyo; see an) and Heb. |?ix 
(- wheel).] 

pin m.n. MH exactness, precision, ac- 
curacy. [Verbal n. of pn( = he was ex- 
act). Pi. of pn. cp. J Aram. xpin. ] 

Ijnm.&f.n. (pi. o-5j?in. also nixjpin) 
1 pbh image, likeness. 2NH portrait. 
[Surely connected with Gk. eikon 
( - likeness; see pV x X but the i is of 
uncertain origin. According to some 
scholars ]j?in is the contraction of in 
( Gk. dyo. 'two'), and eikon. and 
properly means 'a double image'.] 
Derivatives: nixjpln.-'Njpin. 

niNjjrin f.n. nh portrait painting, por- 
traiture. 1 Formed from j;?ln with suff. 
ma. I 

'Njpin m.n. nh portraitist. [Formed 
from ]pln with suff. -xy . I 

n1n m.n. pbh dweller, tenant. I From 




^»? m.n. i mh dwelling, housing, ac- 
commodation. 2NH housing, accom- 
modation. I Verbal n. of in ( = he 
caused to dwell, accommodated). Pi. 
of in. I 

m^jf.n. MH sufficiency. [Formed from 
'3 ( - sufficient), with suff. m a. ] 

nlnf.n. nh (pi. mnp) Indian ink. [Back 
formation from Aram, xnp ( = ink). 
See in. | Derivative: nn". 

m'I'm.n.MH diffusion, osmosis. [Ver- 
bal n. of nn. See nn '. ] 

m*J"m.n. NH inking. [Verbal n. of nn. 

nrvinf.n. NH inkpot, inkstand. [From 

J Aram. xnp ( = ink). See p. ] 
tyn m.n. fw diesel, diesel engine. 

[Named after its inventor, the German 

Rudolf Di'Me/(I858-1931).| 
nnoJTHf.n. fw dysentery. [Gk. dysen- 

teria (Hit.: "bad intestines"). [Coined 

by the Greek physician Hippocrates 

from dys ( = hard. bad. ill; see □on"). 

and eniera ( = intestines). See 'enteric' 


nsnf.n. PBH crushing, pounding. [Ver- 
bal n. of fi (-he crushed, pounded). 
See p and first suff. rt? . | 

TOioisn f.n. fw dichotomy. [Gk. di- 
chowmia ( = dividing in two), com- 
pounded of dicha ( = in two, asunder, 
apart from, separately), which is 
related to dis ( = twice: see otp 1 ) and 
lomia ( = a cutting off), from tome ( = a 
cutting, section).] 

^m.n.NH waiter, steward (on an air- 
plane). [Nomen opificis coined by 
Eliezer ben Yehudah (1858-1922) 
from J Aram. K^n ( = attendant, waiter), 
which derives from Gk. doylos 
( - slave), a word standing for doelos 
and derived from Aegean doero 
(- slave). I Derivative: non. 

m?ji f.n. nh stewardship. [Formed 
from 'p with suff. rial 

lio'?'^ m.n. pbh slanderer, informer. 
I Late Gk. delator ( = accuser, informer, 
denouncer), from L. delator, from 
deldtus. used as p. part, oideferre ( = to 
bring or carry down, indict, inform 
against). See "delate" and adj. suff. 
'-ory" in my CEDEL. cp. nntoVn.] 
Derivative: -wbi. 

nntoVn f.n. pbh calumny, slander. 
[Late Gk. delatoria. from delator (see 

Oitfp. m.n. FW dilettante. [It. dilettante, 
pres. part, of dilettarsi ( = to take 
delight in), reflexive of dilettare ( = to 
delight), from L. delectdre (=to 
delight, charm, amuse), frequentative 

ofdilicere ( = to entice). See , «?j?' , V? • I 
DS'T^n m.n. fw diligence (public stage- 
coach). [Frcn. diligence, short for 
earlier carrosse de diligence ( = coach 
of speeds).! 
KJJ^n adv. pbh lest, perhaps. [JAram. 
( = Syr. xofa), compounded of X7)i n. 
cp. BAram. noVn ( = lest), which is 
equivalent to Heb. no^ itffl. cp. also 
naV# and see n and n^ . 1 

Hl^pT.n. fw dilemma. [Gk. dilemma 
( = a double proposition, dilemma), 
from di- (see on 1 ) and lemma 
(- assumption; lit.: 'something re- 
ceived, something taken for granted'), 
which is related to ei-lemman, perf. 
pass, of lambano ( = 1 take, grasp, 
seize; I receive), which derives partly 
from IE base *(s)lag w {- to take, seize), 
and partly from base *labh- ( = to take, 
seize), cp. the second element in 
n^oM-njs and rrtpslrsK.l 

nVn f.n. nh waitress; stewardess (on an 
airplane), [f. of "p.] 

Dian m.n. 1 pbh he was freed, was ac- 
quitted. 2 NH he resigned (from office). 
[Prob. from L. dimissus, p. part, of 
dimittere ( = to send away, dismiss, 
release), from di- ( = apart, asunder), 
and mittere ( = to send). See cp'" and 


yn to judge. [JAram. (also BAram.) p, 
Syr. p, Ugar. dn ( = to judge), Ethiop. 
dayyana ( = he judged), Akka. ddnu 
( = to judge), BAram. p, J Aram. -Syr. 
Kjn, Arab, dayn, OSArab. dyn, 
Ethiop. dain, Akka. denu, dfnu 
(= judgment). Arab, din (= judgment) 
is a Heb. or Aram, loan word; Arab. 
din in the sense 'religion', is borrowed 
from Persian. See also JAram. xnpp 
( = 'province, region'; whence 'city'), 
Syr. KF17D ( = city), whence Arab. 
madina h ( = city), al-Madina h ( = Me- 
dina), short for madinatu'l-nabiyy 
( = city of the prophet). I — Qal n tr. v. 
1 he judged: 2 he pleaded the cause of: 
3 he executed judgment; 4 he contend- 
ed. — Niph. ]1ij and rtaj 1 he contend- 
ed, quarreled; 2 pbh he was judged, 
was punished. — Pi. p pbh he dis- 
cussed, argued. — Hith. pnn mh he 
sued. Derivatives: p 1 ( n -)* H"- 1575- 1 1 *"?' 
nipn. mpnn. pp. pp. opp. p). cp. 
Kp. C P- a ' so P 1 ^- anc * seep. 

p'm.n. 1 judgment. 2 verdict, sentence. 
3 lawsuit, cause. 4 law. 5 PBH logical 
deduction. [Fromp.cp.ptp.] 

p" m.n. fw dyne (physics). [Shortened 
from Gk. dynamis ( = might, power). 

H m. pron. pbh this. [JAram., related to 
BAram. hjt, JAram. xjt, Syr. xjn (con- 

traction of jqirj), Phoen. ]T, SArab. j't, 
Ethiop. zentu, zati{ = this), cp. nji, p. 
cp. also pn and nj.] 

IJT m.n. judge (in the Bible occurring on- 
ly Sam. I 24:15 and Ps. 68:6). [Nomen 
opificis formed from p ( = to judge), 
according to the pattern byg. cp. 
BAram. p, Arab, dayydn, Akka. 
dayydnu(- judge).] Derivative: nun. 

KYn m.n. PBH judgment; law (occurring 
in phrases and sentences quoted from 
the Talmud, as in xp xrp'rpilNp.'the 
law of the government is law; the law 
of the State is binding'). [JAram., 
emphatic state ofp.Seep.l 

lajn m.n. fw 'dingo' (native name of the 
Australian wild dog). 

oniK$U"H m.n. FW (pi. D'-nxiylp), dino- 
saur. [Modern L. dinosaurus. com- 
pounded of Gk. deinos ( = fearful), 
which is related to deido ( = I fear), deos 
( = fearful, terrible, powerful, mighty), 
deidos ( = cowardly), and of sauros 
( = lizard), which is of uncertain 

nun f.n. mh the office of a 'dayyan'. 
[ Formed from p with suff. m 3. ] 

i»jn m.n. FW (pi. nMnp) dynamo. 
[From Gk. dynamis ( = power). See 
'pp. I 

"•Bin adj. FW dynamic. [Back formation 
from Gk. dynamikos ( = powerful), 
from dynamis ( = might, power), which 
is related to dynamai{- 1 am able. I am 
worth), dynaios ( = strong, able). Of un- 
certain origin, cp. p". cp. also lap. 
o'pjn, njrpp. For the ending see suff. 
■•a. I Derivative: ni'pp. 

n^ s »jn f.n. fw dynamism. [Formed 
from -pjn with suff. m a ] 

OVMn m.n. FW dynamite. [The name 
dynamite was given by the Swedish 
chemist Alfred Bemhard Nobel 
( 1 833-96) to the explosive invented by 
him. The word dynamite is formed 
from Gk. dynamis (- power) and Gk. 
suff. -ites. Secpp and suff. o'^.l 

n^rn f.n. fw dynamics. [From Gk. 
dynamikos ( = powerful). See , op.] 

]jn m.n. pbh a quarrelsome person. 
[Formed from p ( = he discussed, 
argued). Pi. of n ( = he judged). See p. ] 

nj'n m.n. pbh denarius. [L. denarius, 
short for denarius nummus ( = the coin 
containing ten), from denarius 
( = containing ten), and nummus 
(-coin). Denarius derives from deni 
( = ten each), which stands for *dec-noi. 
from decern ( = ten). The denarius was 
so called because it originally 
contained ten asses. L. decern derives 
from IE base *gekm-, *dekmt(i) 
( = ten), cp. 'ten' in my CEDEL. cp. also 

12 3 


rnjjT ijn. ngD>'T and the first clement in 
diijjh, iy\\?i. ""PPi?"? and in □^? , yi. 

-19^3, w^ ■ ' 

on m.n. NH grout (in a building). [Back 
formation from npn.] 

□O'T fw dis- (pref. of Latin origin 
denoting separation; removal, nega- 
tion, deprivation, undoing, reversal. 
[L. dis- ( = apart, asunder; away from; 
utterly, completely; un- in the 
privative sense), from IE *dis- ( = apart, 
asunder). See nn '" and cp. en . ] 

non" fw dys- (pejorative pref., used 
esp. in the senses 'hard to, difficult at, 
slow of, the opposite of the pref. en-). 
[Gk. dys- { = hard, bad, ill).] 

K^n f.n. pbh (also npn in NH) porridge, 
gruel. [J Aram. K973 ( = Syr. x^n), of un- 
certain etymology. ] Derivative : on . 

DSJlDn m.n. FW dissonance. [Fren. dis- 
sonance, from Late L. dissonantia 
( = dissonance), from dissondns, pres. 
part, of dissondre ( = to disagree in 
sound; to disagree, differ), from dis- 
and sondre ( = to sound). See non 1 and 

fS^on m.n. fw distance. (Ger. Distanz, 
from L. distantia ( = distance, remote- 
ness), from distdns, pres. part, of 
distdre ( = to stand apart, be remote, 
separate or distant), from di- ( = apart), 
and stare ( = to stand). See zr?" and 

rrs'S'D'O'H f.n. FW dissimilation. [From 
L. dissimilis ( = unlike, different), from 
dis- (see aon') and similis ( = like, 
resembling, similar). See 'similar' in 
my cedel and cp. rrx , ? , 9 , DK.] 
polppn m.n. fw discotheque. [Fren., 
formed from disc (-disk, record) and 
tampon m.n. fw discount. [It. disconto, 
from Med. L. discomputus, from L. 
dis- (see 3on') and computdre ( = to 
count), from com- (see DDlp) and 
putdre ( = to think). See \o\\?. 1 

nj^S'pon f.n. fw discipline. [L. disci- 
plina ( = instruction, teaching, learning, 
knowledge), from discipulus (= pupil, 
disciple), from dis-cipere ( = to seize 
mentally), from dis- and capere ( = to 
catch, seize, take hold of, take, receive). 
Seenon' andnijpj?.] 
iMgonm.n.FW descant (music). [Old 
North Fren. descant, descaunt 
(corresponding to Old Fren. deschant, 
Fren. dechant), from Med. L. 
discantus, from dis- and cantus 
( = song, melody). See a on ' and n^p . ] 
'V^ tpn adj. fw discreet. [Fren. discret, 
from L. discretus, p. part, ofdiscernere 
( - to separate, set apart, divide. 

distribute; to distinguish, perceive, 
discern, understand, decide, judge), 
from dis- (see non) and cernere ( = to 
separate, sift, distinguish, discern, 
understand, decide). For the ending of 
"•pipon see suff. ■'g.l 

^?J?7? r i | f-n. fw dissertation, thesis. [L. 
dissertdtio, from dissertdtus, p. part, 
of dissertdre ( = to discuss, argue, 
debate), frequentative of disserere ( = 
to examine, argue, discuss, discourse 
on), from dis- and serere ( = to join, 
bind together, connect). See aon' and 
nno. For the ending of rrxynon see 


HDIVd'H f.n. fw diploma. [L. diploma, 
from Gk. diploma (= anything double, 
folded paper, license), from diploun 
( = to bend double, to double), from 
diploos (= twofold, double), formed 
from di- (= two, double; see pref. an' ) 
and *pl-, zero degree of base *pel- (- to 
fall, to fold).] Derivative: obsi. 

uaiVs'H m.n. fw diplomat(e). [Fren. di- 
plomats back formation from diplo- 
matique ( = diplomatic), from Modern 
L. diplomaticus, from L. diploma. See 


'tSD^sn adj. fw diplomatic. (Modern 
L. diplomaticus, from L. diploma. See 
Dijftsn and suff. ■'g.] 

VK'xnsi m.n. fw differential (mathe- 
matics). [Med. L. differentidlis ( = dif- 
ferential), from L. differentia 
( = diversity, difference), from differens 
( = different), pres. part, ofdifferre ( = to 
carry away, scatter, disperse, protract, 
delay, differ), from dis- and ferre ( = to 
bear, carry), See aon' and rnlD}$.| 
Derivative : '^xnpn. 

^K^nDHadj. differential. [Formed 
from ^x'xnDn with suff. ""g .] 

Jjlnon m.n. fw diphthong. [Fren. diph- 
thongue, from Late L. diphthongus, 
from Gk. diphthoggos ( = having two 
sounds), from di- ( = two, double; see 
aon') and phthoggos {- sound, voice, 
vowel), which is related to phthegma 
( = sound, voice, speech), phtheg- 
gesthai(= to speak loud, praise, sing).] 

nnnD"nf.n. fw diphtheria. [Medical L. 
diphtheria, from Fren. diplherie, 
coined by the French physician Pierre 
Bretonneau (1778-1862) from Gk. 
diphlhera ( = prepared hide, leather, 
membrane), which is of uncertain 
origin. The disease was so called by 
Bretonneau because it is characterized 
by the formation of a false membrane.] 

pn m.n. MH joy. [Back formation from 

n^n f.n. pbh joy. [Verbal n. of n ( = ne 
jumped, leapt, danced; he rejoiced). 
See pi and first suff. ng and cp. 
JAram.-Syr. xyn, Aram. xnxn 
( = dancing, rejoicing).] 

p;n m.n. bulwark, siege wall. [Related to 
Syr. Xj?n ( = lookouts, watchtowers), 
Akka. ddyiqu ( = bulwark, siege wall).] 

P'Tto be exact, be precise. (From 
J Aram, pn ( = he calculated exactly), 
Pa'el of pn ( = to be exact). See pn.] 
— Pi. pn intr. v. pbh 1 he was exact; 
2NH he did something. — Pu. prj NH 
was done exactly. Derivatives: pin, 

nto^irn m.n. fw dictator. [L. dictator, 
from dictdtus, p. part, of dictdre ( = to 
say often, pronounce repeatedly, 
dictate for writing), frequentative of 
dfcere ( = to say, tell, mention, relate, 
affirm); orig. 'to show'), related to 
dicdre ( = to proclaim, dedicate, con- 
secrate, devote), from IE base *deik-, 
*dik- ( = to show, point out), whence 
also L. digitus {- finger; lit.: 'pointer'), 
the second element in L. ju-dex 
( = judge; lit.: *he who shows or teaches 
justice'), in-dex ( = forefinger, index; 
lit.: 'pointer'), cp. n;xpi. cp. also xijai, 
nijrr and the second element in spnrp, 
nc^te. rrxniNV). For the ending of 
itoypn see suff. '-ator' in my CEDEL.] 

iTNBwp, *? f.n. dictatorship, autocracy. 
[L. dictdtura ( = dictatorship), from 
dictdtus, p. part, of dictdre. See 


jtotfl? "n m.n. fw dictaphone. [A hybrid 
coined from L. dictdre ( = to dictate), 
and Gk. phone (- sound, voice). See 


|J»3 m.n. MH an exact, punctual, ac- 
curate or meticulous person. [Formed 
from p'l ( = he was exact). Pi. of pn with 
agential suff. ]g.] Derivatives: n«j?n, 

niJj?^ f.n. MH punctuality, actuality, 

meticulousness. [Formed from ]j?n 

with suff. mo.] 
, 3jnadj. nh exact, punctual, accurate. 

[Formed fromjj?n with adj. suff. "Q.] 
n'spnf.n. fw diction. [L. dictio ( = a 

Till ' X 

saying, speech, diction), from dictus, p. 

part, of dfcere (= to say, tell, mention, 

relate, affirm). See -itoypn and suff. 

*vn m.n. pbh shed, fold, pen. [From in.] 

Derivative: -in. 
"in m.n. pbh tenant, lodger. [From -vn.] 

Derivative :nnn. 
into make sheds. [Denominated from 

-in.] — Pi. in tr. v. pbh he made sheds 

(in the field). — Nith. inj pbh sheds 

were made (in the field). 



rrr? f.n. pbh dwelling, lodging, home. 
(Verbal n. of in (^to dwell). See m 
and first suff. ny. I Derivative: roTn. 
nnn f.n. nh tenancy. [Formed from -pt;:.] 
^Tinm.n.FW dirigible. [Fren. 
dirigeable. subst. use of the adj. 
dirigeable ( = dirigible), from dinger 
( = to direct), from L. dirigere. See 
"licjTTn. For the ending of "?3'm see 
suff. '-able' in my CEDEL. I 
nnn f.n. NH a flatlet. [Formed from nvt 

with dimin. suff. rub. 1 
"il»|?n , i m.n. fw director. [Late L. 
director, from directus. p. part, of 
dirigere ( - to put into a straight line, 
set in order, draw up. aim. direct, 
guide), from di- ( = apart), and regere 
( = to keep straight, direct). See tiDj?i 
and cp. ?2 TT'i- C P- a ' s0 n ? , ??? ,T! - 1 
n3 v J?Ti f.n. fw directive. [Fren. 
directive, subst. use of the adj. 
directive, f. of direclif. from Med. L. 
dfrectivus. from L. directus. See 

B^g m.n. nh thresher (of corn). [Nomen 
opificis formed from tfn ( = he 
threshed). Pi. of tfn. according to the 
pattern ^s.] 

V'n m.n. I threshing (a hapax lego- 
menon in the Bible, occurring Lev. 
26:5). 2 pbh the threshed wheat. 3NH 
treading. [From tfn. cp. J Aram, xyn 

ntfnf.n.PBH i threshing. 2 (euphemisti- 
cally) cohabitation. [Verbal n. of eft". 
See tfvr and first suff. n ^] 

ji&'n m.n. antelope, addax (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring 
Deut. 14:5). [cp. Akka. dashshu 
( = buck of the gazelle).] 

JVT to sweat, to exude. [Borrowed from 
JAram. n'l ( = he sweated, exuded), 
which is prob. denominated from 
xnyt, var. xnyi ( = sweat, perspira- 
tion), through the elision of the y, 
which is related to nyr (of s.m.).| — Pi. 
n"t intr. v. mh he diffused, exuded. 
— Hith. nnnri mh was diffused, was 
exuded. Derivatives: nn'.n^ 1 . 

rw to ink. [Back formation from nVt 
( Indian ink).] — Pi. ni tr. v. nh he 
inked, inked in. — Pu. n;~ NH was 
inked, was inked in. — Nith. n'un? nh 
(ofs.m.). Derivatives :r.r-".py3 l ',n;'3. 

nnm.n. mm osmosis. [Denominated 
fromn'i. Seem' . I 

nn" m.n. nh inking. inking in. 

I Denominated from n*t . See m" . | 
Tin m.n. nh inker, draftsman working in 

ink. I Nomen opificis formed from nn 

( he inked), Pi. of n't". I 

mnnf.n. mh diffusibility, capability of 

osmosis. [Formed from nn ( = he dif- 
fused; see n't 1 ), with suff. ma I 

'PVJJ? ^- n - PBH last w '"> testament. 
[Borrowed from Gk. diatheke 
(covenant, last will, testament; lit.: 
'disposition by testament'), from 
diatithenai ( = to place separately, 
arrange; to dispose), from dia 
(-through), and tithenai ( = to put, 
place). See ox'i and p'n and cp. 
tjt adj. crushed, oppressed. iFrompt.] 
N3"Tto crush; to be crushed. [Related to 
the bases nst, pt, -\n.\ — Niph. xjt? 
(see n$7?). — Pi. X57 he crushed, op- 
pressed, depressed. — Pu. xjt was 
crushed, was oppressed, was 
depressed. — Hith. x^n (of s.m.). 
Derivatives: xsj, x13 ^- l' K ?3- ' n,x ?3' 
N3tp. K?ta. N573. 

N3n 1 adj. crushed, oppressed, contrite. 
2n. something crushed, dust. [From 


jiNSlm.n. NH depression. [Formed 
from xjt (- he crushed; see K3t), with 
]1;j. suff. forming abstract nouns. I 

mxin f.n. mh depression, dejection. 
[ Formed from xn with suff. m □ . ] 

■sp^D? m.n. pbh dejection, depression. 
[ Verbal n. of jn:n; see -pm . ] 

■ps-Tto crush, oppress, depress. [Pilpel 
of -j3T. For other Pilpel verbs formed 
from yy verbs cp. T3T2 and words there 
referred to.] — Pilp. T^rn tr. v. nh he 
crushed, oppressed, depressed. 
— Pulp. "T]3t was crushed, was op- 
pressed, was depressed. — Hithpalp. 
•^tTinri nh was depressed. Derivatives: 

nsi to crush, break, depress. [Related to 
and identical in meaning with base 
X3t.] — Qal nj-j intr. v. was crushed, 
was broken, was depressed. — Niph. 
nst: was crushed, was broken, was 
depressed. — Pi. nat he crushed, op- 
pressed, suppressed, depressed. — Pu. 
rot mh was crushed, was oppressed, 
was suppressed, was depressed. 
Derivatives: '137. '?t, nsta. 

nj^f.n. crushing, bruising (in the Bible 
occurring Deut. 23:2 in the phrase yix? 
nji. 'one wounded by crushing of the 
testicles'). [From -pi. ] 

KWim.n. NH depression. [Verbal n. of 
x?t, Pi.ofx3t.| 

'ibt m.n. MH suppression, depression. 
[ Verbal n. of n??. Pi. ofnst.] 

JiSTm.n.PBH a small fireside table. [Of 
uncertain origin. According to some 
scholars it is a loan word from Gk. 
docheion ( - receptacle), which is 
related to dekeslhai ( = to take. 

receive), and derives from IE base 
*dek-, *dok- ( = to take, receive, ac- 
cept; acceptable, becoming, good), 
whence also L. decire .( = to be seemly 
or fitting). According to others, ]lDt is a 
var. of jan (- stand, platform). ] 
'31 m.n. crushing waves, surging waves 
(a hapax legomenon in the Bible, 
occurring Ps. 93:3 in the form d^-j). 

■pTto crush, bruise, oppress, depress. 
[Related to bases X3t, nst, -p-j.| 

— Niph. "ijij was crushed, was bruised. 

— Pi. pt mh he crushed, oppressed, 
depressed. — Pu. pi PBH was crushed, 
was oppressed, was depressed. Deriv- 
atives: nsi.ptp. 

DST m.n. 1 pbh leader, ruler. 2MH duke. 
[L. dux ( = leader, conductor, guide, 
chief, commander, ruler), from ducere 
( = to lead, conduct, guide, draw), from 
IE base *douk-, *deuk- (-to pull, 
draw), cp. n;x|7iTi and the second ele- 
ment in upnx;i, opitipx, 'U'ppi-rhD.] 
Derivative: most. 

niDBT f.n. 1 mh the territory ruled by a 
duke, duchy. 2 nh the title or rank of a 
duke, dukedom. [Formed from 031 
with suff. m 3. 1 

Vt adj. 1 poor. 2 thin. lean. 3 low, weak, 
powerless. [From Vn. cp. Ugar. dl 
( = poor), cp. also first element in jjrnVr.] 
Derivative: n^i. 

y?"m.n. door (used in the phrase 

'njto i 7i. 'the door of my lips'. Ps. 

141:3). [A collateral form of nVi. | 
by tr. v. pbh deduct! [Imper. of bbi. See 

'N^jm.n. PBH water drawer. [Nomen 

opificis formed from nbi (=he drew 

water), Pi. of n'n. on the analogy of 

'N33. 'builder', cp. Aram, nxVi (= water 

3^m.n. nh plane tree. [From J Aram. - 

Syr. K3^n. which is prob. of Akka. 

abnto leap, jump. [JAram. j'?t ( = he 

leapt, jumped). Prob. related to base 
jyt.I —Qal 3>t the leaped, jumped, 
skipped (a hapax legomenon in the Bi- 
ble, occurring Zeph. 1:9 in the part.): 
2 PBH he skipped over, omitted. — Pi. 
j»h 1 heleapt,jumped;2PBHheskipped 
over, omitted. Derivatives: '?j'?lt,n'j 1 ?t. 
U^, jiVt, nj'"?"?. 
uj^ m.n. fw delegate. |L. delegatus, p. 
part, of delegare ( = to send, assign, 
delegate, transfer), from de (see 
rryj^Ti). and legdre ( = to send with a 
commission, appoint as a deputy). See 
rvsHf.n. NH skipping rope. [Formed 
from fii with suff. n'y. I 



]}\l m.n. nh jumper. I Formed from 1^7. 
Pi. of J^i (see jVt) with agential suff. jg . I 

n^Hf.n. fw delegation. [L. delegdtio 
( - assignment, delegation), from dele- 
gatus. Secu^i and suff. rrsa.l 

\vby m.n. mh impoverishment, pover- 
ty; decline. [Verbal n. of bibi. See 

Vnyn" m.n. pbh dangling part of a limb. 
[Verbal n. of^Vi. See ^t" and cp. 

WfT to weaken, loosen, impoverish. 
[Pilpel of V?f . For other forms derived 
from s"i' stems cp. inia and words there 
referred to. I — Pilp. "nVi tr. v. pbh 
weakened, loosened, impoverished. 

— Pulp, y?"?! PBH was weakened, was 
impoverished. — Nith. V7V7?, Wnn? 
PBH was made loose, was im- 
poverished. Derivatives: bm'ri', mV^in. 
rnWnnn. ^r>iD'. 

VtVt" to hang down, dangle. [Pilpel of 
bW'. cp. Arab, tadaldala ( - he hung 
down, dangled), qaum duldul ( = people 
in suspense). For the formation of 
"7-fn 1 ' see biW.\ — Pilp. bn'n tr. v. pbh 
he caused to hang down, moved. 

— Pulp. bfr\ NH was hanging down. 

— Nith. bir\: pbh (of s.m.). 
Derivatives: ^nVi", ^Vio" . 

nVuo draw (water). [J Aram. -Syr. xVt 
( = he drew water), Arab, dald ( = he 
lowered, let down), Ethiop. dalawa 
( = he weighed). Akka. dalu ( = to lower, 
let down). Base of 'Vj.l — Qal n^i tr. v. 
he drew (water). — Niph. rr^n MH was 
drawn (said of water). — Pi. n"rj he 
drew up, raised. — Hiph. n^in pbh i he 
drew (water); 2 he trailed (branches of 
vine), trellised. — Hoph. n^-n I pbh 
was trailed; 2 pbh was pulled out, was 
raised. Derivatives: 'K^i. n'Vn, n'Vi, 
JV 5 ?!, nr 1 ?!. "i^, "i^. n;Vj:j, ^75. n'rrp. 
cp- nri . 

M^3' f- n - tne poor (occurring in the 
phrases n^n/riVi, Jer. 40:7, 'the poor 
of the land', D$g-n%, Jer. 52:15, 'the 
poor of the people', pxn-oy ri?i. Kin. 
II 24:14). I Formed from bbi' with first 
suff. t^. I 
r&T 1 f.n. 1 thrum (i.e. warp threads hang- 
ing in the loom). 2 hair. [Formed from 
Vrr" with suff. ng. | 

lAlm.n, 1 pbh leap, jump. 2MH skip- 
ping over, omission. [Verbal n. of ??i, 

n^ladj.MH dirty, foul, muddy, turbid. 
[Pass. part, of nrn. See rfrt.) De- 
rivative: mir^T. 

niV^i m.n. NH making foul, befouling. 

[Verbal n. of rift, Pi. of nVt.l 
■"iVn adj. nh 1 drawn (said esp. of water). 

2 raised. [Pass. part. ofn^i. Seen^n.) 

■"67 m.n.MH 1 drawing (of water). 
2 raising, lifting. [Verbal n. ofn"n( = he 
drew up). Pi. of n^T.] 

VlViadj. IMH poor. 2NH thin, sparse. 

[ Pass. part. ofV?!; seeV?-i'.] 
VlVlm.n.NH thinning. [Verbal n. of ^7 

( = he thinned out). Pi. ofVrf .) 
N^Olbn f.n. pbh (pi. nixppoVyn, ntojjoVri) 

1 stone coffin, sarcophagus. 2 box, 

chest. [A var. of xg;?ofta(q.v.).] 


Qwyi^, owyiVn m.n. pi. nh Cucur- 
bitaceae (botany). [Formed from yVn, 
a secondary form of ny^7 ( = gourd, 
pumpkin), with suff. ""g.] 

fjlVnadj. NH dripping, leaking. [Pass. 

part, of ^7. See 'fit.] 
sjiVt m.n. mh dripping, leaking. [Verbal 

n. of ^7. Pi. of ^i. 1 
p^by adj. pbh alight, burning. [Pass. 

part, of p"?7 ( - it burned). See p"?V . \ 

P*by> adj. mh chased, pursued. [Pass. 

part, of pbj ( = he chased, pursued). See 

niVn f.n. pbh poverty. [Formed from V3 1 

with suff. ma.] 

|"6t to stir, to trouble. [JAram.-Syr. nVj 
( = he troubled, disturbed), Akka. 
daldhu ( = to disturb), Arab, dhulldh 
( - milk mixed with water). Barth 
compares Arab, lalaha { = he contami- 
nated).] — QaJ nVn tr. v. he stirred up, 
troubled. — Niph. n^j mh became 
foul, became filthy, became muddy. 
— Hiph. o"^7v MH ne made filthy, 
befouled, made muddy. — Hoph. r^in 
NH was made filthy, was befouled, was 
made muddy. Derivatives: nVi, nn'r,, 
m'n, mVi, mrpVi. nnVrn. rrrro. 

nVn m.n. nh foulness, filth, muddiness. 
[ Denominated from nVj. See rrri.] 

nnVnf.n.NH filthy liquid, sewer. 
[ Formed from n'rr with suff. n a . ] 

DPptoVl! m.n. fw Daltonism, color 
blindness. [Named after the English 
chemist and physicist John Dalton 
(1766-1844). who first described it in 
1 794. For the ending see] 

"nu'n m.n. nh slandering. [Verbal n. of 

nuVlto slander, inform on. [Back for- 
mation from ■rtuV , 7 ( = slanderer, in- 
former).! — Pi. -iu'ti tr. v. he slandered, 
informed on. Derivative: -udVi. 

'•'jh m.n. (pi. D"^. dual o^) 1 bucket. 
2 pbh Aquarius (astronomy). [Derived 
from n"H (q.v.). whence also Arab. 
dalw % Akka. dalu, dulu{- bucket). Syr. 
nVt? ( = bucket) is prob. an Akka. loan 

nj'V^f.n. imh jumping, leaping. 2NH 
skipping, omission. [Verbal n. of ^7; 

see ib-\ and first suff. ng. ] 
rrVj f.n. branch, bough (in the Bible oc- 
curring only in the suff. pi. vm^i, 'its 
branches'). [From nVt, cp. Syr. xrrVi. 
Arab. ddliya h ( = trellis, espalier; varix. 
varicose vein), is prob. an Aram, or 
Heb. loan word. cp. ivVn. cp. also 

njVn f.n. pbh drawing (water). [Verbal n. 
of n^7 ( - he drew water). See nrt and 
first suff. ng.] 

]^7 m.n. MH drawing (water). [Formed 
from nV? (= he drew up). Pi. of n 1 ?!, with 
rig, suff. forming abstract nouns. I 

m , '?'3 f- n - MH varicosis (disease). [A loan 
word from Arab. ddliya h (- varix, 
varicose vein). Seen'^.l 

T\nh^ f.n. MH befouling, pollution. [Ver- 
bal n. of 0^7. See nbi and first suff. ng.] 

nin^ f.n. nh foulness, pollution. 
[ Formed from n^i with suff. m g.) 

yn adj. nh thin, sparse. [From Vn 1 .) 
Derivative : niV" 1 ?-! . 

V»y? f.n. pbh thread, cord. [From Vn n .] 

niV' ,, 7'i f.n. nh thinness, sparseness. 
[Formed fro m'rVi with suff. nig.] 

K^V-^n f.n. fw Dalai Lama. [Lit.: 'the 
Ocean Lama", from Mongolian dalai 
( = ocean), and Tibetan blama, lama 
( = lama). See 'Lama' in my CEDEL. ] 

ns^f.n. mh dripping, leaking. [Verbal 
n. of i'th. See ^Vi and first suff. ng.] 

p*by adj. nh inflammable. [Coined from 
p?7 ( = it burned; see p^i 1 ) according to 
the pattern VȤ, which is used in nh to 
form adjectives denoting capability or 
fitness.] Derivative: nip ,I ri. 

Mj^Vt f.n. mh burning. [Verba] n. of p^7 
( - it burned). See pW and first suff. ng. J 

nfVT 1 f.n. MH pursuit. [Verbal n. of pV? 
( = he pursued). See pVn" and first suff. 


mp"^ f.n. NH inflammability. [Formed 
from p^Vi ( = inflammable), with suff. 

m 3.] 

^u J ,I ?T adj. fw delicate. [ Formed with 
adj. suff. , i! from Fren. delicat ( = del- 
icate), from L. delicdlus ( = delightful, 
charming, voluptuous), p. part, of 
delicdre, which is related to delicere 
( - to allure, entice, delight), from de- 
(see n^piTi) and lacere ( = to entice), 
which is related to laqueus ( = noose, 
snare). See Mace' (n.) in my CF.DEL and 

JvVTf.n. pbh branch, bough. [A col- 
lateral form of n;ri.] 

Vr\ l to become poor, become weak, 
become thin. [J Aram. V?7 ( = was poor). 
Syr. x^'Vn ( - few), x^>7 ( - easy), Akka. 
daldlu ( = to be humble), dallu ( = weak. 



poor).l — Qal Y^ intr. v. i he became 
poor; 2 was low. weak. — Niph. V^n? 
was brought low. —Pi. Vh NH he 
thinned out. diluted. — Pu. Vrj pbh 
was thinned out. was diluted. — Hiph. 1 
Vm he thinned out (plants). — Hiph." 
ypri NH intr. v. became thin, became 
sparse. — Hoph. "nin NH (of s.m.). 
— Pilp. (see V-iVr 1 )- Derivatives: V3 1 , 
nVT. toV3. *V?. Vg. nftg. nfcfrn. 

^T» to hang down loosely. [Ethiop. 
<fa/u/ ( = dangling curls).] — QaJ V3 it 
hung down, dangled. —Pilp. (see 
Vm"). cp. Vn". Derivatives: n \? . V^J . 


V^r* adv. NH foregoing, preceding, 
above-mentioned. [Compounded of 
Aram. *rs. ( = height), prcf. a) and pref. 

nyVi f.n. pbh (also ?^, m.n., in mh) (pi. 
cryYn) gourd, pumpkin. [Of uncertain 
etymology). Derivative: njjVip. cp. 

t^n to drop. drip. leak. [J Aram.-Syr. *fa 
( = it dripped). VArab. dfl/fl/fl ( = it 
dripped). </«//( = leakage in a roof). 
Related to base ^.} — Qal ^ intr. v. 
it dropped, dripped, leaked. — Pi. lb 
MH he caused to drop, caused to drip. 

— Hiph. *frra PBH ne caused t0 dr °P' 
caused to drip, leaked. — Hoph. «^in 
NH was made to drop, was made to 
drip, was leaked. Derivatives: «ifr 

*|fc»m.n. dripping, leakage in a roof. 

j From iVt . ] Derivative : n?73 . 
nsbn f.n. PBH gutter. [See «fcj and first 

psVn m.n. NH pauper, very poor. [From 
the PN Dalphon. the second son of 
Haman (Est. 9:7), and because of the 
meaning of the first syllable r? 

ps'yi m.n. 1 PBH small tripod, small 
table. 2NH counter. [Perhaps of Gk. 
Delphike ( = a table from Delphi).] 
Derivative :ip?^3- 
jjys'nm.n. NH counterman. [Formed 
from ps'73 with suff. jg.] 
p"?T to burn. [Aram., also BAram. and 
Syr. p'7i (= it burned), Mand. pVr ( = to 
kindle), Arab, dhaliqa ( = was sharp).] 
— Qal ?r\ intr. v. it burned. — Niph. 
p^jj pbh was lit, kindled, was ignited, 
burned. — Hoph. p^Vrn he lit, he kin- 
dled, ignited. — Hoph. p'zin MH was lit, 
was ignited. — Tiph'el (see pVrn). 
Derivatives: p^f, P" 1 ?^ np-'ri, np^n, 
pVj. pV-i. np'Vj. npVi, nipVnn. 
pVr 1 to chase, pursue. [Arab, dalaqa 
( he advanced, proceeded).] — Qal 
fi-\ intr. v. he chased, pursued. 
Derivatives: pVrj". np'Vf . 

pVjadj.PBH burning. [Properly act. 

part, of pVj ( = it burned). See pVf .) 
pV^l m.n. PBH fuel. [From pVT.l 
ngVl f.n. pbh fire. [Formed from p"n' 

with first suff. ng. I 
npV"? f.n. 1 inflammation (a hapax lego- 

menon in the Bible, occurring Deut. 

28:22). 2 pbh fever. [Formed fromp'ji' 

with suff. ng. For the form n"?»9 see 

no3S-l Derivative: "•npb. 
^npVi adj. NH inflammatory (said of a 

disease). [Formed from npVi with suff. 

nV?f.n. (pi. nm^-j, dual OTto) idoor. 

2 column of a book. 3 MH first line of a 
verse. [Related to JAram. xfiV?, Ugar. 
dlt ( = door). Akka. daltlu ( = door, leaf 
of a door). These words possibly derive 
from base n"n. cp. Vi". cp. also nVj. 
xn^.pnV?,n ,, nVi.] 

nVn f.n. pbh (pi. rP^) *Daleth\ name of 
the fourth letter of the Hebrew 
alphabet. [Lit.: 'door' (see nVj); so 
called in allusion to the ancient 
Hebrew form of this letter, 
representing a house, cp. xnVi.] 

xnVnf.n.FW (pi. mxrVrj) 1 'delta' — 
name of the fourth letter of the Greek 
alphabet. 2 triangular area formed at 
the mouth of some rivers. [JAram., 
from Gk. delta, from Heb.-Phoen. nVj. 

]1nVi f.n. NH kite-shaped quadrangle 
(geometry). [Formed from nVi 
( = door), with suff. fl a; so called in allu- 
sion to its shape, suggestive of two 
triangular doors.] 

jvnV} f.n. nh a small door. [Formed 
from nVn with dimin. suff. n'O-l 

03 m.n. 1 blood. 2 bloodshed. 3 blood- 
guilt. [Related to JAram. 03, xp7, Syr. 
03. xp7, Ugar. dm, Arab, dam, NArab. 
dialects damm, dimm, Ethiop. dam, 
Akka. ddmu(= blood), cp. dik. cp. also 
DOT 1 and n-3p3P3. 03 is one of the few 
biradical nouns in Hebrew. Other 
biradical nouns are npx. p, 23. nVj, t, 
nxo. dtjd, yy, ntf p. nyty. -vff. otf . njtp. ntf . ] 
Derivatives: , P3,n , P3. 

■»K»3f.n.PBH (less exactly spelt 'XP3) 
1 'dammai' (resp. demai), i.e. produce 
not certainly tithed. 2 'Dammai' (resp. 
Demai), name of a Mishnah and 
Tosephta tractate in the order d^it. 
[Lit.: 'seeming, apparent'. From hot. 
The fact that words and their 
antonyms are usually formed ac- 
cording to the same pattern, on the one 
hand, and that the antonym of -xoi is 
-KJi ( = sure, certain; as a noun 
'produce certainly tithed'), makes it 
very probable that the correct spelling 
of , xmis , x&3.] 

alaiJI} m.n. fw demagogue. [From Gk. 
demagogos ( = a popular leader, leader 
of the mob), which is compounded of 
demos ( = people) and agogos ( = lead- 
ing), from agein ( = to lead, guide, 
drive, carry off), which is cogn. with L. 
agere ( = to set in motion, drive, lead, 
conduct, guide, govern; to do, act). See 
■•9103 and ••'rwBpK.] Derivatives: ■•ilJpn, 

■»J1J^ adj. fw demagogic. [Gk. dema- 
gogikos ( = fit for a popular leader), 
from demagogos. See rtapT and suff. 

njattJ^jf.n. FW demagogy. [Gk. dema- 
gogia, from demagogos. See rtsp3 and 
suff. n;a] 

o«»i m.n. 1 pbh dim light. 2 NH decline. 
[Verbal n. of 0303. SeeD-rot.] 

DT?3Tto be in a daze, to be confused. 
[Derived from JAram. 0303 ( = he was 
in a daze), which is prob. related to 
dot.] — Pilp. Q3P3 intr. v. 1 pbh he was 
in a daze; 2NH it glimmered. — Pulp. 
D3P3 pbh was dazed, was confused. 
Derivatives: Dnp3, 03030. 

rP3?53»3 f.n. pbh red currant. [Of uncer- 
tain origin; perhaps formed from 07 
( = blood), through reduplication.] 
HOT to be like, resemble, to be equal in 
value. [BAram. noi, JAram. -Syr. and 
Mand. K03 (=he was like, resembled), 
Syr. x'93. Nab. -oi ( = price), Syr. xmaT 
and frpn ( = likeness), Akka. damlu, 
dutu ( = shape). I — Qal np3 he was like, 
resembled. — Niph. np7? pbh he was 
like, resembled. — Pi. np3 1 he likened, 
compared; 2 he intended; 3 pbh he 
thought, believed, imagined. — Pu. hot 
mh J he was likened; 2 he seemed, ap- 
peared. — Hith. np33. ^93nri MH he 
likened himself to... Derivatives: np\ 
-103, '•103, nioi, jl^, nvp3. d-03". ruari. 
ni03nn, rrp73. ^P7P- ^3?- rv97 n - 
n»T' to cease, stop. [A secondary form 
of base dot.] —Qal np3 intr. v. he 
ceased, stopped. —Niph. np7) was 
destroyed, perished (lit.: 'was caused 
to cease'). Derivative: -pi. 
nsim.n.NH dummy. [Coined from 

n»3 f.n. silence (a hapax legomenon in 
the Bible, occurring Ezek. 27:32). 
[Prob. derived from dot.] 
rrxpV'Sls?! f.n. fw demobilization. 
[Fren. demobilisation, formed from 
de- (from L. de, see of) and 
mobilisation ( = mobilization). See 
n;2fr^3 10 -] 

rPD3>1»3 f.n. fw demography. [Coined 
from Gk. demos (-people; see 'plai) 
and -graphia ( = description; see 



*plRn adj. F\v popular, demotic (used 
csp. in the phrase 'plDi ana. 'demotic 
writing"). (Back formation from Gk. 
demotikos ( pertaining to the people, 
popular), from demos ( = district, coun- 
try, land, people), which is a derivative 
of IE *dd-m, an -m- enlargement of 
base *dd-, *ddi ( = to divide). See j1di 
and cp. first clement in aUpi and in 

'1RH adj. NH like, resembling, similar. 
[Pass. part, ofnp-j ( = he was like). See 
no"! 1 . This is an exception because 
intransitive verbs regularly have no 
pass. part, in the Qal. For similar 
exceptions cp. mo^ and words there 
referred to.] 

MPT m.n. NH likeness, resemblance, 
comparison. [Verbal n. of npi ( = he 
likened). Pi. of noT.] 

D^'adj. PBH silent. [Pass. part. of Dpi 
(=he was silent); see ddi 1 . This is an 
exception because intransitive verbs 
regularly have no pass. part, in the Qal. 
For similar exceptions cp. rnu^ and 
words there referred to.] 

DIPT 1 adj. bleeding. [ From dot" . For the 
form see did"!'.] 

DIPT m.n. NH silencing. [Verbal n. of 
Da? ( = he silenced), Pi. of ddT . ] 

DIPT' m.n. nh bleeding, hemorrhage. 
[Verbal n. of dst (= caused to bleed). 
Pi. of DOT'.) 

flTOf.n.NH anemone (now used in 
the sense of the plant Adonis). 
(Properly 'a plant with blood-red 
flowers'. Coined by Eliezer ben 
Yehudah (1858-1922) from dot" ( = to 
bleed). For the ending see subst. suff. 

JiOTm.n. fw demon. [L. daemon (=a 
spirit) in Ecclesiastic L. 'an evil spirit', 
from Gk. daimon ( = god, goddess), lit.: 
'a divider, distributor (of men's 
destinies)', which is related to daiesthai 
( = to divide, distribute, to feed on), 
dais, daite, daitus ( = meal, banquet). 
See nrtni and cp. the second element in 
rremx-'j.] DerivativePjiQ-n. 

"WOT adj. fw demonic. [From Gk. 
daimonikos ( = possessed by a demon), 
from daimon; see rloi and suff. ""p.] 

njjnoipslMf.n.FW demonstration. [L. 
demonstrdtio ( = a pointing out, show- 
ing, demonstration), from demon- 
stratus, p. part, of demonstrdre ( = to 
point out, indicate, show, demon- 
strate), from de- (see en) and mon- 
strdre ( = to show, point out, in- 
dicate), which derives from monstrum 
( = an evil omen, portent, monster), a 
word standing for *monestrom (lit.: 
'that which serves as a warning'), from 

monere ( = to remind, warn, advise, in- 
struct). See 'monition' in my CEDEL.] 

yi»3 adj. mh full of tears. [Pass. part, of 
ypi (see yet'). This is an exception 
because intransitive verbs regularly 
have no pass. part, in the Qal. For 
similar exceptions cp. mo? and words 
there referred to.] 

»l»"i' m.n. MH shedding of tears. [Verbal 
n. ofypi, Pi.ofym'.] 

»l»n" m.n. pbh mixture of Terumah and 
Hullin. [Verbal n. ofyp-i, Pi. of yDi" .] 

mptoi m.n. fw democrat. [Fren. de- 
mocrate, back formation from demo- 
cratie. Seemo^Di.] 

■>unp1»7! adj. fw democratic. [Back for- 
mation from Gk. demokratikos 
( = pertaining to democracy), from 
demokratia. See moiplDi and adj. suff. 

nju"3i?i»^ f.n. fw democracy. [Fren. 
democratic from Med. L. democratia 
( = democracy, popular government; 
lit.: 'rule of the people'), from Gk. 
demos (- people) and -kratia, from 
kratos ( = strength, power, rule). See 

mxT^ntoi f.n. fw demoralization. 

T 1 - ■ T 

[Fren. demoralisation, from de- 
moraliser, from de- (in the privative 
sense of this pref.; see en) and 
moraliser ( = to moralize), from moral 
( = moral). See *n1o and suff. mxg.] 

man f.n. i likeness, resemblance, image. 
2MH example, type. [Formed from 
not' with suff. ma. cp. J Aram. -Syr. 
xmoi, Mand. Kmon ( = form, shape, 
figure), Arab. dumya h ( = figure, shape, 
statue). Tigre dumat ( = broad outlines 
of a figure or an object).] 

'»3 adj. NH pertaining to blood, con- 
taining blood, bloody. [Formed from 
dt ( - blood), with suff. "p. ] 

,J ??z '??m.n. quiet, rest, silence. [From 

jra? m.n. (pi. nl)1-cn) i likeness, resem- 
blance (a hapax legomenon in the Bi- 
ble, occurring Ps. 17:12). 2MH exam- 
ple. 3NH imagination. [Formed from 
noT with j1a, suff. forming abstract 
nouns.] Derivatives: pat, "OVO"? . 

'S^an adj. mh imaginary, fictitious, fan- 
ciful. [Formed from fl'DT with suff. 'Q.) 

nranf.n. nh similarity. [Formed from 
riD-i 1 with suff. ma. I 

OVM'm.n. pi. I bloodshed. 2 blood-guil- 
tiness. [Pl.ofDT.] 

O'py m.n. pi. pbh money, value, price. 
[ Prob. derived from non ( = to be like, in 
the sense 'to be equal'), cp. the related 
Syr. k;d"7 ( = price, hire), from kdt 
( = was like, resembled).] 

na'pT f.n. nh silence (esp. a term of 
music). [Properly verbal n. of Dp - } 
( = was silent). See ddT and first suff. 

no-va-i" f.n. NH bleeding. [See ddt. For- 
mally no - "?? ' s tne verbal n. of the 
otherwise not-used Qal dot ( = it bled, 
was bleeding); see ddi" . For the ending 
see first suff. ng.] 

pmto imagine. [Denominated from 

jVw ( = imagination).] — Pi. j'dt tr. v. 

NH he imagined. — Pu. (pass.) i:ot nh 

was imagined, 
nyp"! f.n. NH shedding of tears. [Verbal 

n. of ypi. Seeyoi and first suff. ng.] 
rpjrjf.n. nh choroid. [Formed from oi 

( = blood) with suff. ma.] 

D»T to be or grow dumb or silent. 
[Ugar. dmm ( = to keep silent). J Aram. 
did"? (=he was in a daze: see mat), 
Arab, damdama (=he murmured), 
Ethiop. tadamama ( = he was stunned). 
Related to the bases on and nai".] 

— Qal dot intr. v. i he was made silent, 
became silent; 2 he stood still. — Niph. 
Dj) (in MH Dpi}) was destroyed. — Pi. 
dd1i he silenced, quieted. — Hiph.' Din 
1 he destroyed; 2MH he silenced. 

— Hiph." D'pin PBH he silenced. Deriv- 
atives: nop?, DID}, DDll, opn, HDDin, 
prob. also npi . cp. didi . 

DDT 1 to bleed. [Back formation from di 
( = blood). — Pi. ddi intr. v. NH he bled, 
was bleeding. Derivatives: didi", did*?, 

D»n m.n. NH bleeding. [From ddi" .] 

HDtt/ji f-n. silence, whisper, hush. 
[ Formed from ddi ' with first suff. n g . ] 

pnto manure, fertilize. [Denominated 
from jp'i. cp. Arab, damana {= he ma- 
nured, fertilized), which is denom- 
inated from dimn (- manure, dung).] 

— Pi. jai MH he manured, fertilized. 

— Pu. |pi MH was manured, was fer- 

y»T to shed tears, weep. [Aram. -Syr. 
ypi (= he shed tears, wept), Ugar. dm' 
( = to shed tears, weep), Arab, dama 'a 
and dami'a ( = it watered — said of the 
eye), Akka. dimtu ( = tear).] — Qal ypi 
intr. v. he shed tears, wept. — Niph. 
ypi} MH was filled with tears. — Pi. ypi 
mh he deluged with tears. — Pu. ypi 
nh was filled with tears. — Hiph. v'pin 
1 PBH he shed tears, wept: 2NH he 
caused to weep, made cry. — Nith. 
ypin?, ypi} NH was filled with tears. 
Derivatives: ypi 1 , ypi". nypi, nypi, 
yioi 1 , nypi, niypinn, nypiri, yp7p, 

»»"t" to mix 'Hullin' with 'Terumah'. 
[Denominated from ypi" in sense 2.] 

— Pi. ypi tr. v. PBH he mixed 'Hullin' 



with Tcrumah'. — Pu. s??t pbh it 
became Tcrumah/ by mixing 'Hullin' 
with Tcrumah'. — Nith. ypi) pbh (of 
s.m.). Derivatives: yia-j". ypia. 

yjJTm.n. pbh tear. [Back formation 

y?T' m.n. I juice of grapes or olives (a 
hapax legomenon in the Bible, occur- 
ring Ex. 22:28 in the form W?); for 
sense development cp. Arab. 
dam'alu'lkarm ( = wine; lit.: "the tear of 
the vine'). 2 pbh Terumah", the priest's 
share of the fruit. [Derived from yai' 
and lit. meaning 'outflow'.) Derivative: 


nyanf.n. tear. [Formed from yot with 
first suff. n^. whence also JAram. syp 1 ?. 
Nnyai, Syr. xryaT, Ugar. dm', Arab. 
dam ', Akka. dimtu ( = tear). ] 

nvsnf.n. NH lachrymation (disease). 
[Coined from nya? ( = tear), according 
to the pattern n^yg (the 'Pattah' in the 
last two syllables is due to the influence 
of the y) serving to form names of dis- 
eases. See na^s and cp. words there 
referred to.] 

njwif.n. fw checkers, draughts. [Rus- 
sian damka ( = little lady). ] 

xn pron. PBH (also nj7 in Biblical Heb.) 
this (used esp. in the phrase ni?7? |0 
nji, Dan. 6:11. 'before, a long while 
ago'. [JAram.. resp. BAram., related 
to Nab. and Palm. nrt.] 

an m.n. FW 'Deneb', the main star in the 
constellation Cygnus (astronomy). 
[Arab, dhanab (in vulgar pronuncia- 
tion dheneb), short for dhanab al- 
dajdja h ( = the tail of the hen). Arab. 
dhanab is related to Heb. 23t( = tail).] 

an to wax. [Denominated from y$*< 
( - wax).] — Pi. j?t tr. v. nh he waxed, 
coated with wax. — Pu. in nh was 
waxed, was coated with wax. 
Derivatives: Hn.ano. 

]nn m.n. NH ringing, tintinnabulation, 
ring (of the bell). [Verbal n. of j?n. Pi. 


'Wm.n.FW dandy. [Eng. dandy, from 
Dandy, a var. of St. Andrews. The 
name Andrews ultimately derives from 
ihe Gk. proper name A ndreas, which is 
related to andreios (-manly), both 
being derivatives of aner, gen. andros 
{- man). SeenvTJjg.] 

nn to ring. [Of imit. origin.! — Pi. piji 
NH he rang. Derivative: fnj~. 

Mj-in f.n. pbh Cetcrach officinalis (bot- 
any). [Of unknown origin.] 

nn : seexj/i. 

>Ui m.n. nh waxing, coating with wax. 
[ Verbal n. of >r\ Pi. of Hi. I 

]V} pron. pbh this. [Aram., related to pi 

and k)t(- this).] 

»1sip3 m.n. fw despot. [From Gk. des- 
poies ( = master, ruler, tyrant), which 
stands for orig. *dems-potd and 
properly means 'lord of the house', and 
is equivalent to Old I. ddm-patih 
( = lord of the house). The first element 
stands in gradationaJ relationship to 
Gk. doma, L. domus ( = house); see 
'dome' (building) in my cedel and cp. 
Iroli. The second element is related to 
Gk. posis (= husband), and cogn. with 
Old I. patih (= master, husband), L. 
potis ( = able, powerful), potens ( = able, 
mighty, powerful); see n;x3ul9.| De- 
rivative: "•pISDi. 

"■otep^ adj. fw despotic. [Gk. despotikos 
( = inclined to tyranny, despotic), from 
despotes. Seeoteoi and suff. '•p.] 

ni'Dtetn f.n. fw despotism. [Formed 
from "•01991 with suff. ru a. ] 

njp'i f.n. nh i disc. 2 diskette. [From Gk. 
diskos: see Dipoi. I Derivative: rrpoi. 

Dipo? m.n. PBH disc, discus, disk. [L. 
discus ( = quoit, disk), from Gk. diskos, 
which is dissimilated from *dis-skos 
and properly means 'that which is 
thrown', from the stem of dikein ( = to 
throw, cast), cp. 'dish' in my CEDEL 
and words there referred to.] 

D"»j?on f.n. NH disc. [Formed from n^p-i 
with dimin. suff. n'3.1 

in m.n. knowledge, wisdom. [Fromrr; 
properly inf. of vt. ( - he knew). ] 

nsrnf.n. i knowledge, wisdom. 2 pbh 
opinion. 3 PBH mind, disposition. 
[Properly inf. of srr, 'he knew' (see rr). 
to which it stands as niy ( = con- 
gregation) stands to vsi {-he appoin- 
ted), cp.nyi.] 

^ynadj.MH put out, extinguished. 
[Pass. part, of ^yi. See -]yT.] 

Tjijn m.n. mh extinguishing, extinction. 
[Verbal n. of^yi. Pi. of-jyT.] 

nrjnf.n. mh extinguishing, extinction. 
[Verbal n. of^yi. Seeivi' and first suff. 

"Jin 1 to go out, be extinguished. [JAram. 
■yin. Syr. T\in (- went out. was put out. 
was extinguished), Mand. y,t (= to go 
out. be extinguished). Related to base 
^yi.] — Qa! ^\n intr. v. went out, was 
extinguished. — Niph. t^j was ex- 
tinguished. — Pi. Jin MH l he made 
dark, darkened; 2 he put out, ex- 
tinguished. — Pu. ^?i l NH was put 
out. was extinguished; 2 was de- 
stroyed. — Hiph. T]'jnn MH he put out, 
extinguished. Derivatives: ^yj. ^v?. 

"\V1" to crush, trample. [Arab, da'aka 
( - he rubbed, scrubbed).] — Qal iin tr. 
v. he crushed, trampled. — Niph. ^yi? 

was crushed, was trampled, 
n^ m.n. pbh 'Da'atz' —one of the 
names of the ancient Hebrew script 
(for another version of the name see 
f?-]). |RelatedtoJAram.-Syr.fy?( = he 
put in, thrust in, inserted), which is 
related to Arab, daghisa ( = was chock- 

run f.n. (pi. n1in) ithe knowledge of. 

2 knowledge, wisdom. I Inf. construct 
of yr. See y-r* and cp. ny^. cp. JAram. 
xriyi ( = knowledge), Ugar. d't ( = ac- 
quaintance), Akka. di'aiu, da'atu 
( = knowledge).] Derivative: jriyi. 

jnsn adj. imh intelligent, sensible. 2MH 
very learned, erudite. 3NH strong- 
minded. [Formed from nyn with agen- 
tial suff. jg.] Derivative: nuFun. 

nunin f.n. nh l intelligence. 2 erudition. 

3 strong-mindedness. [Formed from 
]nin with suff. nin.] 

'Join adj. nh based on knowledge. 
[ Formed from jnyi with adj. suff. 'a] 

llm.n. I pbh board, plank. 2 pbh 
column (in a scroll). 3NH leaf. page. 
[Together with JAram. -Syr. x^ 
(aboard, plank). Arab, dajf ( = side), 
borrowed from Akka. (a)dappu, 
duppu, which is a loan word from 
Sumerian dub. Arab, dajfa h ( = cover of 
a book), is possibly borrowed from 
Aram.] Derivatives: ^dx *\-hdi, n$m 
.-rgi.cp. JD1. 

I^Dl m.n. NH the act of turning pages. 
[ Verbal n. of TnpT. See iidi. ] 

tpDTto turn pages. [Coined by Eliezer 
ben Yehudah (1858-1922) from ^ 
( = page) through reduplication.] — 
Pilp. tidt tr. v. nh he turned pages. 

nMDi f.n. nh i pad of paper. 2 album. 
[ Formed from rpoi with suff. ro.] 

n|i f.n. nh lathe. [Formed from *\j with 
first suff. n:;.] 

nDlto find fault, vilify. [Denominated 
from '93 (= blemish, fault).] — Pi. -?- 
MH he found fault, vilified. Derivative: 

""IS? m.n. NH defilement, vilification. 
I Verbal n. ofngi. Pi. ofriDT.] 

]»Di adj. pbh near the wall, set in the 
wall. IPass. part. of]? 1 }. SeejD-r.] 

|1D1 m.n. nh strengthening of the walls 
(esp. of a cistern; revetting, revetment). 
[Verbal n. of jgi. Pi. ofjDi.) 

OlDT m.n. I pbh form, model, mold. 2 NH 
printing, press. [From Gk. typos 
( blow, mark of a blow, impression, 
stamp on a coin, pattern, model), from 
the stem of typtein ( - to beat, strike), 
from IE base *(s)tup- (-to strike, cut. 
hew), whence also Gk. stypos {- stem, 

i: y 


stump), cp. 'type' in my cf.del and 
words there referred to. I Derivatives: 
DDT d?d. opi, '9«7> 097a. o'?7n. 

0^3 adj. NH printed. [Pass. part, of 057. 
See ddt. I 

, ,jnadj. of, or concerning, printing. 
IFormed from 0197 with suff. \t:. 1 

nisi adj. NH laminated. [From the stem 
of 197^ formally, pass. part, of the 
(otherwise not-used) Qal of this verb. I 

0197 m.n. NH pagination. [Verbal n. of 
i)5?. Pi. of IDT.] 

ns^Dim.n. bookrack. [Coined by Eli- 

' ezer ben Yehudah (1858-1922) 
through the reduplication of Mishnaic 
Heb. H3; see 'poi. For the ending see 
first suff. ng. I 

plan adj. MH knocked, beaten, struck. 
[Pass. part. ofppT. Seepoi.l 

Dt'tJDjJ m.n. FW defeatism. [Fren. de- 
faitisme, from defaite ( - defeat), from 
defaire {- to undo), from VL disfacere 
(corresponding to L. deficere), from 
d/s- (see nD'H') and facere (-to make, 
do). See upp and cp. trx 1 ?" and op?3 . ] 

'ST m.n. blemish, fault (a hapax lego- 
menon in the Bible, occurring Ps. 
50:20 in the pausal form 'p^). [Related 
to J Aram. x;p3 ( = fault); according to 
Kautzsch, an aramaism. The form 'ST 
given by most lexicographers as the 
regular form is incorrect, cp. ^n 
(- disease, sickness), in pause ^h; •>%, 
( - beauty), in pause ■•p' 1 . 1 

no'pn f.n. MH 1 printing. 2 molding. [ Ver- 
bal n. of 057. SeeDDi and first suff. ng.l 

WSim.n.FW deficit. [Fren. deficit. 
from L. deficit (-it is wanting), third 
pers. sing. pres. of deficere (-to be 
wanting), from de (see m) and facere 
( = to make, do). See op? and cp. dpi??!, 
D i??l-1 

•l? , P'if.n.MH knocking, beating. [Ver- 
bal n. of ps}. See poi and first suff. n g. I 

Wm f.n. nh a small page. [Formed from 
11 with dimin. suff. irrj.1 

B?ST to furnish with a diploma. [De- 
nominated from myV??'!.] — Pi. 0^97 tr. 
v - NH he furnished with a diploma. 
— Pu. d^bt he was furnished with a 
diploma. — Nith. o^n? NH he was 
furnished with a diploma; he received a 
d 'Ploma. Derivative: o^ia. 
^f.n.FW deflation. [From L. 
te/laius, p. part, of defldre (-to blow 
off), from de (see en) and flare (-to 
° low ). from ie base *bhlo-, *bhle-, 
bW- ( = to blow), whence also L. flare 
[ = to blow). See 'blow' (to puff), and 
Wow' (to bloom) in my cedel. For 
"* ending of the word Tv^rsn see suff. 

]S) m.n. pbh (pi. o m a i so n1j??) wa||j 
partition; side. [Together with' Aram. 
kj91i, Syr. xjdt (= wall side), of uncer- 
tain origin; perhaps related to ^3, 
Aram, N93 (- board, plank). | Deriv- 
atives: jDxrnp}, jp-jjp. 

JDTto press to the wall, to force. 

1 Denominated from jp7. cp. JAram. ]P3 
(-he pressed to the wall, forced), 
which is denominated from jqpto.] 

— Qal |93 tr. v. 1 he pushed to the wall; 

2 he pressed to the wall, forced. — Pi. 
JP7 NH he revetted, plated. — Pu. jgi 
NH was revetted, was plated. Deriv- 
atives: JIDi, ]197. 

N3D3, njSH f.n. PBH resp. NH (pi. D'jpj) 
daphne, laurel. [From Gk. daphne 
( - laurel), which is borrowed together 
with L. laurus (- laurel) from a 
language of Asia Minor, cp. the second 
element in innri, pprrin. cp. also 
'Daphne 1 ' and 'Daphne"' in my 

n'JDT f.n. NH a small partition. [Formed 
from jD'n with dimin. suff. rva . 1 

n^'oasn f.n. fw defensive. [Fren. defen- 
sive, from Med. L. defensivus, from L. 
defensus, p. part, of defendere ( = to 
ward off, keep away, defend, guard, 
protect), from de- (see 07) and 
*fendere ( - to thrust, strike), occurring 
only in compounds. Seenj'pjplN.I 

DDT to print. [Denominated from 0197.] 

— Qal 093 tr. v. MH he printed. 

— Niph. 097? MH was printed. — Hiph. 
o , P7ri NH he printed. — Hoph. 097:7 MH 
was printed. Derivatives: 0193, no , ?7, 
097:1, no§7n, d , 975, 057D, DDtn. 

OPT m.n. NH printer. [Nomen opificis 
formed from 0127 ( = printing), ac- 
cording to the pattern typ-l Derivative: 

DDT m.n. NH cast. [ From oidt.] 

niOSTf.n. NH typography. [Formed 
from 093 with suff. m o. ] 

t]DTto paginate. [Denominated from 13 
(-leaf, page).] —Pi. 197 tr. v. NH he 
paginated. — Pu. 153 NH was 
paginated. Derivatives: 1103, ^97. 
npiD7, ng3, rr?3. 139- cp. the first ele- 
ment in l^?3- 

pDT to knock. [Aram. pg3 ( = he knocked, 
beat). Perhaps related to Arab, dafa'a 
(=he pushed, pushed back, drove, 
drove away).] —Qal p?7 tr. v. 1 he 
knocked, struck, beat, urged, drove 
on; 2NH it beat, throbbed (said of the 
pulse). —Niph. p?7? NH it was 
knocked. — Hith. pS3nn he beat or 
knocked violently. — Pi- P'97? ■ MH he 
knocked, beat, struck; 2NH he caused 
to knock or beat. Derivatives: pp?. pfH. 
piD7. njp??, PPH rup?"^- 

pSTm.n. IMH knocking, beating, strik 
ing. 2 NH pulsation. [ From p9i .] 

pp'7 m.n. NH pulse. [FrompDT.] 

»i?DTm.n.FW defect. [L. defectus ( = a 
failing, failure), from defectus, p. part, 
of deficere (- to forsake, desert, aban- 
don, revolt; to remove oneself, 
withdraw; to be wanting, fail), from de 
(see rn) and facere ( = to make, do). See 
"itopp and cp. QT'tjpi and u^ypj. ] 

'a't^M adj. fw defective. [Late L. 
defectivus (-imperfect, defective), 
from L. defectus, p. part, of deficere. 
See opp3 and suff. ••o.] Derivative: 
ni"3 , ppp3. 

m»3'»j?P3 f.n. fw defectiver. «, [Form- 
ed from 'S'pppi with suff. rr- 

]1np3 m.n. NH music sheet. [( mpound- 
ed of 13 (=page), and p (-song, 

rronST f.n. fw depression. [L. depressio 
( - a pressing down), from depressus, p. 
part, of deprimere ( = to press down, 
weigh down, plant deep, dig deep, 
depress), from de (see zn) and premere 
( = to press), which is related to prelum, 
from prem-lom (-press, winepress), 
cp. tiDipalp. For the ending of rronpi 
see suff. rra] 

"lin?? m.n. NH putting in writing, writing 
in a book, recording. [Verbal n. of 

"in?? m.n. NH notebook. [ From xnnpi" .] 

nnDTto put in writing, to record. 
[Denominated from xnnp^'.] — Pi. 
"inp3 tr. v. NH he put in writing, wrote in 
a book, recorded. — Pu. insi NH was 
put in writing, was written in a book, 
was recorded. Derivative: nwpT. 

XTnpiT m.n. PBH (pi. n1x3np7) hide (esp. 
hide prepared for writing). [From Gk. 
diphthera {- prepared hide, leather, 
membrane), which is of uncertain 
origin; it is possibly related to Gk. 
dephein, depsein ( = to soften).] 

innDT 1 m.n. nh (pi. nlxnnpi) document, 
record, copy book, notebook. [From 
Arab, daftar, diftar, which is prob. a 
Persian loan word. According to some 
scholars Arab, daftar, diftar was 
borrowed from Gk. diphthera (-hide; 
hide prepared for writing), hence is of 
the same origin as >anp7'.] Derivatives: 
-inDT-inp?, pnpi- 

pnDTm.n. NH bookkeeper. [Formed 
from xnnp7 " with agential suff. jg. I 

DHJ'^im.n.FW decigram(me). [Fren. 
decigramme (lit.: 'the tenth part of a 
gram'), a hybrid coined from deci- 
( - tenth part), arbitrarily formed from 
L. decimus (-the tenth), and Gk. 
gramma (-that which is written; a 

written character, letter, a small 
weight). For the first element sec i^i, 
for the second see oi*.l 

-itj^'Vl m - n - FW deciliter - ,Fren - d * ci ' 

litre (=the tenth part of a liter), a 
hybrid coined from deci- (see o^) 
and Gk. litra ( = a pound); see 19'"? . ] 

-loa^m.n.FW decimeter. [Fren. deci- 
metre, a hybrid coined from deci- (see 
di^i). and Gk. metron { = measure); 
see 199.1 

■flasn m.n. fw December. IL. 0«wn- 
kr%the tenth month), from decern 

(.ten; see -»jn): so caUed because ** 
Roman year began with March. 1 
n^rViwn f.n. fw decentralization. 
[Formed" from L. pref. dl- (see 03), 
and centralis (= pertaining to a center), 
from centrum (-center), from Gk. 
kentron ( = point, prickle, spike, ox 
goad, point round which a circle is 
described). See 192? ' and suff. n;x . 1 
;rt adj. 1 thin. 2 lean. 3 small, fine. [From 
P pi. cp. J Aram, pi, Ugar. d<? ( = tender, 
weak). Arab. rf/W ( =thin « fine) -' 
Derivatives: pi 1 . ?!"■ m?l> ?&■ ?^-- 
cp. the second element in pTJQ • 
pl'm.n.MH minute. [Based on Arab. 
'daqiqa* ( = minute) and influenced by 
Med. L. minuta, short for L. pars 
minuta prima (lit.: 'the first small 
part'), used by the mathematician 
Ptolemy to denote the sixtieth part of a 
degree, cp.nj^'.l 
73" m.n. name of an eye disease. (Lev. 

21:20). [From pi (adj.). cp. pi".] 
pi' m.n. ia thin curtain (a hapax 
legomenon in the Bible, occurring Is. 
40:22). 2MH heaven (used in poetry). 
[From ppi. 1 
pn» m.n. pbh an eye disease, prob. ulcus 

corneae. [".! 
onijft m.n. fw decagram. [Fren. deca- 
gramme (lit.: 'ten grams'), coined from 
deca-, from Gk. deka (=ten), and 
gramma (see oia).l 

nn^f.n.FW decade. [Fren. decade, 
from L. decas, from Gk. dekas ( = thc 
number ten; a group often), from deka 
( = ten). See i)*i and cp. the second ele- 
ment in TjKtfiVn and in pj^jli.! 

pnp^m.n. ipbh exactness, precision. 
2MH grammar. [Verbal n. of pipi (see 
pipi). In the sense 'grammar', the word 
piipi was first used by Menahem ben 
Saruk (c. 910- c.970).l 

^njnadj.FW decadent. [Back forma- 
tion from 0:171 (= decadence), coined 

orjjn m.n. fw decadence, decadency. 
[Fren. decadence, from L. decadentia 

(.-.- a falling down), from decadere (= to 
fall down), from de- ( = down, away 
from) and cadere (=to fall).! Deriv- 
ative: T?J.7W- 

PljTJadj. NH very thin. [Reduplication 
of pi (adj.).) 

ptjH to examine minutely, to be strict. 
[Pilpel of ppi. For other Pilpel forms 
derived from y» stems cp. 1212 and 
words there referred to. cp. pni.l 
— Pilp- pi?"? tr. v. ! PBH he evened (lit.: 
'made thin') the threads of a woof by 
beating; 2 pbh he examined minutely, 
searched, investigated, was strict, dealt 
strictly; 3 MH he crushed. — Pulp, pipi 
PBH was examined minutely, was 
searched. — Hith. pip^n PBH, pip^nri 
MH was crushed. Derivatives: ipipu. 

npip-D. pnj??' P3i?W' P3P3 2 ?- 
pnpnm.n. imh a meticulous, punc- 
tilious or pedantic person. 2NH a 
grammarian. [Formed from pipi with 
agential suff. 13-1 Derivatives: nupipi. 

nujpjl f.n. nh meticulousness, punc- 
tiliousness, pedantry. I Formed from 
l^j?3 with suff. mal 

^;nadj.NH meticulous, punctilious, 
pedantic. [Formed fromtfipi with adj. 


n ^p_n f.n. MH very small parts, crumbs. 

[Formed from pipi on the analogy of 

nj"3' f.n. NH minute. [See pi". 1 
nj3"f.n. pbh balcony. [From ppi. cp. 

Arab. dakka h ( = flattened sand hill, 

stone bench), from dakka ( = he 

rammed, stamped, made flat, made 

level), cp. pi'.l Derivative: n^pi 1 . 
nlpn m.n. pbh chisel, borer. [From ipi.l 
-1^73 adj. NH bored, pierced, stabbed. 

[Pass. part. ofipi. Seeipi-1 
-il^ m.n. MH boring, piercing, stabbing. 

[Verbal n. ofipi, Pi- of ipi.l 
ito^pl m.n. FW decorator. [From L. 

decordre. See n;ip1pi . I 
rptnlpl adj. fw decorative. [Fren. L. 

decordtus, p. part, of decordre. See 
n^iipi and suff. 'Q.! 

rrxnipl f.n. fw decoration. [Late L. 
*decordtio, from L. decoratus, p. part, 
of decordre ( = to decorate, adorn, em- 
bellish; to honor, distinguish), from 
decus (-ornament, grace, splendor), 
from IE base *dek-. *dok- ( = to take, 
receive, accept; acceptable, becoming, 
good). See u^i and cp. words there 
referred to. For the ending of n^iVl 
see suff. n^Q.) 
mpnf.n. MH 1 thinness. 2 delicacy, fine- 
ness. I Formed from pi, adj., with suff. 


V'tpjfl m.n. fw dactyl (prosody). [Gk. 
daktylos ( = finger; dactyl; so called in 
allusion to the three joints of the 
finger). Of uncertain etymology.) 
ittpito make (someone) a doctor. 
[Back formation from itopli.) —Pi. 
ippi tr. v. NH he made (someone) a 
doctor, conferred the title of doctor 
(upon someone). — Pu. ivpi nh he 
was made a doctor, became a doctor. 
— Hith. ipp^nn NH (of s.m.). De- 
rivative: nnopinn. 
p^ladj.MH very thin, fine, minute. 
[Formed from pi (adj.), on the analogy 
of JAram.-Syr. Kgfpi.l Derivative: 
nj? , i?3 f.n. NH second. iFormed from ng^ 
( = minute), on the analogy of Arab. 
daqiqa h ( = minute).] 
n=ip , i?3 f.n. NH extreme thinness. 

IFormed from p7U with suff. m a.) 
HTjn f.n. PBH stabbing, pricking. [Ver- 
bal n. of ipi. See ipi and first suff. n g.] 
\vn m.n. PBH palm tree. [Together with 
Aram, x^pi, Syr. x'zpi, of uncertain 
origin. Arab. daqal( = a brand of dates 
of good quality) is an Aram, loan 
word.) Derivatives: -K^pi.^pi. 
■'N'Zjn m.n. pbh palm gardener. [Formed 

from bpi with suff. 'KO-l 
mVpi m.n. NH recitation [Verbal n. of 

o^pi. Seeobpi.) Derivative: -p^pi. 
'Dl 1 ?;?'? adj. NH declamatory. [Formed 
from D^pi with suff. ■■q.) 

■«Vp? adj. NH palmaceous. [Formed from 
"?pi with adj. suff. ^3.) 

-it?' 1 ?;?} m.n. FW decaliter. [Fren. deca- 
litre (lit.: 'ten liters'), coined from 
deca-, from Gk. deka ( = ten), and litra 
( = a pound). See i ^ and -\y) . ) 

D^pTto declaim, recite. [Coined by 
Nahum David Tzemach, the founder 
of the Habimah, through Hebraization 
of L. decldmdre ( = to declaim), for 
whose etymology see m and kijVj.) 
— Pi. o^pi tr. v. NH he declaimed, 
recited. — Pu. o^pi NH was declaimed, 
was recited. Derivatives: oV?pi, abpio, 

n^n'ypi f.n. fw declaration. [L. decld- 
ratio ( = exposition, declaration), from 
decldrdtus, p. part, of decldrdre ( = to 
make clear, make evident, manifest, 
declare), from de- (see ai) and cldrdre 
( = to make clear), from cldrus ( = clear). 
See n^p. For the ending of njp^ 
see suff. n;jfa-l 
igSjnf.n. FW decameter. [Fren. deca 
metre (lit.: 'ten meters'), coined from 
deca-, from Gk. deka (-ten), and 
metron ( = measure). See in and 199.) 
]jn m.n. FW dean. [L. decdnus (~ one set 



over ten persons; in Ecclesiastic L. 'a 
superior set over ten monks'), from 
decern ( = ten). Secij'H.l 

pi?9i?T m.n. fw dextrin(e). [Fren. dex- 
trine, coined by the French physicist 
Jean Baptiste and the French chemist 
and pharmacist Jean-Francois Persoz 
in 1833 (in Annales de Chimie et de 
Physique), from L. dexter ( = on the 
right hand); so called by them because 
it turns the plane of polarization of 
light to the right. L. dexter also means 
'skillful, favorable, fortunate', and 
prob. derives from IE base *dek- ( = to 
take, receive, accept; acceptable, 
becoming, good), whence also L. 
decere ( = to be fitting or seemly), 
docere ( = to teach). See dix1i and cp. 
words there referred to. For the sense 
development of L. dexter, Gk. 
dexiteros, dexios, etc., see T'p; ( = right 
hand, south), and cp. words there 
referred to. For the ending of P799P7 
see chemical suff. '-ine\ '-in', in my 


ppito crush, pulverize. [Phoen. pi 
( = thin, fine), J Aram, also BAram. ppi 
( = he crushed, ground), Ugar. dq 
{- small), Arab, daqqa ( = was or 
became thin), Ethiop. daqaqa ( = he 
crushed, broke to pieces), Akka. daqd- 
qu ( = to break into pieces, grind), 
OSArab. ppi ( = flour).] — Qal pp7, pi 
tr. v. i he crushed, pulverized; 2intr. v. 
was beaten small, was fine. — Niph. 
P33 PBH was crushed, was beaten small, 
was made fine. — Hiph. pm he 
crushed, ground, pulverized. — Hoph. 
PTin was crushed, was ground, was 
pulverized. — Pilp. (see pipi). Deriv- 
atives: pi (adj.), pi 1 , pV, pipi. cp. pyrt. 

"ij?Tto pierce. [JAram.-Syr. and Mand. 
ipi ( = he pierced, stabbed, thrust), 
Arab, daqara.] — Qal 1^7 tr. v. i he 
pierced, stabbed; 2NH was pungent. 
— Niph. ip/rj was pierced, was 
stabbed. — Pi. ipi MH he pierced, 
stabbed. — Pu. ij?^ was pierced, was 
stabbed. — Pil. (seenpi). Derivatives: 
nu^pta, T^pVi, -ijp, ipi. -up-j, ilpi, up?. 
1777, -\p-ii), igio, n-jp75. 

"iJHm.n. I mattock, pick, hoe. 2NH the 
act of piercing or stabbing. [From ipi.) 

*i£i m.n. nh grouper (name of a fish). 

I From -i pi. 1 
"ivi;nm.n. NH pricking. [Verbal n. of 

■yjjn. See npi.) 

ill?! to prick. [Pil. of ipi. For Pil. forms 
in pbh see pi2 from pa, V?:n from boi, 
nyi from isn, pan from pn.) — Pil. 
i")p7 tr. v. NH he pricked. — Pul. i^pi 
nh was pricked. Derivative: inp 1 !. 

K*n base of PN73. [Arab, dara'a ( = 

averted, warded off).) 

Jlsm m.n. aversion, abhorrence, shame. 
[Formed from Nil with pa, suff. form- 
ing abstract nouns.) 

am to be accustomed, be trained. [Arab. 
daraba (=he was accustomed, was 
trained), dariba ( = was accustomed), 
darraba (=he accustomed, trained). 
For sense development cp. nfii} 
( = goad), which derives from id 1 ? ( = to 
become accustomed, to learn).) Deriv- 
atives: P77, P377. 

flam m.n. NH spurring, goading, urging, 
egging on. [Verbal n. of P77. Seepn.) 

OTm.n.FW Derby. [Named after the 
12th Earl of Derby, England.) 

jam, pam m.n. (pi. ntta-j}, resp. nWaii) 
spur, goad, prick. [Formed from an 
with suff. ]p, resp. pn.] Derivatives: 
pn. 1373- 'Jam. n'j^. 

jam m.n. NH porcupine. [From jam.] 

pm to spur (a horse), goad, urge, egg 
on. [Denominated from prj.l — Pi. 
P77 nh he spurred (a horse), goaded, 
urged, egged on. — Pu. jam NH was 
spurred (said of a horse), was goaded, 
was urged, was egged on. Derivatives: 

'Jam adj. NH echinate. [Formed from 
P77 with suff. 'p and lit. meaning 
'prickly'. 1 

rvjamf.n. NH knight's spur, Del- 
phinium (botany). [Formed from P71 
with suff. rvp and lit. meaning 'the 
prickly plant'.) 

m 1 to walk. [Base of 12775 and 1772?. 
Related to pi, perhaps also to jVi. cp. 
N173. See Arab, daraja ( = he went on 
foot, went step by step, walked), 
daraja h (=step, stair), JAram.-Syr. 
n?73 (=step), Akka. durgu, daragu 
( = 'path).] 

am" to make steps or stairs, to grade. 
[Back formation from 12175 ( = step).) 

— Pi. 277 tr. v. NH 1 he made steps or 
stairs; 2 he terraced; 3 he graded, 
graduated. — Pu. 171 NH 1 it was 
terraced; 2 was graded, was graduated. 

— Hiph. j'777 1 PBH he terraced; 2MH 
he graded, gradated. — Hoph. 2771 MH 
was graded, was gradated. Deriv- 
atives: 1117, 2117, 12171, maTjnn, 2779, 

am m.n. NH grade, degree, echelon. 
[Back formation from 1213. cp. the first 
element in tftirn. ) 

KJ73, npu f.n. pbh resp. mh 1 pbh step, 
grade. 2MH name of a conjunctive ac- 
cent placed beneath the word (its form 
is q). 3NH degree, rank. iFrom 211.) 
Derivative: 277. 

ylaamm.n. NH escalator. [Lit.: 'moving 

stairs'. Compounded of 277 ( - grade) 
and ylj ( = to move); see yu.) 

tfamm.n. pbh couch. [A Pers. loan 

"\W\7 m.n. rolling. [Verbal n. of 1177. See 

1VTJ3 m.n. pbh a large wooden barrel. 

[ Lit. : 'a round vessel', i.e. 'that which is 

rolled', from -rm( = to roll).) 
omi m.n. nh 1 slipper. 2 galosh. [Aram. 

P9777 ( = sandals). Perhaps from on 

( = to tread).) 

pmn m.n. PBH pupil, beginner, tyro, 
novice, child. [JAram. P773. Nj?777 
( = child), Syr. xp/ni. Np373 ( = children), 
dissimilated from Np/ip3 ( = small, 
minute, light), from pi ( = he pounded, 
broke into pieces). See ppi.] De- 
rivatives: pm, mxp/rrj, " , Nj?i73. 

pvnto make suitable for children. 
[Denominated from P373.] — Pi. P377 
tr. v. nh he made (something) suitable 
for children. — Pu. P777 NH was made 
suitable for children. 

mKjrrrc f.n. nh childishness; infanti- 
lism. [Formed from P377 with suff. 

■•K;7Tn adj. nh childish; infantile. 
[ Formed from P373 with suff. ""p.] 

mm to roll. [Arab, dardara (-he 
chewed; lit.: 'he rolled the food in the 
mouth'), durdur ( = eddy, whirlpool). 
Possibly reduplication of base in.l 

— Pilp. 1777 tr. v. nh he rolled. 

— Pulp. -1377 MH was r °H e d- — Hith. 
imm pbh, Nith. 13113 pbh it rolled. 

" 1 * 1 ■ T - 1 * ■ 

Derivatives: ivrn, ivrn, minin. 
mm m.n. Centaurea (botany). [Related 
to JAram.-Syr. N7773, Arab, darddr, 
Ethiop. dandar (- thistles). Prob. 
derived from the reduplication of base 
m(= to move in a circle, be round). 1 

avnadj. nh 1 terraced. 2graded. [From 
the stem of m; formally the pass. pan. 
of the (otherwise not-used) Qal 277 . ) 

ani m.n. nh 1 terracing. 2 grading. [Ver- 
bal n. of 231, Pi. of 2ii.) 

■»nm m.n. & adj. FW Druse. [Arab, du- 
ruz, pi. of darazf (= Druse). Named 
after the founder of the sect Ismail ad- 
Darazi ( = the tailor), cp. 'darzee' 
( = tailor) in my CEDEL.) 

DT>rim m.n. FW Darwinism (the theory 
propounded by Charles Robert 
Darwin, 1809-82). 

tfWm.n.FW dervish. [Turkish der- 
wish, from Pers. ddrwesh (-beggar; 
poor), cp. Avestic driyu ( = poor). ) 

lp'm'm.n. pbh (pi. nialii), wine or olive 

treader. [From 711. 1 
TpT3" m.n. NH (pi. ntoli3), trigger. [From 




Tjn^adj. i bent (said of a bow). 2MH 
trodden. 3NH tense, taut. (Pass. part. 
of^T. Seern.l Derivative: ms'iT. 
Din m.n. south. I Together with J Aram, 
and Samaritan xyiTj (= south), of un- 
certain origin.! Derivatives: on. 'pin. 

»»Tn adj. pbh southern, southerly. 
(Formed from d1tj with suff. 'p. I 

DnT adj. i pbh torn (by a bird or beast of 
prey). 2NH trampled, trodden. [Pass, 
part. ofoTj. See bit.] 

ittc' m.n. freedom, liberty, release from 
servitude. [Related to Akka. durdru 
(-freedom, release from servitude).] 
Derivatives : vn 1 , '.71-17. njnlTi. 

TIT 1 m.n. sparrow. [Of uncertain ori- 
gin. Perhaps derived from base vn, 
appearing in Arab, darra (-ran, it ran 
swiftly), cp. -i1-n"'.] 

inn 1 " m.n. (occurring only in the term 
-11-17-19. 'fine flowing myrrh'). [From 
base vn appearing also in Arab, darra 
(= it flew abundantly, streamed — said 
esp. of milk, tears and rain); it ran 
swiftly — said of a horse, cp. darir ( = a 
swift animal, esp. 'a swift horse'), cp. 

"in! adj. freed, released. [Pass. part, of 

nvnadj.NH free. [Formed from Vi-n' 

rr"ii"H f.n. nh freedom, amnesty. 
[ Formed from -i1tj ' with suff . n; a . ] 

tfvnadj. I needed, required. 2MH ex- 
pounded. [Pass. part, of #77. Seechi.] 

tfni m.n. i mh thesis, dissertation. 2 nh 
homily, sermon. [From#77.Sees>-n.| 

nan} m.n. i pbh treading. 2MH bending 
(of a bow). 3MH walking, marching. 
4NH cocking (of a gun). [Verbal n. of 
vn. See -pi and first suff. n^.] 

man? f.n. NH tension, preparedness. 

ns/n f.n. i pbh treading, trampling. 
2MH attacking of an animal by claws. 
[Verbal n. of on. See on and first suff. 
n v .] 

n^'l'i f.n. l pbh examination, inquiry, 
investigation. 2 pbh interpretation of a 
Biblical text. 3NH demand, require- 
ment. [Verbal n. of 077. See #n and 
first suff. n;j.) 

■pi to tread. [J Aram. -Syr. ijn ( = he 
trod), J Aram, xni, Syr. N577 ( = tread- 
ing), Arab, adraka, OSArab. -pin 
( = he reached, overtook), Ethiop. 
daraka ( - was rough, was severe), 
madrak (-threshold). Base "|n is 
related to base m.| — Qal tqi intr. v. 
he trod, walked, marched. — Niph. 
15773 i nh was trodden down; 2MH was 
bent (said of a bow). — Hiph. YVjn i he 

caused to tread, led, directed, guided; 
2 he bent (said of a bow); 3 he 
instructed, educated. — Hoph. pin 
NH I he was led, was guided; 2 he was 
instructed, was educated. Derivatives: 

T)7- 1 1 " 1 ?'- T iT 3"' 1 P" V 3' ri ? , ^ r ?' I 13 ? 1 ?' n * 3 7"3' 
njnrj, T-179. vn!?, n.79, 715771?, V770, 

ynn.cp. Nn?ng. 

ijnm.&f.n. 1 way, road. 2 journey. 
2 custom, conduct, manner. 4NH 
method. 5 NH mode (grammar). [From 
-pi. whence also Phoen. vn, JAram. 
N973, Mand. nsth ( = way).] 

jlSTj'm.n. NH passport. [Formed from 
ijn ( - way), with suff. j1 a. ] 

]i3Vj" m.n. pbh (pi. nUl377) an ancient 
Persian gold coin. [A collateral form of 
1137]$ ■ I 

njSTjf.n. nh passport. [Formed from 
ijn,(=- way), with suff. n*^.] 

]i»»Tim.n. (pi. D'jl^ii, also ni:iD?77) 
1 name of an ancient Persian gold coin. 
2NH name of a Greek coin. [Prob. a 
blend of Gk. dareikos (see 11277$) and 
Gk. drachme, name of a silver coin 
(lit.: 'a handful'), related to dragme 
( = handful), dragma ( = a sheaf; lit.: 'as 
much as one can grasp, a handful'), 
from the stem of drassesthai ( = to 
clutch, grasp, seize).] Derivative: 

rPSiBS'nf-n.NH Tordylium (a genus of 
plants). [Formed from jIdsii; so called 
in allusion to the coin-like shape of the 

qtt to go or turn south. [Back formation 
from Din, ( = south).] — Hiph. 0'777i 
intr. v. pbh he went south, turned 
south. Derivatives: 11977:1, 0779. 

navif.n. fw drama. [Gk. drama 
( = deed, act. action represented on the 
stage, drama), from dran (=to do, 
accomplish), which is related to 
drainein ( = to be ready to do), cp. '9077 
and the second element in T^jnn.] 
Derivative: '0977. 

njfJlB937 f.n. fw dramaturgy. [Ger. 
Dramaturgie, from Gk. dramaiourgia 
( = dramatic composition), from 
dramatourgos ( = maker of plays, 
dramatist), which is compounded of 
drama ( = drama) and ergon ( = work). 
See 71977 and 17$.] 

ri?99"?3 m - n - PBH Damascus plum, 
damson. [From Gk. damaskanon, 
from Damaskos {- Damascus), from 
Heb. ptoav cp. 'damson' in my 

71977 adj. fw dramatic. [Back forma- 
tion from Gk. dramaiikos (- dra- 
matic), from drama ( = drama). See 
71977 and suff. 'a ■ 1 Derivative: m*n.9n. 

rn»0977 f- n - FW dramatic character. 

[ Formed from '11977 w ' tn su ^- ni u - 1 
nj m.n. 1 pbh moth, mite. 2 nh larva (of 
beetles). [From Aram. urn ( = moth), 
which is prob. related to Arab, darina 
( = was dirty, was filthy), daran ( = din, 
filth; tubercles; tuberculosis, in 
VArab., moth).] 

OTT to tread, trample. [JAram. 077, Syr. 
u>77 ( = he trod, trampled), Arab. 
darasa {-he rubbed over, wiped out, 
blotted out, obliterated; he threshed 
(grains)). See tf n . ] — Qal 077 tr. v. pbh 
1 he trod, trod down, trampled; 2 he 
slaughtered by pressing the knife on 
the throat of the animal; 3 it (the bird 
or beast of prey) attacked with claws. 
— Niph. 0773 1 pbh was trodden down, 
was trampled; 2 mh was attacked (by a 
bird or beast of prey); 3 nh was run 
over. Derivatives: 0711, 11977, ""J?"?^ 
oin, n^^, 1110777, 0771?, 0779, 71977!?. 

71977 f.n. pbh slaughtering by pressing 
the knife on the throat of the animal. 
[Verbal n. of on. See on and first suff. 

"'WO'in adj. fw drastic. [Back formation 
from Gk. drastikos ( - active, efficient, 
violent), from drastos ( - done), verbal 
adj. of dran ( = to do. accomplish). See 

jipvim.n. pbh dragon. [From Gk. 
dragon ( = a kind of serpent; dragon), 
which prob. means lit. 'the sharp- 
sighted one', and is related to 
derkesthai (- to look at), from IE base 
*derk-, *drk- ( = to see, look at). See 
'dragon' in my CEDEL.] 

"•siprn adj. fw dragonlike, cruel. 

[ Formed from jlpvj with suff. ' 3 . ] 
TIT to free, liberate. [Denominated 

from v.n'.] — Qal 177 tr. v. he freed; 

released from servitude, liberated. 

— Hiph. T777 MH (of s.m.). — Hoph. 

-i77q MH was freed, was released, was 


TIT 1 to flow abundantly, to run swiftly. 
[According to Zimmern, borrowed 
from Arab, darra ( = it ran swiftly). 
Possibly baseof-iln" andTi-n"'.] 

KT37, nTVjf.n.PBH (resp. mh) affair, 
business. [The word N777 prob. derives 
from base -m, a collateral form of -in 
( = to move in a circle, turn round), and 
lit. means 'that round which the 
question revolves'.] 

ttJTTto seek, inquire of, study, to ex- 
pound. [JAram. -Syr. ©77, Mand. cm 
( = he examines; he instructed, taught). 
Arab, darasa ( = he learned, studied), 
Ethiop. darasa ( - he expounded, inter- 
preted), are Aram, loan words. The 
orig. meaning of this base prob. is 'to 
tread, trample, rub', hence ultimately 

1"% ■* 


identical with base oil. I — Qal Viy tr. 
v. I he sought, consulted, inquired; 2 he 
asked for, demanded, required; 3 he 
sought with study, sought with 
application, followed; 4 he sought in 
prayer, sought in worship. — Niph. 
urn? l was required; 2 he let himself be 
inquired of (said only of God); 3 was 
sought out. Derivatives: urn. n^i, 
7tf-n, Bm, tfm, tfvtD, nttf-nn. 

Bh"n m.n. MH homiletical interpretation 
of Scripture, exposition. [ From tf-n. ] 

niyvi f.n. MH i homiletical interpreta- 
tion, exposition. 2 homily, sermon. 
[Formed from cni (see tf-n) with first 
suff. n^. cp. JAram. n»J7ti.] 

jern m.n. I PBH expositor of Scripture. 

2MH preacher, lecturer. [Formed from 

tf-n (see tf-n) with agential suff. jg.l 

Derivatives: rmtf-n, t^7"I!- 
rUJiy'lT f.n. MH l homiletics. 2 preaching, 

exposition. [Formed from ]iy-\? with 

suff. ma.) 

'Jtth^ adj. NH homiletic(al). [Formed 
from ]&-}■? with adj. suff. 'a. 1 

fSm.n.NH lapel. [Coined by Eliezer 
ben Yehudah (1858-1922) from 
JAram. xsh ( = doorway), which is 
prob. a contraction of xchT (cp. 
Samaritan ncnt) and is related to Syr. 
chi, Aram, oni (-he trod, trampled). 
See on.) 

C'labbr. NH best regards. [Abbr. of 


Kcnto sprout, shoot, grow. [Akka. 
dishu ( = to swell, grow, sprout), Arab. 
thadiya ( - is moist). According to 
several scholars denominated from 
xch.) — Qal k^3 intr. v. it grew green, 
sprouted. — Niph. NE7*n MH was 
covered with grass. — Hiph. x'tfin 
caused to sprout, caused to grow (in 

the Bible occurring only Gen. 1:11). 
— Hoph. xy~ir} NH was made to sprout, 
was made to grow. Derivatives: nvfi. 

KUFi m.n. green grass, green herbage. 
[From sun. cp. Aram. Nijrn. nijrn, Syr. 
nxin (^ grass), Arab, lha'ad and 
dalha'iyy (= vernal rain), OS Arab. xni 
( = season of grass, spring), Akka. 
dish'u ( = spring).] Derivatives: nxcrn, 

• t' T T I ■ 

HNttn f.n. NH grass field, lawn. [Formed 
from xtfi with first suff. no. cp. nx^ia.] 

umtth f.n. NH treading, trampling. I Ver- 
ba] n. ofuWT. See tf-rtfi.l 

ttnttn to tread, trample. [Pilp. of tf} 
( = he trod, trampled); see cm. For 
other Pilp. verbs formed from verbs 
y "y cp. 1313 and words there referred 
to.] — Pilp. bWi intr. v. NH he trod, 
trampled. Derivative: tfntfi 

won adj. NH covered with grass. [Pass, 
part. ofNtpT.SeeNun.] 

]V&\ m.n. 1 pbh removal of ashes (from 
the altar). 2NH fertilization. (Verbal n. 
of jorn ( = he fattened), Pi. of ]tft. ] 

poftadj. MH fat, fresh. [Pass. part, of 

arttth m.n. pbh (pi. nitfitfi) groats 
maker. [FromcWt.] 

ttfitthadj. NH trodden, pounded. [Pass. 

part, oftfefj. Seetftfi.) 
N'tth adj. NH grassy. (From NUft.) 

ntf'ttft f.n. NH treading, pounding. [Ver- 
ba] n. of tftift. See uftzft and first suff. 

JttfTto be fat, grow fat. [Arab, dasima 
( = was fat), Akka. dashnu (= mighty, 
powerful).] — Qal yxn intr. v. he grew 
fat. — Niph. j#7J PBH was made fat, 
was fattened. — Pi. ]#7 1 he made fat. 

fattened; 2 he removed the ashes. 
— Pu. ]#i 1 was made fat, was fat- 
tened; 2 was satisfied, was made hap- 
py. — Nith. 1^33 PBH, n?iri} MH 1 was 
turned into ashes; grew fat. — Hothp. 
I^in was made fat (an irregular form 
occurring Is. 34:6). Derivatives: pi 
(adj.), jcrj, ]Vi, jiuh, putt. 

JttHadj. fat, fresh, vigorous. [Fromjtft. 
cp. Akka. dushshumu.] Derivative: 

Jtt^m.n. 1 fat, fatness. 2 ashes from the 
altar. [From ]?ft. According to Barth, 
jttft stands for ]&*.) Derivative: 1 :^. 

]Bim.n. pbh fatness, fat land. (From 

'HJUn adj. NH fat, abounding, full. 
[Formed from |tfi through reduplica- 
tion of the third radical. For the ending 
see suff. i g.] 

rnJtth f.n. MH fatness. (Formed from pxft 
(adj.), with suff. ma.] 

^'t adj. mh oleaginous. (Formed from 

]tfi with suff. i a.) 
ttfanto tread, trample, pound. [A base 

collateral with am 1 .] — Qal V$y intr. v. 

1 pbh he pounded (grain); 2 NH he trod, 

trampled. Derivatives: uWi, uWi. 

T I 

nn f.n. (pi. nini, also dyh) 1 decree, law, 
usage. 2 religion. [Together with 
BAram. m. Km, Syr. am ( = decree, 
law), borrowed from Old Pers. data- 
( = law), which derives from IE base 
*dho-, *dhe-, *dh' c ~ ( - to put, place; to 
do, make).] Derivative: vn. 

TYi adj. 1 MH pious, orthodox. 2NH per- 
taining to religion, religious. [Formed 
from m with suff^o.] Derivative: m'rn. 

nvrn f.n. NH 1 piety. 2 religiosity, reli- 
giousness. [Formed from th with suff. 


n The fifth letter of the Hebrew alphabet. 
Its name. *He\ is of uncertain origin. In 
PBH it has the numerical value five, n 
often alternates with other gutturals, as 
with x (see the introductory entry to let- 
ter x), and with n if it corresponds to 
Arab, h (see introductory entry to letter 
n). Heb. r, corresponds to Akka. x; cp. 
e.g. Heb. tfg (-he went) with Akka. 
'aldku ( = to go). Rarely Heb. x corre- 
sponds to Akka. sh\ cp.xm(-he), v?7\ 
( = she), with Akka. shu. resp. shf. For 
the interchangeability of the gutturals 
cp. also in the conjugational system 
Heb. V-ssn, BAram. tyja, Aram, ty?x, 
Arab, 'af'ala, OSArab. ntoran. In r» 
stems sometimes secondary forms 
develop with the change of 1 to n. cp. 
VnD, a secondary form of Via (-to 
circumcise), -ira ( = to shine), which is 
related to tu (=to shine), cp. also the 
bases pa and pa. Vnp and Vip, Heb. tfia 
and Aram.-Syr. nna (-he was 
ashamed), Heb. fn ( = t0 run ) and 
Aram, vrt-\, Syr. onn (- he ran), Heb. ntt 
( = generation, period, age) and Arab. 
dahr ( = long time, age), Heb. pn: (=to 
yawn) and Syr. p?, Arab, fdqa (-he 

ng, ^n, nn def. art. the (usually an, with 
the doubling of the next letter, as in. 
rvjri; an before the letters n, », n, n, x, as 
in Dixn; an before an accented ?, n, n, as 
in oann). [Related to Moabite and 
Phoen. n. According to Brockelmann, 
the doubling of the next letter is due to 
the compensation of the shortened 
vowel; he compares on?, shortened 
form of ng ( = what). This shows the Un- 
gnad was wrong in assuming that the 
Heb. art. derives from the form han. 
The supposition that the Heb. art. 
developed from hal had been given up 
by most Sem. scholars long ago.) 

~n, nn, an interrogative particle. Its ba- 
sic form is an, as in -a:x -nx -iptfq 
(Gen. 4:9); before not 'kamatzed' let- 
ters -1. y. n, n, x and before letters 
vowelled with 'shwa' it changes into on, 
as inV?xn (Ezek. 2:7); before unaccen- 
ted V- "?. B, !J it changes into an, as in 
^3 nx a-T?x a#nn (Gen. 24:5). Icp. 
BAram. and Talmudic a$ and Arab, 
'a-.cp. alscan.! 

ng, 1 the most common f. subst. and adj. 
suff. cp. e.g. n^o (-mare) from 010 
( , horse); nVm, f. of ttij ( = great). This 

suff. developed from no, which had 
perhaps orig. a demonstrative force, 
and it became ng orig. only in pause. 
Later, however, the form ng penetrated 
also into context in the form of the 
absolute state. The form no remained in 
the construction state (which can never 
appear in pausal position) and before 
pron. suffixes. All this applies also to 
Aramaic and Arabic, cp. suff. 'ng. See 
suffixes rg , ng — collateral forms of n g. 
nn" suff. serving to form nomina unitatis 
(nouns of individuality), cp. e.g. nnax 
( = pinion), from -iax (- pinions); n;?{t 
(=ship), from '?x, ( = fleet); ny? 
(3 blossom, flower), from n (- col- 
lectively); nn-tf (= song, ode), from Ttf 
(collectively); nijtotf (= sun disk), prob. 
from tfDtf ( = sun); rrgjr'V ( = a single hair), 
from -iyi? (-hair). [Orig. and formally 
identical with ng 1 . cp. Arab, hamdmaii 
(-one dove), from hamdm ( = doves); 
dhahabah (=a piece of gold), from 
dhahab(= go\d).\ 

nn 1 " f. collective suff. [In most cases suff. 
of the f. part., used substantively in a 
collective sense (see nrnto and nVia). In 
some other cases as in nyj ( = fish, 
coll.) and in nnx (-cedar panel), 
formed from a noun. In both cases, 
orig. and formally identical with ng 1 .] 

xn'f.n. PBH (pi. rSDX 'He', name of the 
fifth letter of the Hebrew alphabet. [Of 
uncertain origin, cp. hd\ name of the 
corresponding letter in Arabic] 

xn" interj. lo, behold. [Prob. from 
demonstrative -n, whence also mh and 
J Aram, -n (=here is), Ethiop. heja 
( - here), Arab, hayta ( - come here), cp. 
-n and the first element in ^'n . ) 

xn' f. pron. PBH this. [JAram. cp.^n and 
first element in xjnxrt, xan, Vx1n, 'xo"?n, 
xrrjn. xntfn. nntfn, and the second ele- 
ment in xyo. I 

Nn" interj. pbh behold. [Related to 
BAram., J Aram, and Syr. xn.) 

nnasn f.n. nh loss; destruction. [Verbal 
n.of 13X.3. Niph. of 13X (-he was lost). 
See nax and suff. m a. ] 
n^snf.n. nh feeding (of animals). 
[Verbal n. ofo^ixn, Hiph. of oax. See 
oax and first suff. ng.) 
moaNn f.n. NH being fed, being fattened. 
[Verbal n. of oax,}, Niph. of o?x (=he 
fed, fattened). See oax and suff. mo.] 
nja^rjf.n. nh pollination. [Verbal n. of 

p-gx.n (-he pollinated). See pax 1 and 
first suff. ng.] 

roj?3Nn f.n. mh wrestling. [Verbal n. of 
p3£3 (-he wrestled). See pax" and suff. 

nyjKfj f.n. mh reddening. iVerbal n. of 
cnxn ( = became red), Hiph. of tnx. See 
mx and first suff. ng.] 

NJlNn adv. PBH now, at present. [Con- 
traction of xj-jy xn (= lit.: 'at this time'). 
See xn (pron.), and fjy.] 

nnmnf.n. NH glorifying, exalting. [Ver- 
bal n. of Tnxn (-he glorified), Hiph. of 
nx. For the ending see first suff. ng.] 

nVnxn f.n. nh covering with a tent or 
tents, sheltering. [Verbal n. of Vnxn, 
Hiph. of "?nx (- to pitch a tent). For the 
ending see first suff. ng.] 

ronton, f.n. mh consent. [Verbal n. of nlxj 
( - he consented), Niph. of nix. For the a.] 

nmtn f.n. pbh giving ear, listening. [Ver- 
bal n. of ngn, Hiph. of ]tx. For the 
ending see first suff. ng] 

roiTxn f.n. nh being girded, strength- 
ening oneself. [Verbal n. of -ijx: (-he 
girded himself), Niph. of itx. For the a.] 

nxn interj. (expressing joy) oh! [Prob. of 
imitative origin, cp. nx 1 ".] 

ntnxn f.n. nh unification, standardiza- 
tion. [Verbal n. of rnxn (-he unified), 
Hiph. of inx. For the ending see first] 

ntnxn f.n. nh connecting, connection. 

T T -1 - 

[Verbal n. ofrnxn ( = he caused to seize, 
caused to hold), Hiph. of inx. For the 
ending see first suff. ng] 

rotnxnf.n. nh 1 settling-in. 2 settlement 
(on land). [Verbal n. ofinxj, Tnx: (-was 
caught, was seized), Niph. of mx. For 
the ending see suff. m a. ] 

nnnxnf.n. nh delaying. [Verbal n. of 

f T -I - 

Tnxn (-he delayed), Hiph. of nnx. For 
the ending see first suff. ng I 
n^xnf.n. nh slowing down, decelera- 
tion. [Verbal n. of Dxn (-he slowed 
down), Hiph. of ddx. For the ending see 

■»xn m. & f. pron. pbh this. [JAram. cp. 

n^SXnf.n.NH feeding, nourishing. IVer- 
bal n. of Vgxrj (-he fed, nourished), 
Hiph. of "73. For the ending see first suff. 



^xn m. & f. pron. pi. these. [Seeds'"- 1 
nn^sn f.n.NH deification. I Verbal n. of 

rr^xn, Hiph. of n"?x. For the ending see 

first suff. na. I 

nn^htn f- n - NH infection, pollution. [From 
nbx; formally, verbal n. of the 
(otherwise not used) Hiph. ET^n.] 

mrr>xn f.n. NH being infected. [Verbal n. 
of n^Nj (=was infected). Niph. of n^x. 
For the ending see suff. m a. 1 

rno^sn f.n. nh i becoming dumb, loss of 
speech. 2 silence. [ Verbal n. of d"?x:) ( = he 
became dumb), Niph. of aba". For the 
ending see suff. ma.] 

rux^xn f.n. nh compulsion, coercion. 
[Verbal n. of y*2\i} (=was compelled), 
Niph. of y^K. For the ending see suff. 


rnosn f.n. nh estimation, appraisal, 
assessment. [ Verbal n. of "rp^n ( - he es- 
timated, appraised, assessed), Hiph. of 
13K ' . For the ending see first suff. ng. | 

njoxn f.n. pbh confirmation, accredita- 
tion. [Verbal n. of ppxn ( = he believed, 
trusted), Hiph. of px. For the ending 
see first suff. ng.] 

nuoxn f.n. nh verification. [Verbal n. of 
19$?. (=was found trustworthy, was 
found true). Niph. of px. For the 
ending see suff. ma.] 


rnfoxnf.n. nh stress. [Verbal n. of ppgrj 
( = he strengthened, he was strong), 
Hiph. of j'OK 1 . For the ending see first 
suff. ng.] 

rnpsn'f.n. mh avouching. [Verbal n. of 
vpKn ( = he caused to say; he 
avouched), Hiph. of ion 1 . For the 
ending see first suff. ng.] 

rnpsn" f.n. nh rise, increase (in price). 
[Verbal n. of vpxn (=he raised; it 
raised), Hiph. of nox". For the ending 
see first suff. ng.] 

nnosnf.n. mh verification, authentica- 
tion. [Verbal n. of mpxn ( = he verified), 
Hiph. of no. For the ending see first 
suff. ng.] 

rnnjsnf.n.NH sighing, moaning. [Ver- 
bal n. of njxj ( = he sighed, moaned), 
Niph. of n:x. For the ending see suff. 
ma. | 

n ?jxn f.n. nh making vertical. [From^. 
For the ending see first suff. ng.] 

mojxn f.n. nh compulsion. [Verbal n. of 
Djxj) ( = was compelled), Niph. of o:x. 
For the ending see suff. m a. I 

rupsxn f.n. nh groaning, sighing. [Ver- 
bal n. of pjft? ( = he groaned, sighed), 
Niph. of p:x. For the ending see suff. 

n^jxrjf.n.NH i humanization. 2 anthro- 
pomorphism. 3 personification. [Verbal 

n. of tf-'jxn (=he humanized), Hiph. of 
uftx " . For the ending see first suff. ng. | 

niDDKn f.n. nh i gathering together. 
2 assembly. 3 death. [Verbal n. of IP^J 
(- was gathered), Niph. of ion. For the 
ending see suff. m a. ] 

nnipKH f.n. nh being imprisoned, impris- 
onment. [Verbal n. of -15x3 ( = was im- 
prisoned), Niph. of nox. For the ending 
see suff. ma. I 

n^DKH f.n. NH l darkening. 2 blackout. 
[Verbal n. of V'Dxn (=he darkened, 
obscured), Hiph. of "?dx. For the ending 
see first suff. ng.] 

nxsn f.n. NH I hastening, hurrying. 
2 urging. 3 acceleration. [Verbal n. of 
pan (=he hastened), Hiph. of px. For 
the ending see first suff. ng] 

n^sn'f.n. M H emanation. [Verbal n. of 
V'sxn (-he emanated), Hiph. of bxx 1 . 
For the ending see first suff. ng] 

n'^sn"f.n. NH ennoblement. [Verbal n. 
of "rygn ( = he ennobled), Hiph. of "?xx". 
For the ending see first suff. ng] 

rnxn f.n. pbh lighting, brightening, il- 
lumination, illustration. [Verbal n. of 
■vxn (= he lit, brightened, illuminated, il- 
lustrated), Hiph. of -iix. For the ending 
see first suff. ng.] 

nmNnf.n.NH i accommodation. 2hos- 
pitality. [Verbal n. of rinxn ( = he ac- 
commodated), Hiph. of mx. For the 
ending see first suff. ng . ] 

Tjnsnm.n. nh extended part, extension. 
[Substantiation of "qixn, inf. of Tnxrt 
(-he lengthened), Hiph. of "px; see 
njixn. For the change of ^n (pattern 
■pypn) to ipxn (pattern ^ysn) see 7i3n; for 
the difference in meaning between ^xn 

nsnsnf.n.MH lengthening, prolonga- 
tion, extention. [ Verbal n. of TTxn ( = he 
lengthened), Hiph. of yix'. For the 
ending see first suff. ng. For the dif- 
ference of meaning between ^ixn and 

■^■J^n f-n. nh earthing, grounding. [Ver- 
bal n. of p"nxn ( = he earthed, 
grounded), Hiph. of pnx. For the ending 
see first suff. ng. | 

nat^Kn f.n. nh accusation, charge, in- 
dictment. [Verbal n. of □''^x.n (=he ac- 
cused), Hiph. of Dtf. For the ending see 
first suff. ng.] 

an give. [Imper. of an; ( = he gave), cp. 


nx^n f.n. pbh bringing. [Verbal n. of x'an 
( = he brought), Hiph. of xia ( = to come). 
See xia and first suff. no, and cp. nxam.] 

"•ssn, '3n m.n. I PBH exaggeration. 2MH 
nonsense. [Of unknown origin.] Deriv- 
ative: ••xan.. 

"•Nan adj. NH nonsensical. [Fronvxar].] 
ntfijan f.n. nh stench, malodorousness. 
[Verbal n. of afxan ( = caused to sunk), 
Hiph. of tfxa. For the ending see first 
suff. ng.| 
nnjan f.n. NH growing up, maturing. 
[Verbal n. of -nan ( = he grew up, 
matured, came of age), Hiph. of iia. 
For the ending see first suff. ng] 

rmanf.n.NH isolation, insulation. [Ver- 
bal n. of i^an ( = he isolated), Hiph. of 
"na. For the ending see first suff. ng.| 

V^ian. m.n. mh i difference. 2 remainder. 
[Substantivation of "ran. inf. of b^ian 
( = he separated, distinguished), Hiph. 
of "?-n. The change of "nan (pattern 
"jyon) to Vian (pattern ^sn) is due to 
vowel assimilation. There are several 
examples for the substantivation of the 
inf. Hiph. (in itsorig. form) in the Bible, 
as -ijDn, 'rebellion' (Sam. I 15:23); 
iptfn, 'destruction' (Is. 14:23); ^pn, 
'dominion' (Job 25 :2). cp. nVjan.] 
n^an f.n. PBH i differentiation, division, 
distinction. 2'Habdalah', benediction, 
usually said over wine at the end of 
Sabbaths and festivals. [Verbal n. of 
bnan (=he separated, distinguished), 
Hiph. of "na. See "ran and first suff. ng. 
nbian (pattern n^pn) and rqn (pattern 
byDn) differ in meaning. The former 
denotes the act of differentiating, the 
latter expresses the result of this act. 
This semantic rule applies to most 
nouns formed after the pattern n^sn, 
resp. "won. Such couples of words are 
e.g. the following: ipxn and nsnxn, pnan 
and n^nan, -man and mnan, can and 
n^an, t^>an and na^an, -wan and rnyan, 
pnan and np^an, iajn and niaan, ?an and 
ny^n, ^nan and n'^jn, Dtfan and np^jn", 
prnn and np rnn, obit\ and n^nn, mn and 
nmn, pyin and npyjn, iann and n-jann, 
-i:nn and mrnn, o^nn and na^nn, pbnn 

"IV 'Tl " "IV T T I - I ■■ I V 

and np^rn, "?ttn" and n^n, 09tpn and 
n9§pn, nnpn and nrntpn, ontpn and npntpri, and njian, Cnan and n^rjan", V?:>n 
and n^an, nan and nnan, nian and 
nrjnan, i]^pn and njtjpn, "7^pn and 
nb^pn", nn:n and nnn^n, ypn and nyjn,, 
ps:ri and n^§^n, ngon and nnaipn, n^n 
and n^9ri, -139:1 and nn'iipn, ngn and 
nn^n, Dgn and noijri, Daon and npapn, 
y?n and n^^n, pspn and n^^n, pon 1 and 
aj?9n', pj?n" and r\$yri", n?n and nr^n, 
nnon and nnr^pn, nayn and nnay,:;, D^vn 
and np^jjn, apyn and n^^n, anyn and 
nany.n, pnvn and npnyn, |ju?n and njjprj. 
iP9n and niopn, j^n and nj^pn, nppn 
and n-j^pn, pp?n and npijpn, ispn and 
nn^pn, ippn and nn^n, Onpn and n^ipn. 
D^n and noi^n, ni^pn and nn^pn, j^n 
and nj^n, p^-n and np/j^n, yj^n and 
ay)>*n, v?fO and nyyn. D^ipn and npapn. 



vcpn and nnypg. ipn and n^'. ntfpn 
and nnypj. Vjnn and n^. tf?nn and 
n^nn. prnn and njn"in. aann and naann, 
xtyn and nxiyn. i$n and njtyn. o;?i?n and 
nyytfj. pntfn and W??- aKnn and 
n9¥$fr 'E? and njnn, Vnnn and n^nnn. 
tonri and rnjjnri, ]j?nn and njj?ng, ipnn 
and njjnn. njin and nnnn.] 
n*rrsn f.n. mh 1 separation, isolation. 
2 dissimilation (grammar). (Verbal n. of 
"raj ( r separated himself; was separa- 
ted). Niph. of Vn3. For the ending see j.] 

9^3 (pi. «g) 'g' ve - 2let us - I Property 
emphatic form of an, imper. of an; (= he 

anan 1 to singe. [J Aram. 3n?n (=he 
singed, scorched), Arab, habhabiyy 
(.cook), cp. anan.J — Pilp. anan tr. v. 
pbh he singed, scorched; 2 NH flickered, 
scintillated. -Pulp, anan pbh was 
singed, was scorched. — Niph. ananru 
PBH iwas singed, was scorched; 
2 flickered, scintillated. Derivatives: 
anan" to hesitate. [Of uncertain origin.] 

— Pilp. anan intr. v. PBH he hesitated, 
anan m.n. (a hapax legomenon in the 
Bible, occurring Hos. 8:13 in the form 
"•anan. -tot and prob. meaning 4 my burnt 
offerings')- (Prob. from anan ( = to 
singe). Several scholars derive anan 
from an- 1 ( = to give), and render Tiai 
■•3nan by 'the sacrifices of my gifts', i.e. 
'my sacrificial gifts', cp. Ethiop. habhab 
( = gift). According to Ehrlich D^anan 
means 'selected goats', and is related to 
Arab, habhab ( = bellwether).] 
ananm.n. imh singeing, scorching. 
2NH flickering, scintillation. (Verbal n. 
of anan 1 .) 
niVnan f.n. NH fright. [Verbal n. of Vns: 
( = was frightened), Niph. of Vn3. For the 
ending see suff. ma) 

j?nan m.n. nh flash (of a gun when fired; 
glitter, glint). (Substantiation of pnan, 
inf. of p'nan (= it shone, glittered), Hiph. 
of pna. The change of pnan (pattern 
Vycn) to pnan (pattern Vycn) is due to 
vowel assimilation; see "rian. For the 
difference in meaning between n^rtan 
and pnan see nVian.) 
ngnanf.n.NH flashing, glittering, glin- 
ting. I Verbal n. of pvian ( = it shone, glit- 
tered). See pnan and first suff. ng) 
-nan m.n. nh clarification; something 
clarified. [Substantiation of nnan, inf. 
of rnan ( = he clarified); see nna and cp. 
nn^ar). For the change of nnan (pattern 
Vycn) to nnan (pattern Vy?n) see Vian. 
For the difference of meaning between 
rvjnan and nnan see nftaij.) 
rrjfjajj f.n. NH clarification. (Verbal n. of 

T.nan ( - he clarified), Hiph. of nna. For 
the ending sec first suff. ngj 

«n see nan. 

-nan m.n. nh articulation. (Back for- 
mation from nnan (^pronunciation, 

ptanm.n. nh flash, flare. (Substan- 
tivation of pian, inf. of p'tan. See pia" 
and cp. njzjan. For the change of p;an to 
ptan see Vnan. For the difference of 
meaning between ngian and pran see 

n;?tan f.n. nh strafing, blitz. [Verbal n. of 
p'an ( = it flashed). Hiph. of pn" . For the 
ending see first suff. na] 

nVnanf.n.NH ripening (of a fruit). 
(Verbal n. of V'nan (=it ripened early), 
Hiph. of Vn3". For the ending see first] 

nsnan f.n. mh distinction, differentiation, 

t t 1 - 

discrimination. [Verbal n. offnan ( = he 
distinguished, differentiated), Hiph. of 
pa. For the ending see first suff. n a 1 
nnnanf.n. nh being elected, election. 
[Verbal n. of ina: ( = he was elected). 
Niph. of nna 1 . For the ending see suff. 
Dan m.n. nh aspect. [Substantiation of 
033. inf. of D^n (^he looked at); see 
oai'. The change of usn to can is due to 
vowel assimilation; see Vn3n. For the 
difference in meaning between ny-an and 
nxuan f.n. pbh utterance, pronouncing. 
[From KD3; formally verbal n. of the 
(otherwise not used) Hiph. For the 
ending see first suff. na cp. n;yan. 1 
noan f.n. pbh looking at, glance. [Verbal 
n. of tran ( - he looked at). See Dan and 
first suff. na] 
nnwan f.n. pbh promise, assurance. 
[Verbal n. of moan ( = he promised), 
Hiph. of nua (= he trusted). See noa and 
first suff. ng and cp. nrioax . ] 
n'tsan f.n. pbh (From nw; a collateral 

nVnanf.n.NH causing unemployment; 
lockout. (Verbal n. of V^an (= he 
caused unemployment). Hiph. of Voa. 
For the ending see first suff. na cp. 

oyan m.n. fw habitat (natural location 
of an animal or a plant). (L., 'it dwells', 
from habitdre ( = to dwell). 1 
V^anadj.NH steamy, vapory, humid. 
[Coined from Van ( = steam, vapor), ac- 
cording to the pattern V-yg, which is 
used in NH to form adjectives denoting 
capability or fitness.) 
na^n f.n. nh causing embarrassment. 
[Verbal n. of ipau, Hiph. of -p. I 

n^arj f.n. nh causing to weep. (Verbal n. 

ofnaan.Hiph. ofnaa.] 
nnsanf.n. nh birth of the first child, 

primogeniture. I Verbal n. of nysan 

( = she bore her first child). See naa and 

first suff. ng. I 
Van m.n. 1 breath. 2 pbh vapor, steam. 

V r," 

3 emptiness, vanity. [Related to J Aram. 
x^an (= breath; vanity), Syr. x'jan 
( = dust, vanity). Mand. habla, hbila 
( - breath, vapor), Arab, habil ( = fool), 
'ahbal (=weak minded, idiotic), OS- 
Arab, hibdl ( = wind). Late Egypt, hbl' 
( - wind).] 

Van to become vain. [Denominated from 
Vsn.] — Qal Van intr. v. he became 
vain, acted foolishly. — Niph. Vanj mh 
(of s.m.). — Pi. Vgn nh he steamed. 
— Pu. Van NH was steamed. — Hiph. 
V'ann 1 he caused to become vain; 2 PBH 
it steamed, emitted steam. Derivatives: 
V'ano, Vano. 

niVan f.n. nh restraint, self-restraint. 
(Verbal n. of rVan ( = he restrained 
himself), Hiph. of 1V3. For the ending 
see first suff. n v . The word n#3n was 
coined by Rashi.] 

mVan f.n. nh vanity, foolishness, folly. 
(Formed from V3n with suff. nv: ..] 
Derivative: ■•mVan. 

■•mVanadj. vain, foolish. [Formed from 

mVan with suff. v.] 
nnVanf.n.NH flickering. [Verbal n. of 

n'Vsn. See nV3 and first suff. n. . | 

oVan m.n. nh projection; emphasis. 
(Substantiation of uVsn, inf. of cV^n 
( = he brought into relief, emphasized), 
Hiph. of d'?3. The change of oVsn 
(pattern Vypn) to oVsn (pattern Vyijn) is 
due to vowel assimilation; see V^sn. 
For the difference in meaning between 
ny^3n and oV3n see nVisn .] 

n^an f.n. nh 1 projection, relief. 2 prom- 
inence, emphasis. [Verbal n. of tr-Vsn 
( = he brought into relief). See oVsn and 
first suff. ng.] 

'Van adj. NH vain. [Formed from Van 
with suff. , al 

V»Van m.n. pbh the second stomach of 
ruminants. [Aram. x^V??. prob. a 
derivative of VV? ( = he mixed), which is 
related to Heb. VVa. SeeVV3.) 

ni»V$n f.n. nh being stopped, stoppage. 
[Verbal n. of a^3} ( = was stopped), 
Niph. of dV3. For the ending see suff. 

y^anm.n. imh absorbing. 2NH merger. 
(Substantivation of yVsn. i n f. ofyVan. 
Hiph. of yV3. For the change of yV?n to 
yVan see Vi3n. For the difference in 
meaning between yV?n and ny^ari see 



ny^an I'.n. pbh i absorbing. 2 slurring 
over. 3 syncopation, elision (grammar). 
[Verbal n. of rVsn (=he absorbed, 
slurred over), Hiph. of »ta. Seeybsn and 
first suff. ny.l 

n ,y^anf.n. NH absorption. [Verbal n. of 
yV,j (=was absorbed), Niph. of »^3 
( = absorbed). For the ending see suff. 


njanf.n. mh understanding. [Verbal n. of 
I"33 (= he understood), Hiph. of J3. See 
p and first suff. n~.| 

nan m.n. ebony (a hapax legomenon in 
the Bible, occurring Ezek. 27: 15 in the 
pi.). [Prob. from Egypt, hbni, whence 
also Gk. ebenos, L. ebenus. Old Fren. 
ebaine. Fren. ebene, and Arabo-Pers. 
'abniis. Egypt, hbni is perhaps of Nu- 
bian origin.] Derivative: man. 

maanf.n. NH being built. [Verbal n. of 

nja) (=was built), Niph. of rua. For the 

ending see suff. nu.| 
rnan f.n. nh ebonite. [ Formed from nian 

with suff. n»y.] 
aoanf.n. nh routing, defeating. [Verbal 

n. of can ( = he routed), Hiph. ofoa. See 

ma and first suff. ng.] 
nyanf.n. mh expression. [Verbal n. of 

TVi (= he expressed), Hiph. of »33. For 

the ending see suff. ng.] Derivative: 

rrsarif.n. NH uncovering. [Verbal n. of 
nysn ( = he uncovered), Hiph. of nsa '. I 

"igan m.n. pbh kindling, burning. [Sub- 
stantivation of lyag, inf. of "pyan 
( = he kindled); see i»a' and cp. niysn. 
For the change of iysg (pattern by?g) 
to -i?an (pattern typn) see "7333. For the 
difference in meaning between nyan 

^??a' f.n. pbh kindling, burning. [Ver- 
bal n. ofvyag ( = he kindled), Hiph. of 
"W. For the ending see first suff. n g. ] 

B 5?93 B f.n. pbh removal, destruction. 
[Verbal n. of -pyaij ( = he removed). 
Hiph. of iya". For the ending see first] 

™??nf.n. frightening, terrifying. [Ver- 
bal n. of rryan (=he frightened, 
terrified). Hiph. of nya. For the ending 
see first suff. ny.] 

1 D3jan adj. nm expressive. [Formed from 
n ?3n with suff.';.] Derivative: nvrtyan. 

ni»ni*^nf.n.NH expressiveness. [Formed 

nj ??3ii f.n. nh breakthrough, penetra- 

non. [Verbal n. of ypan ( = hc broke 

trough). Hiph. of »pa. For the ending 

see first suff. ny. | 

ms ?^fn.NH being cleft, cleavage, 
fission. [Verbal n. of y?3J ( -was cleft, 
w »s split), Niph. of yp3. For the ending 

see suff. m 

! 1. 

ipanm.n.PBH a collateral form ofipon 

nan' base of nsh in d^ n^h (i s . 47: 1 3). 
[Possibly related to Arab, habbara 
(= he cut into pieces), so that d??^ nsh 
would lit. mean 'dividers of the 

nan" to pronounce, articulate. [Prob. 
back formation from rnsn ( = pronun- 
ciation).] — Qal ijg tr. v. nh he 
pronounced, articulated. Derivative: 


nioan'f.n. PBH recovery, recuperation. 
[ Verbal n. of xnsn ( = he recovered). See 
ma 1 ' and first suff. ny.] 

njnan"f.n. mh 1 giving food, feeding. 
2 giving food to a mourner. [Verbal n. 
of ni3n ( = he gave to eat), Hiph. ofrro 1 . 
For the ending see first suff. ny. cp. 

rflKnanf.n.MH being created, creation. 
[Verbal n. of kisj ( = was created), 
Niph. of xia 1 . For the ending see suff. 

Hainan f.n. fw Hebraics. [Late L. 
Hebraica, from Hebrdicus. from Gk. 
Ebraikos. from Ebraios. from Aram. 
^ay, nay. from Heb. ■naytq.v.).] 

Jian m.n. nh screwing in, screw motion. 
[Substantivation of snag, inf. of vian, 
Hiph. of na. For the change of yian to 
jnan see Vian. For the difference in 
meaning between rjan and rqiag see 

ninan f.n. nh screwing in, screw motion. 
[Verbal n. of anan ( = he screwed), 
Hiph. of na. For the ending see first 
suff. ng.] 

man f.n. 1 pbh confused sound, noise. 

T T -1 

2 PBH report, rumor. 3MH pro- 
nunciation. 4MH syllable. [Prob. 
contraction of niayg (q.v.), elliptical for 
b1p rnayn ( = causing the voice to 
spread), cp. Mand. x^ay ( = voice). For 
a similar contraction cp. J Aram. X139 
( = ferry, ford), which stands fortnsyp, 
from 135? (= Heb. lay, 'he went over').] 
Derivative: i3n». 

l^nanm.n.NH phonetics. [Formed from 
nijg with suff. p.:. I Derivative :'}1-ian. 

"•j'iian adj. nh phonetic. [Formed from 
JV133 with suff. "J. I 

nnan. f.n. nh tapping. [Verbal n. of nan. 
Hiph. of na. For the ending sec first 
suff. r. 9. 1 

nrnanf.n. 1 mh smuggling. 2NH driving 
out, expulsion. 3NH bolting, fastening 
with a boll. [Verbal n. ofrj'-jan. Hiph. of 
rna. For the ending see first suff. n .;. ] 

nnajf.n. of the same meaning as 

' nxVag ". [A collateral form of njo3?" . I 

nananf.n.MH 1 causing to kneel. 2 
bending a branch. [Verbal n. of irnaa 
( - he caused to kneel), Hiph. of-p3. For 
the ending see first suff. ng.| 

pnanm.n. nh luster. [Substantivation of 
pnan, inf. of p-isn ( = it flashed); see 
nggarj. For the change of pian to pian 
see 'rpn; for the difference in meaning 
between pi3n and n^iag see nftag .] 

•"•ij^an f.n. 1 mh flashing, glittering. 2 nh 
polishing. [Verbal n. of p-nan ( = it 
flashed, glittered), Hiph. of pia. For the 
ending see first suff. ng. I 

nchanf.n. nh brushing. [Verbal n. of 
^i3n (= he brushed), Hiph. oftfi3. For 
the ending see first suff. ng.] 

nVtfanf.n. NH ripening, maturation. 

[Verbal n. of^tpan ( = it ripened), Hiph. 

of "?tfa. For the ending see first suff. 

K"jnm.n. nh civil defence. [Abbr. of 

n i rriTxn}jn(ofs.m.).] 
'Kin m.n. nh navigator. [Formed from 

nan" with agential suff. 1 ;].] 

"•K??. adj. nh phonetic. [Formed from 
njn 1 with adj. suff.'-.] 

n^NSn 1 f.n. nh being redeemed, redemp- 
tion. [Verbal n. ofVxj( = he redeemed). 
See^xa 1 and suff. run.] 

n^KJn 11 f.n. nh being defiled, defilement, 
pollution. [Verbal n. of ^xj, (= he 
defiled). See "7X3" and nc] 

asn m.n. nh i reaction. 2 reactance 
(electricity). [Substantivation of 3an, 
inf. of s^n, Hiph. of 313. For the change 
of ajg to 3an see 713:1. For the difference 
in meaning between 3an and nsan see 

naan f.n. nh i reply, rejoinder. 2 reaction. 
[Verbal n. of 3'jn ( = he answered, he 
replied; he reacted). Hiph. of 3ia. For 
the ending see first suff. ng.] 

rtnaanf.n. ipbh lifting, raising. 2pbh 
elevation. 3 mh raising of the open 
scroll of the Law in the synagogue. 
[Verbal n. of rr3?n (-he made high, 
raised, lifted), Hiph. of naa. For the 
ending see first suff. ng.] 

Vaan m.n. nh restriction, restraint. 
[Substanu'vation of 'raag, inf. of^son. 
See *?2V and cp. n^sin. For the change 
of "?3Jn to "?3?n see "ri3n. For the 
difference of meaning between n^jg 
and"?3?n seenbi3n.] 

rfrsjnf.n. pbh ipbh setting bounds. 
2 pbh limitation, restriction. 3MH 
definition. [Verbal n. of?\33n ( = he set 
bounds about). Hiph. of Vaa 1 . For the 
ending see first suff. ng.] 

njSJHf.n. nh making cheese. [Fromiaa 11 
(-- to make cheese). Formally, verbal n. 
of the (otherwise not used) Hiph'il. For 



the ending sec first suff. ng.l 

"ij*an m.n. nh amplification. [Substan- 
tiation of i3^n, inf. of -i'3an ( = he 
strengthened). For the change of naan to 
-qjn. see "ran; for the difference in 
meaning between naan and nnjjn, see 

rn$anf.n. mh strengthening. I Verbal n. 
of "i-aan (-he strengthened), Hiph. of 
■Ui. For the ending see first! 

aan to imagine, fancy (base of l'jn). [cp. 
Syr. aan (=he imagined, fancied), Kjjrj 
( = phantom, apparition, imagination). 
Arab, hajhaja ( = rustled. rattled).! 

nan m.n. nh statement (logic). [Sub- 
stantiation of -ran. inf. of -ran. See 
tu 1 and cp. rn$n. For the change of "ran 
to t?n see Viaix For the difference in 
meaning between rnan and lan see 

nnan f.n. pbh I telling, saying. 2 tale, 
narrative. legend. 3NH saga. 
4'Haggadah', the narrative of the Ex- 
odus read at the Seder on the first 
night. 5 the book containing this 
narrative and the ritual of the Seder. 
[Verbal n. of "ran ( = he narrated, 
related, declared, expounded), from 
ain?n "ran .3in?n t\q ('the verse 
expounded', resp. 'the verse expounds'), 
the usual term introducing haggadic 
interpretation. -ran is a Hiph. form of 
the base -av (q.v.). cp. nijK.] 
Derivative: v gri. 

nan adj. MH i legendary. 2 haggadic, 
aggadic. [Formed from rnan with suff. 
-.7. cp. n|K.) 

nVjan f.n. l mh enlargement, increase. 
2NH magnification. [Verbal n. ofVTan 
( = he caused to grow; he made great), 
Hiph. of "na 1 . For the ending see first] 

rminf.n. mh definition. [Verbal n. of 
ttjh (=he defined), Hiph. of"na'. For 
the ending see first | 

rrcftanf.n.NH i stacking. 2 filling to 
capacity. [Verbal n. of BTnan (=he 
heaped, stacked), Hiph. of tfna. For the 
ending see first suff. ng.] 

nan 1 to hum. murmur, ponder. (JAram. - 
Syr. Kin (=he thought, mused, 
meditated, he read, studied), Ugar. hg 
( = to count; counting), Arab, hajjawa, 
tahajjawa ( = he spelled; he recited mur- 
muring). Prob. of imitative origin.] 

— Qal nin tr. v. i it growled (said of a 
lion); 2 it cooed (said of a pigeon); 3 he 
uttered; 4 he considered muttering, 
meditated; 5PBH he spelled a word, 
pronounced, read. — Niph. njnj l pbh 
was pronounced; 2NH was thought. 

— Hiph. nann he muttered, murmured. 
Derivatives: nin 1 , Man, Mart, nun, n;»1n, 


run 11 to remove. [Secondary form of na\ 
cp. Syr. '?1k ( - he drove away, expelled, 
rejected, removed), Arab, waja'a {= he 
pierced through, castrated), auja'a 
(-he drove back expelled), Ethiop. 
wag'a (-it — the animal — gored, 
thrust).! — Qal njn he removed. — Pu. 
njn was removed. Derivatives: nan", 
Man ". 
nan m.n. pbh Alhagi — the camel's 
thorn. [Back formation from the pi. 
I'jjj, occurring in the Talmud. Related 
to JAram. Kj'n, Knrn, Syr. Knnan, Arab. 
hdj (= the camel's thorn). The primary 
meaning of these nouns is 'thorns 
forming a hedge', from the Sem. base 
h-y-g, h-w-g ( = to surround, hedge, 
fence in).] 
nan 1 m.n. (pi. ff^n, also □ , K}rj) i rumbling 
(said of thunder). 2 moaning, moan, 
sigh. 3 whispering. 4NH speech, sound 
(grammar). [From nan", cp. JAram. K^n 
( = growling). I Derivative: ""Kan. 

ran 11 m.n. mh (pi. o'l^rj) rudder, helm, 
steering wheel. [Of uncertain origin; 
possibly derived from nin 11 . | Derivative: 

nnan f.n. mh i correction of a text. 

T T » 

2 annotation, note. [Verbal n. of -ran 

( = he corrected). Hiph. of aaa". For the 

ending see first suff. ng.] 
njrnanf.n.NH causing to belch. [Verbal 

n. of pvun( = he caused to belch), Hiph. 

of pna. For the ending see first suff. n:.: . ) 
mnadj.MH l pronounced. 2NH thought 

of. [Pass. part, ofnjn. See nan'.] 
'lan'm.n. MH pronunciation. [From 

nan 1 .) 

^an 11 m.n. nh steering. [Possibly from 


"unadj. nh phonetic. [Formed from 
'un' with adj.] 

pan adj. pbh l worthy. 2 respectable; 
decent, proper, suitable. [From jan; 
formally, pass. part, of the Qal. cp. 
jaln .] Derivatives: nuurj, nwaq. 

nuun f.n. mh the same asmran (q.v.). 
man f.n. thinking, meditation (a hapax 

legomenon in the Bible, occurring Ps. 

49:4). [Formed from nan' with suff. 


nttjan f.n. mh exaggeration. [Verbal n. of 
Q'Jin (=he exaggerated). Hiph. ofota". 
For the ending see first suff. ng.] 

nnan f.n. nh bursting forth. [Verbal n. of 

rran ( = he caused to burst forth), Hiph. 

ofm. For the ending sec first] 
arn m.n. musing, meditation. [ From aan. 

cp. Syr. Kjan ( = imagination), Ka^q 

( = delirium, illusion).] 
n»anf.n. ipbh meditation. 2MH pro- 

nunciation. [Verbal n. of njn. Sec 
nan 1 and first suff. ng.] 
Jl^n m.n. (pi. MiVin) i resounding music. 
2 musing, meditation. 3 pbh reading. 
4MH logic. [Formed from nan 1 with fir., 
suff. forming abstract nouns, cp. 
JAram. KjVan, Syr. Ki^an, Mand. 
hugyana ( = meditation).] Derivative: 

"•al^arr adj. nh logical. [Formed from]V|n 
with suff. *u.l Derivative: m'jl'in. 

m»s1»anf.n.NH logicality, logicalness. 
[Formed from , iV , an with suff. nin.] 

n»»anf.n.NH worthiness; respectability; 
decency, propriety; suitability. 
[Formed from pan with suff. nin.] 

rrvanf.n. nh emigration. [Coined by 
Eliezer ben Yehudah (1858-1922) as a 
verbal n. of ijn (today the Pi. ian is 
used), [cp. Arab. hijra h ( = flight). For 
the ending see first] 

rnVan f.n. nh i incrustation. 2 freezing. 
[ Verbal n. of T»Van ( = it formed a crust; 
it froze, congealed), Hiph. ofT>a. For 
the ending see first suff. ng.] 

n^jnf.n. MH appearance. [Verbal n. of 
n^aj (= appeared), Niph. ofn^a. For the 
ending see suff. ma.] 

rrVanf.n. nh carrying into captivity, 
exile, banishment. [Verbal n. of n^n 
( = he carried into captivity), Hiph. of 
n^a. For the ending see first] 

oVan m.n. nh sujet (literature). [Substan- 
tiation of D^an, inf. of D^an, Hiph. of 
o"?a. For the change of D^an to oVan see 

ntfVan f.n. I pbh bringing down (a slope). 
2NH boiling over. [Verbal n. of tf'Vin 
( = he caused to overflow, caused to 
boil), Hiph. of nfta. For the ending see 
first suff. ng.] 

Dan see u\. 

rn»anf.n.NH diminution, minimizing. 

lowering. reduction. contraction. 

1 Verbal n. of Tipan, Hiph. of nna .) 

paanm.n. ipbh leader, general. 2nh 
cardinal. [Gk. hegemon ( = leader), 
from hegeisthai ( = to lead), orig. prob. 
'to track down the way', from IE base 
*sdg-, *s*g- ( = to track down, trace, 
seek), whence also L. sdgire (=to 
perceive quickly or keenly), sdgus 
( = presaging, predicting, prophetic). 
sagdx ( = sagacious).) 

n^toan f.n. pbh hegemony. [Gk. hegem- 

onia ( = leadership), from hegemon. See 

jloan and suff. n;a.] 
rwVojn m.n. weaning. [Verbal n. ofVgjj 

( = was weaned), Niph. of^oa 1 . For the 

ending see suff. ran. I 

n^anf.n.NH making elastic. [Verbal n. 
of tt^oan (=he made elastic), Hiph. of 



atoa. For the ending see first suff. ng . | 

jarito be noble, be worthy. [Base of jaln. 
pan, jah, jano. Related to Arab, hajuna 
( = was white), hijdn (- white race), 
hajin ( = descendant of a father of noble 
birth and of a woman slave; the best of 
its kind; excellent), hajfnah 1 ' 
( = dromedary). J Aram, xjaln ( = young 
camel), cp. ja^n. Krauss and several 
other scholars derive jan from Gk. 
eugenes ( - well born); see olraax .1 
jahm.n. pbh propriety, suitability (used 
only with the pref. n? in jjina, 'properly, 
suitably'). [From Jan.] 
najanf.n. NH the act of introducing 
surreptitiously. [Verbal n. of a^an, 
Hiph. of aaa. For the ending see first 
sufi". ng.] 

n |? n / ruin f.n. mh i protection, defense. 
2'Haganah", defense force of Jewish 
settlers in Palestine during the British 
mandate. [Coined by Rashi. Properly 
verbal n. of fan ( = he defended, 
protected), Hiph. of pa. For the ending 
see first suff. ng.] Derivative: Ti^rj. 

rNisanf.n.NH hiding, concealment. 
[Verbal n. of ;ja) ( = was hidden, was 
concealed), Niph. of na. For the ending 
see suff. piz.) 

'Min, 'njan adj. nh defensive. [Formed 
from njan, resp. njan, with suff. 'p.] 

n^an f.n. nh stirring, mixing. [Verbal n. 
of can ( = he stirred, mixed), Hiph. of 
oia. For the ending see first suff. ng.] 

??Hm.n. mh arrival. [Substantiation of 
m, inf. of r?n ( = he arrived). Hiph. of 
MJ 1 , see y«' and cp. nyjn. For the 
change of yan to yan, see "nan. for the 
difference in meaning between yan and 
n?an, seen^an.] 

WW f.n. pbh l touching. 2MH reaching, 
arrival. 3MH rhetoric. [Verbal n. ofrw 
( = he caused to touch; he arrived), 
Hiph. of saa. See ya.n and first suff. ng. In 
sense 3, ny^n is a loan translation of 
Arab. baldgha h , from balagha (=he 
reached; he arrived).! 
f^sanf.n.PBH rinsing with hot water. 
[Verbal n. ofryan ( = he rinsed), Hiph. 
of Vya". For the ending see first suff. 
TOjnf.n. pbh shutting. [Verbal n. of Tan 
( = he shut), Hiph. of nia. For the ending 
see first] 
"Unto emigrate. [Coined (in the Qal 
form i^n) by Eliezer ben Yehudah 
(1858-1922) on the analogy of Arab. 
hajara ( = he fled, emigrated), cp. nvan. 
cp. also "ian (Hagar — the name of 
Sarai's handmaid).) — Pi. nan intr. v. 
nh he emigrated. Derivative: n*nz?. 

n^anm.n.MH flow, flowing, hemor- 
rhage. [Verbal n. of Tan ( = poured 

down), Hiph. of naa'. For the ending see 
first suff. ng.] 

nan m.n. (pi. onan, also cxnan) Arab. 
Hagraite (-son of Hagar), of the sons 
of Ishmael. [From nan {- Hagar). 
mother of Ishmael. J 

Vun m.n. pbh the outcome of casting 
lots, lottery, raffle. [Substantiation of 
"rnan, inf. of Vnan (=he cast lots); see 
n^nan. For the change of "rnan to "nan, see 
^tan; for the difference in meaning 
between Vnan and n^Tan, see n^an .] 

n^nan f.n. pbh casting lots; lottery, raffle. 
[ Verbal n. of Vnan ( - he cast lots), Hiph. 
ofna. For the ending see first suff. ng.] 

nonan'f.n.MH causing, bringing about. 
[Verbal n. of onan ( = he caused, 
brought about), Hiph. of ma 1 . For the 
ending see first] 

nD"Ul" f.n. pbh letting the knife slide 
outside the space prescribed for cutting 
(in ritual slaughtering). [Verbal n. of 
Dnan, Hiph. of ma 11 . For the ending see 
first suff. ng.) 

njnan f.n. nh making of a threshing floor. 
[Verbal n. of jnan ( = he made a 
threshing floor), Hiph. of pa. For the 
ending see first suff. ng.) 

nynan f.n. nh degradation, detraction. 

[Verbal n. ofynan. Hiph. ofyna. For the 

ending see first suff. ng.] 
niD"ianf.n.NH being swept away; 

drifting. [Verbal n. ofrpaj (- was swept 

away). Niph. of "pa. For the ending see 

first suff. ng.) 

nnian f.n. nh being dragged, being 
drawn, being towed. [Verbal n. of"naa 
(-was dragged), Niph. ofna. For the 
ending see first suff. ng . ] 

nuttn f.n. pbh bringing near, presentation. 
[Verbal n. of tf'an ( = he brought near, 
presented), Hiph. of tfaa. For the ending 
see first suff. ng.) 

Dttfan m.n. nh realization (in the concrete 
sense 'something realized'). [Substan- 
tiation of D#an, inf. of D'tpan ( = he 
carried out, realized). Hiph. ofDtfa 11 . See 
n^an". For the change of D#an tootfan, 
see 'nan; for the difference in meaning 
between d# an and rnj^an 11 , see n^jan . 1 

njjaJart'f.n. causing rain. [Verbal n. of 
D'^an ( = he caused to rain). Hiph. of 
Dtfa 1 . For the ending see first sufF. ng.) 

n^^an" m.n. MH l carrying out, realiza- 
tion, materialization. 2 embodiment. 
3 personification; anthropomorphism. 
[Verbal n. of D'tfan (=he carried out), 
Hiph. of Dtfa". For the ending see first 
suff. ng.l 

in m.n. I joyous shout (a hapax lego- 
menon in the Bible, occurring Ezek. 7:7 
in the phrase oyin in, 'joyous shout on 

mountains'). 2NH echo. [Prob. of im- 
itative origin, cp. Ugar. ftd, Arab, hadd 
( - a thick voice), which are prob. also 
imitative, cp. rrn.l Derivatives: to, 
tmn, nn. Tin!?, nnmn . 
xnnpron. this, that, that is what is 
written. [JAram., formed from trj 
( = this), with part. nn. cp. the first 
element in pin.] 

naionf.n. nh causing sorrow, causing 
pain. [Verbal n. of a'jon ( = he caused 
sorrow, caused pain), Hiph. of am. For 
the ending see first suff. ng .] 

ngrrnf.n. imh joining. 2nh glueing, 
gumming. 3NH contagion, infection. 
4NH overtaking. [Verbal n. of p'aTn 
( = he caused to cling; he overtook), 
Hiph. of pan. For the ending see first] 

niira^n f.n. mh cleaving to. [Verbal n. of 
p3Tg ( = he was joined). Niph. ofpan. For 
the ending see suff. mz.] 

nip:nnf.n.NH i joining, attachment. 
2 contagion. [Verbal n. of pa^n ( = was 
joined), Hiph. of pai. For the ending see] 

rnain f.n. nh i subduing. 2 destruction. 
[Verbal n. of -raj/i ( = he subdued), 
Hiph. of nai". For the ending see first] 

nnann, nmznn f.n. nh coming to terms, 
coming to an agreement. [Verbal n. of 
n?-n (resp. nann). Hiph. (resp. Hith.) of 


nltfain f.n. NH turning sour, fermenting 
(said of honey). [Verbal n. of tf'ann 
( = he turned sour, fermented), Hiph. of 
G73T. For the ending see first suff. ng.] 

rrnnf.n. nh fish breeding. [Verbal n. of 
nann (-he caused to multiply fish), 
Hiph. of nan. For the ending see first] 

n^nnf.n.NH i hoisting of the flag. 
2 praising, praise. [Verbal n. of V'ayn 
( = he praised). Hiph. of ^an. For the 
ending see first suff. ng.] 

nJjnn m.n. nh exemplifying, demonstra- 
tion. [Verbal n. of D-ayri ( = he exem- 
plified, demonstrated), Hiph. of Dai. For 
the ending see first suff. ng.] 

rnnnf.n. nh hatching, incubation. 
[Verbal n. of Tjnn ( = he sat on eggs), 
Hiph. of nai. For the ending see first] 

Bftra m.n. nh emphasis, stress, accent. 
[Substantiation of tfjnn, inf. of #77:1. 
See ona and cp. n^^yn. For the change of 
tfain to tfain see "nan. For the difference 
in meaning between n^irn and tfjTi see 

n^nn f.n. nh 1 marking with a 
'daghesh'. 2 stress, accentuation. 



emphasis. I Verbal n. of ufjnn (-he 

marked with a 'daghesh'), Hiph. oftfn. 

For the ending see first suff. ng.) 
Ttnto reverberate. (Denominated from 

m.| — Qal mn intr. v. nh reverberated. 

resounded. —Pi. Tin nh (of s.m.). 

— Pu. *nn nh was echoed, was 

reverberated. — Hith. mnnn N